Elections in the Republic of China
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Politics of the
Republic of China
|Commonly known as Taiwan|
Elections in the Republic of China are held on national and local level. On the national level, the head of state, the President, and all members of the national legislature, the Legislative Yuan, are elected directly by the citizens of Taiwan. National elections were synchronized into a single day from 2012 and are held every four years.
Local self-government bodies including special municipalities, counties, cities, townships, county-controlled cities, indigenous districts and villages have their own elections. The head as well as the legislators of the self-government bodies are all directly elected by the people who have registered their residency in the respective territory. Local elections were synchronized into a single day from 2014 and are held every four years.
Elections are supervised by the Central Election Commission (CEC), an independent agency under the central government, with the municipality, county and city election commissions under its jurisdiction. The minimum voting age is twenty years. Voters must satisfy a four-month residency requirement before being allowed to cast a ballot. 
The government of the Republic of China, led by Kuomintang, retreated to Taiwan in 1949 for losing the Chinese Civil War with the Communist Party of China. In that time, the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion was enforced and largely restricted many civil and political rights including voting right of the Taiwanese people. In addition, the Martial law in Taiwan also set most actions of oppositions as illegal. From 1949 to 1990, the President was elected by the first National Assembly which has never been reelected since 1948. The Legislative Yuan was also never been reelected since 1947. The provincial Governor and municipal Mayors are appointed by the central government. The direct elections were only held in the local leaders lower than county level, and legislators lower than the provincial level.
From the 1990s, a series of democratic and governmental reforms was implemented in Taiwan. Additional Articles of the Constitution was passed to grant full civil and political rights to Taiwanese people (officially the people of the Free area of the Republic of China). Under the Additional Articles, the President and the national legislators shall be directly elected. The first congressional elections on Taiwan was held in 1991 for National Assembly and 1992 for Legislative Yuan. The first election for provincial Governors and municipality Mayors was in 1994. Most importantly, Taiwan held the first direct election of the President and Vice President in 1996.
At the same time, the government also undertook to simplify the public sector. The provincial government was streamlined as a subsidiary of the central government in 1998 and no longer holds elections for the Governor and the provincial legislators since then. The regular National Assembly was ceased in 2000 and fully defunct in 2005. The number of members of the Legislative Yuan was reduced to 113 from 2008.
In recent years, the government is further working on synchronizing the date of the elections into two key dates: national elections and local elections.
- The national elections elect the President and Vice President as well as the 113 Legislators.
- The local elections elect 11,130 local officials who serve in self-government bodies.
Types and schedules of election
|Type||National elections||Local elections|
|Executive positions||President and Vice President||Municipal Mayors
Chiefs of indigenous districts in municipalities
County Magistrates (City Mayors)
Chiefs of village (borough)
|Legislative seats||Legislators||Municipal Councilors
Councilors of indigenous districts in municipalities
County (City) Councilors
|Last date of||Elections||January 16, 2016||November 29, 2014|
|Inaugurations||February 1, 2016 (Legislators)
May 20, 2016 (President and Vice President)
|December 25, 2014|
|Next date of||Elections||January 2020||November 2018|
|Inaugurations||February 1, 2020 (Legislators)
May 20, 2020 (President and Vice President)
|December 25, 2018|
List of elections by date
The full election list since the first direct election of the President and Vice President.
|Year||National elections||Local elections||Referendums|
|Presidential||Congressional||Municipal||County and city|
|1996||President 1996||National Assembly 1996|
|1998||Legislator 1998||Municipal 1998|
|2001||Legislator 2001||Local 2001|
|2004||President 2004||Legislator 2004||Referendum 2004|
|2005||National Assembly 2005||Local 2005|
|2008||President 2008||Legislator 2008||Referendums 2008 (Jan, March)|
|2012||President 2012||Legislator 2012|
|2016||President 2016||Legislator 2016|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elections in the Republic of China.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elections in Taiwan.|
- Central Election Commission (Taiwan)
- List of political parties in the Republic of China
- History of the Republic of China
- Politics of the Republic of China
- Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
- Electoral calendar
- Electoral system