Elections in Zimbabwe
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The Zimbabwe government consists of an elected head of state, the president, and a legislature. The presidential term lasts for 5 years, and is elected by majority, with a second round if no candidate receives a majority in the first round. The Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the House of Assembly and Senate. Following the 2013 constitution, the House of Assembly has 270 members. 210 are elected for five-year terms by single-member constituencies. Furthermore, the constitution specifies that for the two first parliaments, there are 60 additional seats reserved for women, 6 seats per province, which are filled based on the votes for in the single-member constituencies, using party-list proportional representation, distributed using the largest remainder method and the hare quota. The Senate has 80 members: 60 are elected for five-year terms in 6-member constituencies representing one of the 10 provinces, elected based on the votes in the lower house election, using party-list proportional representation, distributed using the hare quota. Additionally the senate consists of 2 seats for each non-metropolitan district of Zimbabwe elected by each provincial assembly of chiefs using SNTV, 1 seat each for the president and deputy president of the National Council of Chiefs and 1 male and 1 female seat for people with disabilities elected on separate ballots using FPTP by an electoral college designated by the National Disability Board.
Zimbabwe is a one party dominant state; the dominant party being the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front. Opposition parties are permitted, including the MDC-T led by Morgan Tsvangirai and the MDC-M led by Welshman Ncube, both formations of the original Movement for Democratic Change created in 1999. Recent elections (March 2008) have witnessed former ruling party finance minister Simba Makoni standing as an independent presidential candidate.
- Zimbabwean parliamentary election, 1980: The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front won a majority, and Robert Mugabe became the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.
- Zimbabwean parliamentary election, 1985: Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front increased its majority.
- Zimbabwean presidential election, 1990 (28–30 March)
- Zimbabwean parliamentary election, 1995 (8–9 April)
- Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front 1,143,349 (81.4%)
- Zimbabwe African National Union - Ndonga 97,470 (6.9%)
- Forum Party of Zimbabwe (FPZ) 84,219 (6.0%)
- Independents 70,818 (5.0%)
- Zimbabwe Congress Party 3,779 (0.3%)
- Zimbabwe Federal Party 3,381 (0.2%)
- Zimbabwe Aristocrats 1,571 (0.1%)
- African National Party 431 (0.0%)
- Zimbabwean presidential election, 1996 (16–17 March)
- Sithole and Muzorewa withdrew during the week before balloting, but their names remained on the ballot and both received votes
- Zimbabwean parliamentary election, 2000 (24–25 June)
- Zimbabwean presidential election, 2002 (9–11 March)
|Candidates - nominating parties||Votes||%|
|Robert Mugabe - Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front||56.0|
|Morgan Tsvangirai - Movement for Democratic Change||42.0|
|Wilson Kumbila - Zimbabwe African National Union – Ndonga||1.0|
|Shaka Maya - National Alliance for Good Governance||0.5|
|Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front||1,569,867||59.6||78|
|Movement for Democratic Change||1,041,292||39.5||41|
|Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga||6,608||0.3||0|
|Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance||594||0.0||0|
|Zimbabwe People's Democratic Party||61||0.0||0|
|Ex-officio members (Chiefs)||10|
|Total (turnout 47.7%)||2,634,645||100.0||150|
|Total votes cast||2,696,670|
|Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front||449,860||73.71||43|
|Movement for Democratic Change||123,628||20.26||7|
|Zimbabwe African National Union – Ndonga||11,023||1.81||0|
|Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance||6,919||1.13||0|
|Peace Action is Freedom for All||5,278||0.86||0|
|African National Party||3,585||0.59||0|
|Zimbabwe African People's Union – Federal Party||213||0.03||0|
|Multi-Racial Open Party – Christian Democrats||100||0.02||0|
|Ex-officio members (Chiefs)||10|
|Total (turnout 19.5%)||610,295||100.00||66|
|Total votes cast||631,347|
|Source: African Elections Database|
- The Zimbabwean general election of 2013 was held in July 2013. It resulted in a landslide victory for ZANU-PF, who gained 61.09% of the vote.
- The Zimbabwean general election of 2018 was held on 30 July 2018.
On 12–13 February 2000, there was a constitutional referendum for increasing the powers of the president. These powers were to permit the government to confiscate White-owned land without compensation for the purpose of redistribution to Black farmers, and to give government officials immunity from prosecution.
- "Yes" Votes 45.32%
- "No" Votes 54.68%
- "Part XVII, Section 110". ELECTORAL ACT (pdf). Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 63. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "3, 4". Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) (pdf). pp. 52–54.
- "Electoral Amendment Act 2014 [Act 6-2014]" (doc). Veritas Zimbabwe. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Part X, Section 44". ELECTORAL ACT (pdf). Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 35. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Zimbabwe Election: Stolen Ballots" GuardianFilms
- Zimbabwe Election Results
- African Elections Database
- Adam Carr's Election Archive