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Akihabara Crossing at day
Akihabara at night
Akihabara in 2007
Club Sega in Akihabara
Release event of Windows 10 DSP version at Dospara in Akihabara.

Akihabara (Japanese: 秋葉原) is a common name for the area around Akihabara Station in the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, the area called Akihabara mainly belongs to the Sotokanda (外神田) and Kanda-Sakumachō districts in Chiyoda. There exists an administrative district called Akihabara in the Taitō ward further north of Akihabara Station, but it is not the place people generally refer to as Akihabara.

The name Akihabara is a shortening of Akibagahara (秋葉ヶ原), which ultimately comes from Akiba (秋葉), named after a fire-controlling deity of a firefighting shrine built after the area was destroyed by a fire in 1869.[1]

Akihabara gained the nickname Akihabara Electric Town (秋葉原電気街, Akihabara Denki Gai) shortly after World War II for being a major shopping center for household electronic goods and the post-war black market.[2][3]

Akihabara UDX (established in Akihabara CROSSFIELD)

Akihabara is considered by many to be the centre of modern Japanese popular culture and a major shopping district for video games, anime, manga, electronics and computer-related goods. Icons from popular anime and manga are displayed prominently on the shops in the area, and numerous maid cafés and some arcades are found throughout the district.


The main area of Akihabara is located on a street just west of Akihabara Station, where most of the major shops are situated. Most of the electronics shops are just west of the station, and the anime and manga shops and the cosplay cafés are north of them.[2]

As mentioned above, the area called Akihabara now ranges over some districts in Chiyoda ward: Sotokanda (外神田, the west of the station including electric town), Kanda-Hanaokachō (神田花岡町, the east of the station), and Kanda-Sakumachō (神田佐久間町, the south and southeast of the station). There exists an administrative district called Akihabara in the Taitō ward further north of the station, but it is not the place which people generally refer to as Akihabara. It borders on Sotokanda in between Akihabara and Okachimachi stations, but is half occupied by JR tracks.


The area that is now Akihabara was once near a city gate of Edo and served as a passage between the city and northwestern Japan. This made the region a home to many craftsmen and tradesmen, as well as some low class samurai. One of Tokyo's frequent fires destroyed the area in 1869, and the people decided to replace the buildings of the area with a shrine called Chinkasha (now known as Akiba Shrine (秋葉神社, Akiba Jinja)), meaning fire extinguisher shrine, in an attempt to prevent the spread of future fires. The locals nicknamed the shrine Akiba after the deity that could control fire, and the area around it became known as Akibagahara and later Akihabara.[1][2] After Akihabara Station was built in 1888, the shrine was moved to the Taitō ward where it still resides today.[4][5][6]

Since its opening in 1890, Akihabara Station became a major freight transit point, which allowed a vegetable and fruit market to spring up in the district. Then, in the 1920s, the station saw a large volume of passengers after opening for public transport, and after World War II, the black market thrived in the absence of a strong government. This disconnection of Akihabara from government authority has allowed the district to grow as a market city and given rise to an excellent atmosphere for entrepreneurship.[3] In the 1930s, this climate turned Akihabara into a future-oriented market region specializing in household electronics, such as washing machines, refrigerators, televisions, and stereos, earning Akihabara the nickname "Electric Town".[2][7]

As household electronics began to lose their futuristic appeal in the 1980s, the shops of Akihabara shifted their focus to home computers at a time when they were only used by specialists and hobbyists. This new specialization brought in a new type of consumer, computer nerds or otaku.[2] The market in Akihabara naturally latched onto their new customer base that was focused on anime, manga, and video games. The connection between Akihabara and otaku has survived and grown to the point that the region is now known worldwide as a center for otaku culture, and some otaku even consider Akihabara to be a sacred place.[8]

Otaku culture[edit]

Maids promoting maid cafés near Akihabara Station
Naruto cosplayer attracting customers for a Manga and Anime shop

The influence of otaku culture has shaped Akihabara's businesses and buildings to reflect the interests of otaku and gained the district worldwide fame for its distinctive imagery.[9] Akihabara tries to create an atmosphere as close as possible to the game and anime worlds of customers' interest. The streets of Akihabara are covered with anime and manga icons, and cosplayers line the sidewalks handing out advertisements, especially for maid cafés. Release events, special events, and conventions in Akihabara give anime and manga fans frequent opportunities to meet the creators of the works they follow and strengthen the connection between the region and otaku culture. The design of many of the buildings serves to create the sort of atmosphere that draws in otaku. Architects design the stores of Akihabara to be more opaque and closed to reflect the general desire of many otaku to live in their anime worlds rather than display their interests to the world at large.[2][10]

Akihabara's role as a free market has also allowed a large amount of amateur work to find a passionate audience in the otaku who frequent the area. Doujinshi (amateur or fanmade manga based on an anime/manga/game) has been growing in Akihabara since the 1970s when publishers began to drop manga that were not ready for large markets.[2] Comiket is largest spot sale of Doujinshi in Japan.

Akiba-kei Idol[edit]

Early Akiba-kei idol
Stage Name Haruko Momoi (momo-i) Shoko Nakagawa (Shokotan) AKB48
Haruko Momoi in concert at FanimeCon 2010-05-30 7.JPG
Shoko Nakagawa at Japan Expo 2014 (5).jpg
Years Active 1996 - 2001 - 2005 -
Description Haruko Momoi (momo-i) is known first Akiba-kei idol.[11]

She started her activities by watching the live performance of Aoi Mizuno, an underground idol who made her solo debut in 1994.

Considering the rise of Akiba-kei in the late 2000s, it can be said that she started her activities as an Akiba-kei idol very early.

Shoko Nakagawa (Shokotan) is most famous Akiba-kei idol in Japan.

In 2008, she overtook the popular tarento Kaori Manabe in the number of blog views and ranked first. It is the first Akiba-kei idol who gained general recognition.

AKB48 is the Japanese Idol Group, started in Akihabara.

Later, several groups were formed that incorporated "48" as part of their name and grew into a franchise.

Akiba-kei idol is the Japanese idol representing Akihabara style. It is said that the activities of Akiba-kei idols were started by women who were influenced by the style of underground idols created by Aoi Mizuno.

In the 1990s, Akihabara was a maniac electric town and was considered a place for men to go. However, there were a few women who liked Akihabara, and Haruko Momoi was one of them. Haruko Momoi is also an enthusiastic fan of Aoi Mizuno, who made her debut before Haruko Momoi and completed the style of an underground idol, and started her activities as an underground idol by cosplaying as Shiori Fujisaki, the character of Tokimeki Memorial. Since the cosplay of anime characters and activities as underground idols are characteristics that are widely seen in later Akiba-kei idols, there are many opinions in Japan that Haruko Momoi made the prototype of Akiba-kei idols.

Haruko Momoi (momo-i), today's famous Anison musician, is known first Akiba-kei idol and her activities was started in 1996. It is a very early start of activity.[11] And Shoko Nakagawa, today's famous tarento, is most famous Akiba-kei idol in Japan and her activities was started in 2001. The idol group AKB48, one of Japan's highest selling contemporary musical acts they were started activities in 2005, runs its own theater in Akihabara, from which the group's name is derived.[12] Formed in 2009, Dempagumi.inc has all members claiming to be otaku of some genre. By the time of Dempagumi.inc, the number of Akiba-kei idols had increased considerably. With the spread of otaku culture, it is no longer necessary to distinguish by place name, so Akiba-kei is becoming a dead language. Therefore, at present, the artists who were called Akiba-kei idols in the past are working beyond the framework of Akiba-kei and their activities also had a great influence on contemporary Japanese culture.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical dictionary of Tokyo.Scarecrow Press, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Nobuoka, Jakob. "User innovation and creative consumption in Japanese culture industries: The case of Akihabara, Tokyo." Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 92.3 (2010): 205–218.
  3. ^ a b Yamada, Kazuhito. Entrepreneurship in Akihabara.
  4. ^ "Tokyo Akihabara "Must See" Top Five".
  5. ^ "秋葉神社(台東区松が谷)".
  6. ^ "秋葉神社の概要".
  7. ^ "Akihabara: Electric Town For Tech, Games, Anime!".
  8. ^ IMAI, Nobuharu. "The Momentary and Placeless Community: Constructing a New Community with regards to Otaku Culture." Inter Faculty 1 (2010).
  9. ^ The ultimate geek's guide to Tokyo, CNN travel (18 December 2018)
  10. ^ Morikawa, Kaichiro. "Learning from Akihabara: The birth of a personapolis." Gentosha, Tokyo (2003).
  11. ^ a b "桃井はるこ(Rooftop2015年9月号) - インタビュー". Rooftop (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  12. ^ "A Beginner's Guide to the 48Group Family". www.tsunagujapan.com. Retrieved 2019-02-14.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°41′54″N 139°46′23″E / 35.69836°N 139.77313°E / 35.69836; 139.77313