Reprise Records album cover (North American release)
|Studio album by the Jimi Hendrix Experience|
|Released||October 16, 1968|
|Jimi Hendrix American chronology|
|Jimi Hendrix British chronology|
|Singles from Electric Ladyland|
Electric Ladyland is the third and final studio album by English-American rock band the Jimi Hendrix Experience, released in October 1968 by Track Records/Polydor, and Reprise Records in North America. The double album was the only record from the band produced by Jimi Hendrix. By mid-November, it had charted at number one in the United States, where it spent two weeks at the top spot. Electric Ladyland was the Experience's most commercially successful release and their only number one album. It peaked at number six in the UK, where it spent 12 weeks on the chart.
Electric Ladyland included a cover of the Bob Dylan song, "All Along the Watchtower," which became the Experience's highest-selling single and their only top 40 hit in the US, peaking at number 20; the single reached number five in the UK. Although the album confounded critics in 1968, it has since been viewed as Hendrix's best work and one of the greatest rock records of all time. Electric Ladyland has been featured on many greatest-album lists, including Q magazine's 2003 list of the 100 greatest albums and Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, on which it was ranked 54th.
Recording and production
Recording sessions for the Jimi Hendrix Experience's third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, began at the newly opened Record Plant Studios, with Chas Chandler as producer and engineers Eddie Kramer and Gary Kellgren. As recording progressed, Chandler became increasingly frustrated with Hendrix's perfectionism and his demands for repeated takes. Hendrix allowed numerous friends and guests to join them in the studio, which contributed to a chaotic and crowded environment in the control room and led Chandler to sever his professional relationship with Hendrix. Redding later recalled: "There were tons of people in the studio; you couldn't move. It was a party, not a session." Redding, who had formed his own band in mid-1968, Fat Mattress, found it increasingly difficult to fulfill his commitments with the Experience, so Hendrix played many of the bass parts on Electric Ladyland. The album's cover stated that it was "produced and directed by Jimi Hendrix". The double LP was the only Experience album to be mixed entirely in stereo.
During the Electric Ladyland recording sessions, Hendrix began experimenting with other combinations of musicians, including Jefferson Airplane's Jack Casady and Traffic's Steve Winwood, who played bass and organ respectively on the fifteen-minute slow-blues jam, "Voodoo Chile". During the album's production, Hendrix appeared at an impromptu jam with B.B. King, Al Kooper, and Elvin Bishop.[nb 4] Electric Ladyland was released in October 1968, and by mid-November it had reached number one in the US, spending two weeks at the top spot. The double LP was the Experience's most commercially successful release and their only number one album. It peaked at number six in the UK, spending 12 weeks on the chart.
Hendrix's studio perfectionism was legendary – he and Mitch Mitchell recorded well over 50 takes of "Gypsy Eyes" over three sessions. Hendrix was generally insecure about his voice and often recorded his vocals hidden behind studio screens. Hendrix sang all the backing vocals himself on the title track and on "Long Hot Summer Night". He was said to be very happy with the vocal results on "Have You Ever Been (To Electric Ladyland)".
According to music journalist David Stubbs, Electric Ladyland is "undoubtedly a rock album, albeit rock on the point of evolving into something else." Uncut magazine's John Robinson said that its music reconciles the psychedelic pop of Hendrix's earlier recordings with the aggressive funk he would explore on his 1970 album Band of Gypsys. During its recording, Kramer experimented with innovative studio techniques such as backmasking, chorus effect, echo, and flanging, which AllMusic's Cub Koda said recontextualized Hendrix's psychedelic and funk sounds on the album.
Electric Ladyland is a cross-section of Hendrix's wide range of musical talent. It includes examples of several genres and styles of music: the psychedelic "Burning of the Midnight Lamp", a UK single the previous summer (1967), the extended blues jam "Voodoo Chile", the New Orleans-style R&B of Earl King's "Come On", the epic studio production of "1983... (A Merman I Should Turn to Be)", the social commentary of "House Burning Down", and the Sixties-era Britpop of Noel Redding's "Little Miss Strange". The album also features an electric reworking of the Bob Dylan classic "All Along the Watchtower", which has been well received by critics as well as by Dylan himself, and also "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", a staple of both radio and guitar repertoire. Rolling Stone's Holly George-Warren praised "Crosstown Traffic" for its hard rock guitar riff.
Electric Ladyland included Hendrix's cover of Bob Dylan's song, "All Along the Watchtower", which became the band's highest-selling single and their only US top 40 hit, peaking at number 20; the single reached number five in the UK. The album also included one of Hendrix's most prominent uses of a wah-wah pedal, in the song "Burning of the Midnight Lamp", which reached number 18 in the UK charts.
Hendrix had written to Reprise describing what he wanted for the cover art, but was mostly ignored. He expressly asked for a color photo by Linda Eastman of the group sitting with children on a sculpture from Alice in Wonderland in Central Park, and drew a picture of it for reference. The company instead used a blurred red and yellow photo of his head, taken by Karl Ferris. Track Records used its art department, which produced a cover image by photographer David Montgomery, who also shot the inside cover portrait of Hendrix, depicting nineteen nude women lounging in front of a black background. Hendrix expressed displeasure and embarrassment with this "naked lady" cover, much as he was displeased with the Axis: Bold as Love cover which he found disrespectful. The cover was banned by several record dealers as "pornographic", while others sold it with the gatefold cover turned inside out.
Release and reception
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
Electric Ladyland was released in the US on October 16, 1968. It was a "hit psychedelic album", Richie Unterberger later wrote, and by mid-November, it had reached number one in the US, spending two weeks atop the pop charts. The double LP was the Experience's most commercially successful release and Hendrix's only number one album. In the UK, it peaked at number six and charted for 12 weeks.
Electric Ladyland confounded contemporary critics; reviewers praised some of its songs but felt the album lacked structure and sounded too dense. Melody Maker called it "mixed-up and muddled", with the exception of "All Along the Watchtower", which the magazine called a masterpiece. In a negative review for Rolling Stone, Tony Glover preferred the less difficult "Little Miss Strange" to songs such as "Voodoo Chile" and "1983", which he said were marred by reactively harsh playing. Robert Christgau was more enthusiastic, naming it the fifth best album of 1968 in his ballot for Jazz & Pop magazine's critics poll.
Over time, Electric Ladyland's critical standing improved significantly, often being viewed as Hendrix's best work. According to author Michael Heatley, "most critics agree" that the album was "the fullest realization of Jimi's far-reaching ambitions"; Guitar World editor Noe Goldwasser called it his greatest work. The record was also deemed an essential hard rock album in Tom Larson's 2004 book History of Rock and Roll, and Clash reviewer Robin Murray viewed it as a "true classic of the psychedelic rock era". In a retrospective review for Blender, Christgau wrote that it was the definitive work of psychedelic music, describing the record as "an aural utopia that accommodates both ingrained conflict and sweet, vague spiritual yearnings, held together by a master musician". In Charlotte Greig's opinion, much like Are You Experienced, Electric Ladyland was "groundbreaking, introducing audiences to a style of psychedelic rock rooted in the blues".
Electric Ladyland has been featured on many greatest album lists, including a number 10 ranking on Classic Rock magazine's list of the 100 Greatest Rock Albums Ever, and number 37 on The Times' 100 Best Albums of All Time. Music journalist and author Peter Doggett argued that it is very likely the greatest rock album of all time because of its exceptional concept, artful melodies, experimentation, and skilled musicianship, which he felt remains unparalleled by any other rock artist. In 2003, Q magazine included it on its list of the 100 greatest albums ever, while Rolling Stone ranked it 54th on its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.
All songs written by Jimi Hendrix, except where noted.
|1.||"And the Gods Made Love"||1:21|
|2.||"Have You Ever Been (To Electric Ladyland)"||2:11|
|5.||"Little Miss Strange" (Noel Redding)||2:52|
|6.||"Long Hot Summer Night"||3:27|
|7.||"Come On (Part I)" (Earl King; originally titled "Come On" on UK Track release[nb 5])||4:09|
|8.||"Gypsy Eyes" (Originally titled "Gipsy Eyes" on UK Track release)||3:43|
|9.||"Burning of the Midnight Lamp"||3:39|
|10.||"Rainy Day, Dream Away"||3:42|
|11.||"1983... (A Merman I Should Turn to Be)[nb 6]"||13:39|
|12.||"Moon, Turn the Tides...Gently Gently Away"||1:02|
|13.||"Still Raining, Still Dreaming"||4:25|
|14.||"House Burning Down"||4:33|
|15.||"All Along the Watchtower" (Bob Dylan)||4:01|
|16.||"Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" (Originally titled "Voodoo Chile (Slight Return)" on UK Track release)||5:12|
As was common with multi-LP albums, sides one and four were pressed back to back on the same platter, likewise sides two and three. This was called auto-coupling or automatic sequence and was intended to make it easier to play through the entire album in sequence on automatic record-changers. In this case it has led to some CD releases of Electric Ladyland that have the sides in the incorrect one-four-two-three order. The cassette tape version altered the running order to keep both sides of the tape as equal as possible, a standard practice.
Credits taken from the 1993 MCA compact disc booklet.
The Jimi Hendrix Experience
- Jimi Hendrix – lead vocals, guitar, piano, percussion, comb and tissue paper kazoo, electric harpsichord, bass on "Have You Ever Been (To Electric Ladyland)", "Long Hot Summer Night", "Gypsy Eyes", "1983", "House Burning Down", and "All Along the Watchtower"
- Noel Redding – backing vocals, bass on "Crosstown Traffic", "Little Miss Strange", "Come On (Let the Good Times Roll)", "Burning of the Midnight Lamp", and "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", acoustic guitar and lead vocals on "Little Miss Strange"
- Mitch Mitchell – backing vocals, drums (except on "Rainy Day Dream Away" and "Still Raining, Still Dreaming"), percussion, lead vocals on "Little Miss Strange"
- Jack Casady – bass on "Voodoo Chile"
- Brian Jones – percussion on "All Along the Watchtower"
- Al Kooper – piano on "Long Hot Summer Night"
- Dave Mason – twelve-string guitar on "All Along the Watchtower", backing vocals on "Crosstown Traffic"
- The Sweet Inspirations – backing vocals on "Burning of the Midnight Lamp"
- Steve Winwood – Hammond organ on "Voodoo Chile"
- Chris Wood – flute on "1983... (A Merman I Should Turn to Be)"
on "Rainy Day, Dream Away" and "Still Raining, Still Dreaming":
- Producer - Jimi Hendrix
- Engineers - Eddie Kramer and Gary Kellgren
- Mixed by Jimi Hendrix, Eddie Kramer, and Gary Kellgren
- Arranged by Jimi Hendrix
- US cover liner note by Jimi Hendrix
- US cover design - Karl Ferris
- US cover inside photos - Linda Eastman and David Sygall
- US art direction - Ed Thrasher
- UK cover design - David King, Rob O'Connor
- UK cover inside photos - David Montgomery
- First CD remaster by Lee Herschberg (Reprise 6307-2)
- Second CD remaster by Alan Douglas - Remastering by Joe Gastwirt, Liner notes by Michael Fairchild
- Third CD remaster by Experience Hendrix - Remastering by Eddie Kramer and George Marino, Art direction by Vartan, Liner notes by Jeff Leve, Essay by Derek Taylor
|American Albums Chart||1|
|British Albums Chart||6|
- "All Along the Watchtower" single B-side: "Burning of the Midnight Lamp" (US), "Long Hot Summer Night" (UK)
- "Crosstown Traffic" single B-side: "Gypsy Eyes" (US); titled "Cross Town Traffic" & "Gipsy Eyes" (UK)
- The UK maxi-single titled "Voodoo Chile" is actually "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" (see Confusion over title), with B-side: "Hey Joe" & "All Along the Watchtower"
- In March 1968, Jim Morrison of the Doors joined Hendrix onstage at the Scene Club in New York.
- "Let the Good Times Roll" was later added to "Come On" on some releases
- The original LP version of "1983...(A Merman I Should Turn to Be)" is 13:39 and "Moon, Turn the Tides...Gently, Gently Away" is 1:01, the total being 14:40. On the "Nudes" version, "1983" is 4:49 while "Moon, Turn the Tides" is 9:54, the total being 14:43.
- Heatley 2009, pp. 102–103: Recording began with Chandler and Kramer; McDermott 2009, pp. 95–97: Kellgren.
- Heatley 2009, p. 102.
- Shadwick 2003, p. 157.
- Heatley 2009, p. 103.
- Shadwick 2003, p. 146.
- Black 1999, p. 137.
- McDermott 2009, pp. 126–127: US release date; Rosen 1996, p. 108: peak chart position.
- Murray 1989, p. 51.
- Roberts 2005, p. 232.
- McDermott et al., Ultimate Hendrix, pp. 98-100.
- Electric Ladyland, MCAD 10895, 1993, liner notes.
- Stubbs 2003, p. 60.
- Robinson, John. "Album review: The Jimi Hendrix Experience - Electric Ladyland". Uncut. London. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Koda, Cub. "Electric Ladyland - Jimi Hendrix". AllMusic. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- Dimery, Robert. 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die, ISBN 0-7893-1371-5, p.136
- George-Warren 2001, p. 428.
- Heatley 2009, p. 102: "All Along the Watchtower" was Hendrix's only US top 40 hit single; : "All Along the Watchtower" was Hendrix's highest-selling single; Roberts 2005, p. 232: peak UK chart position for Hendrix's cover of "All Along the Watchtower"; Whitburn 2010, p. 294: peak US chart position for Hendrix's cover of "All Along the Watchtower".
- Roberts 2005, p. 232: peak UK chart position for "Burning of the Midnight Lamp"; Shadwick 2003, p. 118: "Burning of the Midnight Lamp" was Hendrix's first recorded song to feature the use of a wah-wah pedal.
- Electric Ladyland. Experience Hendrix/MCA 11600, 1997, liner notes.
- Electric Ladyland. Track Records 613 010, 1968, cover photo.
- Unterberger, Richie (2009). The Rough Guide to Jimi Hendrix. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84836-002-0. pp.146-147
- Moskowitz, David (2010). The Words and Music of Jimi Hendrix. ISBN 978-0-313-37592-7. pp.41-42
- Christgau, Robert (December 2005). "Back Catalogue: Jimi Hendrix". Blender. New York. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "Review: Electric Ladyland". Down Beat. Chicago: 61. August 1997. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Larkin 2006, p. 249.
- "Electric Ladyland". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Murphy, Sean (March 11, 2010). "God Is Not Dead: The Jimi Hendrix Re-Issues". PopMatters. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- "Review: Electric Ladyland". Q. London: 136. December 1993. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Evans & Brackett 2004, pp. 374-75.
- McDermott 2009, p. 117.
- Jacqueline Edmondson Ph.D. (ed.) Music in American Life: An Encyclopedia of the Songs, Styles, Stars, and Stories that Shaped our Culture. ABC-CLIO, 2013. p. 548.
- McDermott 2009, pp. 126–127; Rosen 1996, p. 108: peak chart position.
- Perry 2004.
- Christgau, Robert (1969). "Robert Christgau's 1969 Jazz & Pop Ballot". Jazz & Pop. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- Heatley 2009, p. 102; Whitehill 1989, p. 5
- Larson 2004, p. 152.
- Murray, Robin (May 15, 2014). "Classic Album Sundays Toast Jimi Hendrix". Clash. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Christgau 1998, p. 98.
- Greig, Charlotte (1999). Icons of Black Music. Thunder Bay Press. p. 69. ISBN 1571451897.
- "Rocklist.net...Steve Parker...Classic Rock Lists". Rocklistmusic.co.uk. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- "Rocklist.net...The Times All Time Top 100 Albums - 1993". Rocklistmusic.co.uk. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Doggett 2004, p. 19.
- "100 Greatest Albums Ever". Q. London: 64. January 2003.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. New York: 112. December 11, 2003.
- Rosen 1996, p. 108.
- "UK chart history - The Jimi Hendrix Experience Electric Ladyland". www.chartstats.com. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- Aledort, Andy (1996). Jimi Hendrix: A Step-by-Step Breakdown of his Guitar Styles and Techniques. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-7935-3659-6.
- Aledort, Andy (1991). Pollock, Bruce; Stix, John, eds. "Performance notes: Jimi Hendrix, 'All Along the Watchtower'". Guitar Classics IV by Guitar: For the Practicing Musician.
- Black, Johnny (1999). Jimi Hendrix: The Ultimate Experience. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-240-5.
- Christgau, Robert (1998). Grown Up All Wrong: 75 Great Rock and Pop Artists from Vaudeville to Techno. Harvard University Press. p. 98. ISBN 0674443187.
- Cross, Charles R. (2005). Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8841-2.
- Doggett, Peter (2004). Jimi Hendrix: The Complete Guide to his Music. Omnibus. ISBN 978-1-84449-424-8.
- Evans, Paul; Brackett, Nathan (2004). "Jimi Hendrix". In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- Fairchild, Michael (April 1991). "The Experience of a Lifetime". Guitar: For the Practicing Musician. 8 (6).
- George-Warren, Holly, ed. (2001). The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (2005 revised and updated ed.). Fireside. ISBN 978-0-7432-9201-6.
- GP staff (May 2012). "Hendrix at 70". Guitar Player. 46 (5).
- Heatley, Michael (2009). Jimi Hendrix Gear: The Guitars, Amps & Effects that Revolutionized Rock 'n' Roll. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-3639-7.
- Hendrix, Janie L.; McDermott, John (2007). Jimi Hendrix: An Illustrated Experience. Atria. ISBN 978-0-7432-9769-1.
- Larkin, Colin (2006). Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 4. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-531373-9.
- Larson, Tom (2004). History of Rock and Roll. Kendall Hunt Pub. ISBN 978-0-7872-9969-9.
- Lawrence, Sharon (2005). Jimi Hendrix: The Intimate Story of a Betrayed Musical Legend. Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-056301-1.
- Levy, Joe, ed. (2005). Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (First Paperback ed.). Wenner Books. ISBN 978-1-932958-61-4.
- Mayer, John (2011). "Jimi Hendrix". In Brackett, Nathan. Rolling Stone: The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone.
- McDermott, John (2009). Ultimate Hendrix: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Live Concerts and Sessions. BackBeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-938-1.
- McDermott, John (1992). Lewisohn, Mark, ed. Hendrix: Setting the Record Straight. Grand Central. ISBN 978-0-446-39431-4.
- Morello, Tom (December 8, 2011). "Jimi Hendrix". In Wenner, Jann. Rolling Stone: The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. Rolling Stone.
- Moskowitz, David (2010). The Words and Music of Jimi Hendrix. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-37592-7.
- Murray, Charles Shaar (1989). Crosstown Traffic: Jimi Hendrix and the Rock 'n' Roll Revolution (First US ed.). St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04288-2.
- Owen, Frank; Reynolds, Simon (April 1991). "Hendrix Lives! Why Jimi still matters". Spin. 7 (1).
- Perry, John (2004). "6. Reviews". Jimi Hendrix's Electric Ladyland. 33⅓. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1441129596.
- Potash, Chris, ed. (1996). The Jimi Hendrix Companion. Omnibus. ISBN 978-0-7119-6635-2.
- Roberts, David, ed. (2005). British Hit Singles & Albums (18 ed.). Guinness World Records Limited. ISBN 978-1-904994-00-8.
- Roby, Steven (2002). Black Gold: The Lost Archives of Jimi Hendrix. Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-7854-7.
- Roby, Steven; Schreiber, Brad (2010). Becoming Jimi Hendrix: From Southern Crossroads to Psychedelic London, the Untold Story of a Musical Genius. Da Capo. ISBN 978-0-306-81910-0.
- Rosen, Craig (1996). The Billboard Book of Number One Albums. Billboard. ISBN 978-0-8230-7586-7.
- Shadwick, Keith (2003). Jimi Hendrix: Musician. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-764-6.
- Shapiro, Harry; Glebbeek, Caesar (1995) . Jimi Hendrix: Electric Gypsy (New and Improved ed.). St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-13062-6.
- Stubbs, David (2003). Jimi Hendrix: The Stories Behind Every Song. Da Capo Press. ISBN 1560255374.
- Unterberger, Richie (2009). The Rough Guide to Jimi Hendrix. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84836-002-0.
- Wenner, Jann (2010) . 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Rolling Stone. OCLC 641731526.
- Whitburn, Joel (2010). The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, 1955–2009 (9 ed.). Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-8554-5.
- Whitehill, Dave (1989). Hendrix: Electric Ladyland. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-3385-5.
- Glover, Tony (November 9, 1968). "Electric Ladyland". Rolling Stone. San Francisco: Straight Arrow Publishers, Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- Electric Ladyland (Adobe Flash) at Radio3Net (streamed copy where licensed)
- Electric Ladyland at Discogs (list of releases)
- Hendrix's request for the album cover design
Cheap Thrills by Big Brother and the Holding Company
|Billboard 200 number-one album
November 16–29, 1968
Wichita Lineman by Glen Campbell