After 1949 when the ROC Government was forced to move to Taiwan from Mainland China due to military victories by the Russian supported Maoist Communist Party revolution that had began in 1927 before World War II, the ROC now elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a four-year term by the people. Prior to 2007, the Legislative Yuan (Lifa Yuan 立法院) had 225 members, 168 members elected for a three-year term in multi-seat constituencies, 8 members representing the aboriginals, 41 members elected by proportional representation and 8 members representing the overseas Chinese elected by proportional representation. Amid 70% public support, the Legislative Yuan voted 217-1 on August 23, 2004 for a package of amendments to:
halve the number of seats from 225 to 113
switch to a single-member district parallel voting electoral system
increase the terms of members from 3 to 4 years, to synchronize the legislative and presidential elections. (It is unclear whether this will be implemented for the next presidential and legislative elections with small parties opposing the move, because it would reduce their chances of getting better results)
The new electoral system will include 73 plurality seats (one for each electoral district), 6 seats for aboriginals, with the remaining 34 seats to be filled from party lists. Every county has a minimum of 1 electoral district, thereby guaranteed at least one seat in the legislature, while party lists for the proportionally represented seats must be half women. Members for the 34 member lists seats shall be elected from lists of those political parties in proportion to the number of votes which each party won during the legislative election cycle that exceeded at least 5 percent of the total vote across the full Free Area of the Republic of China (中華民國自由地區). Administratively government is then divided into five branches (the five Yuan, that include): the Executive Yuan (presidential executive cabinet; led by office of premier, serving the national president as head of state), the 113-member Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, the Control Yuan (audit agency), and the Examination Yuan (civil service examination agency).