Electric unicycle

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An electric unicycle (often initialized as EUC or acronymized yuke or Uni) is a self-balancing personal transporter with a single wheel. The rider controls speed by leaning forwards or backwards, and steers by leaning and twisting the unit side to side. The self-balancing mechanism uses gyroscopes and accelerometers. In 2020, suspension models were introduced by three major manufacturers Begode, Kingsong and Inmotion


Commercial units are self-balancing in a forward and backward direction, with side-to-side (lateral) stability being provided by the steering motions of the rider, similar to Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics. As of 2022, no commercial human-rideable unicycle has lateral self-balancing capabilities. A non-ridable, dual-axis self-balancing unicycle has been demonstrated with small, lightweight robots using a large weighted reaction wheel[1] or control moment gyroscope, however. The control of a unicycle can be considered to be an inverted pendulum.


Trevor Blackwell demonstrates his prototype

Early experimentation[edit]

See also Monowheel

A hand-power monowheel was patented in 1869 by Richard C. Hemming[2] with a pedal-power unit patented in 1885.[3] Various motorized monowheels were developed and demonstrated during the 1930s without commercial success[4] and Charles F Taylor was granted a patent for a "vehicle having a single supporting and driving wheel" in 1964 after some 25 years of experimentation.[5] In 1977 Charles Gabriel presented an electric unicycle that resembles the design of today's devices.[6]


In 2003, Bombardier announced a conceptual design for such a device used as a sport vehicle, the Embrio.[7] In September 2004 Trevor Blackwell demonstrated a functional self-balancing unicycle, using the control-mechanism similar to that used by the Segway PT and published the designs as the Eunicycle.[citation needed] In March 2010 Shane Chen of Inventist filed a patent application for a seatless electric unicycle (associated with the "Solowheel" product launched in February 2011), which uses flat pedals to stand on and leg contact surfaces to allow for stable, precise control in lieu of a seat.[8] [9] In Oct 2010 Focus Designs published a video of an electric unicycle with hub motor and a seat.[10] Late in 2015, the Ford Motor Company patented a "self-propelled unicycle engagable with vehicle", intended for last-mile commuters.[11]

EUC and motorized scooter riders participating in a group ride in San Francisco. PPE was worn due to higher top speed with newer EUC models. The red-jacket-guy on the left was riding a suspension-model

By the turn of the decade, several Chinese manufacturers dominate the market and continue to release EUC models with higher top speeds (above 75 km/h or 46 mph),[12] and longer range batteries. Popularity came around the same time as Begode (formerly known as Gotway) released their M super line. This evolved into the MSX & MSP models and eventually into the RS model. Around this time Veteran stepped on to the scene for the first time with their road wheel the Sherman.[citation needed][clarification needed] In 2020, suspension EUCs were revealed by Inmotion, Kingsong and Gotway.


In chronological order, the following suspension-models were released-

Popular culture[edit]


EUC Companies[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "LQR control for a self-balancing unicycle robot". IEEE. IEEE.
  2. ^ Improvement in velocipede, 1869
  3. ^ US Patent 325,548
  4. ^ Bierend, Doug (24 March 2014). "One-wheeled motorcycles: As cool as they are wildly dangerous". Wired.
  5. ^ US Patent 3,145,797
  6. ^ US Patent 4,109,741
  7. ^ "Hot Wheel". Forbes.
  8. ^ https://patents.google.com/patent/US8807250
  9. ^ "Solowheel self-balancing unicycle is as easy to ride as it is to afford". Wngadget. 2011-02-11.
  10. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: focusdesigns (2010-10-11), Self Balancing Unicycle (SBU) V2.0, retrieved 2018-10-07
  11. ^ Read, Richard (December 29, 2015). "Ford Patent Could Transform Your Car Into A Unicycle". The Car Connection. Internet Brns Automotive Group. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  12. ^ "Know this before buying a Veteran Sherman Electric Unicycle". oneradwheel.com. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  13. ^ "New 31 mph and 3,000W electric unicycle announced with true suspension". electrek.co. Apr 14, 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  14. ^ S18 Suspension Test. Kuji Rolls. Apr 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-16
  15. ^ The Suspension Trinity is Complete. evX. Oct 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-16
  16. ^ ANALOG — Science Fiction/Science Fact, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 5, July 1969, pp. 120-151. Illustrations by Peter Skirka.
  17. ^ "Begode". www.begode.com. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  18. ^ "What we know about the Veteran Sherman electric unicycle". 13 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Inmotion: About Us".
  20. ^ Solowheel
  21. ^ "King Song - Redefining Personal Electric Transportation Vehicles". www.kingsong.com. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  22. ^ "Segway Z10". Retrieved 2021-10-11.

Further reading[edit]

Research papers (in reverse date order)

Daniel R. Gilman "Riding an EUC – From Never-Ever to Expert – A Detailed Written Guide https://forum.electricunicycle.org/topic/21537-learn-to-ride-an-euc-a-detailed-written-guide-from-never-ever-to-expert/