Election commission

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An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of electioneering process of any country. The formal names of election commissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and may be styled an electoral commission,[1] a central[2] or state election commission,[3] an election board,[4] an electoral council[5] or an electoral court.[6] Election commissions can be independent, mixed, judicial or executive. They may also be responsible for electoral boundary delimitation. In federations there may be a separate body for each subnational government. An election commission has a duty to ensure elections are conducted in an orderly manner[according to whom?].

Electoral models[edit]

Independent model[edit]

In the independent model the election commission is independent of the executive and manages its own budget. Countries with an independent election commission include Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Jordan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the United Kingdom. In some of these countries the independence of the election commission is constitutionally guaranteed e.g. section 190 of the Constitution of South Africa.

Branch model[edit]

In the branch model the election commission is often called an electoral branch, and is usually a constitutionally-recognized separate branch of government, with its members appointed by either the executive or the legislative branch. Countries with an electoral branch include Bolivia, Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua and Venezuela.

Mixed model[edit]

In the mixed-model there is an independent board to determine policy, but implementation is usually a matter for an executive department with varying degrees of supervision by the independent board. Countries with such a model include Cameroon, France, Germany, Japan, Senegal and Spain.

Executive model[edit]

In the executive model the election commission is directed by a cabinet minister as part of the executive branch of government, and may include local government authorities acting as agents of the central body. Countries with this model include Denmark, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia. In the United States, elections for federal, state, and local offices are run by the executive branch of each state government - see, for example, the Division of Elections of the Florida Department of State.[7]

Judicial model[edit]

In the judicial model the election commission is closely supervised by and ultimately responsible to a special "electoral court". Countries with such a model include Argentina, Brazil and Mexico.

List of election commissions[edit]

Election commissions in Africa[edit]

As of 2021, 53 out of 55 African nations (save for Eritrea and Somalia, which do not hold elections) use or have used election commissions to organize and supervise their elections. First introduced in the Sudan in 1957, election commissions were created across the continent especially after many African nations introduced a system of multi-party democracy in the early 1990s[17]

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Australian Electoral Commission". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  2. ^ Alvarez-Rivera, Manuel. "Elections to the Latvian Saeima (Parliament)". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "SC State Election Commission: About Us". SCVotes. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Oklahoma State Election Board". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "T.C. Yüksek Seçim Kurulu" [Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey]. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Superior Electoral Court, Brazil (TSE)". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  7. ^ "About Us". Florida Division of Elections. Florida Department of State. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  8. ^ "Cuba Election Centre". Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  9. ^ "Florida Elections Commission". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  10. ^ "Office of Elections: Elections Commission: About Us". State of Hawaii. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  11. ^ "Illinois State Board of Elections". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  12. ^ "Maryland, The State Board of Elections". Maryland.org: State of Maryland. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  13. ^ "New York State, Board of Elections". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  14. ^ "North Carolina State Board of Elections & Ethics Enforcement". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  15. ^ "Commonwealth of Virginia: Department of Elections: State Board of Elections". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  16. ^ "Wisconsin Elections Commission". Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  17. ^ Marzin, Régis (2021). Les commissions électorales et le retour du multipartisme entre 1990 et 1994 en Afrique, Historique des commissions électorales de 1957 à 2021 (in French).

External links[edit]