Electrical safety standards

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Electrical safety is a system of organizational measures and technical means to prevent harmful and dangerous effects on workers from electric current, arcing, electromagnetic fields and static electricity.

History[edit]

The electrical safety develops with the technical progress. In 1989 OSHA[1] promulgated a much-needed regulation in the General Industry Regulations. Several standards are defined for control of hazardous energy, or lockout/tagout. In 1995 OSHA was successful in promulgation of regulations for utility.[2] In 1994 were established Electrical Safety Foundation International non-profit organization dedicated exclusively to promoting electrical safety at home and in the workplace.[3]

  • Standard 29 CFR 1910.269 - for electric power generation, transmission, and distribution, contained comprehensive regulations and addressed control of hazardous energy sources for power plant locations

Standards are compared with those of IEEE and National Fire Protection Association.[4]

Lightning and earthing protection[edit]

Lightning and Earthing protection systems are essential for the protection of humans, structures, protecting buildings from mechanical destruction caused by lightning effects and the associated risk of fire, Transmission lines, and electrical equipment from electric shock and Overcurrent.[5]

Earthing protection systems[edit]

TT earthing system
  • TT system
  • TN system
  • IT system[6]

Lightning protection systems[edit]

  • lightning rod (simple rod or with triggering system)
  • lightning rod with taut wires.
  • lightning conductor with meshed cage (Faraday cage)

Physiological effects of electricity[edit]

Electrical shocks on humans can lead to permanent disabilities or death. Size, frequency and duration of the electrical current affect the damage.[7] The effects from electric shock can be: stopping the heart beating properly, preventing the person from breathing, causing muscle spasms. The skin features also affect the consequences of electric shock.[8]

Electric shock graph
  • Indirect contact - can be avoided by automatic disconnection for TT system, automatic disconnection for TN systems, automatic disconnection on a second fault in an IT system, measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without automatic disconnection of supply
  • Direct contact - can be avoided by protection by the insulation of live parts, protection by means of barriers or enclosures, partial measures of protection, particular measures of protection[9]

Electrical safety conductors[edit]

  •  United States (USA) NEC 2008 Table 250.122 - Safeco Electric Supply

Electrical safety standards[edit]

  •  Australia (AUS) Australian Standards - Australia - AS/NZS 3000:2007,AS/NZS 3012:2010,AS/NZS 3017:2007,AS/NZS 3760:2010,AS/NZS 4836:2011[10]
  •  Bulgaria (BUL) Български Държавен Стандарт - (On English:Bulgarian state standard) - БДС 12.2.096:1986 Bulgaria[11]
  •  Brazil (BRA) Brazilian National Regulation - NR10 Brazil[12]
  •  China (CHN) - China GB4943, GB17625, GB9254[13]
  •  Germany (GER) IEEE/TÜV - Germany NSR Niederspannungsrichtlinie 2014/35/EU [14]
  •  France (FRA) La norme français C 15-100 - Aspects de la norme d’installation électrique France[15]
  •  Great Britain (GBR) British standard - United Kingdom[16] BS EN 61439,BS 5266,BS 5839,BS 6423,BS 6626,BS EN 62305,BS EN 60529
  •  India (IND) India Standardization - India - IS-5216,IS-5571,IS-6665[17]
  •  Poland (POL) Polska Norma - Poland - PN-EN 61010-2-201:2013-12E[18]
  •  Russia (RUS) - ГОСТ 12.2.007.0-75,ГОСТ Р МЭК 61140-2000,ГОСТ 12.2.007.0-75,ГОСТ Р 52726-2007 Russia|[19]
  •  United States (USA) NFPA, IEEE STD 80, IEEE STD 80 - United States[20]

NFPA 496,NFPA 70

Lightning protection standards[edit]

  •  United States (USA) NFPA 780, IEC 62305
  •  Russia (RUS) СТО 083-004-2010,ГОСТ Р МЭК 62561.2-2014
  •  Bulgaria (BUL) БДС EN 62305-1:2011
  •  France (FRA) Norme NF C 15-100
  •  Germany (GER) DIN EN 62305-1
  •  Poland (POL) PN-EN 62305
  •  Great Britain (GBR) BS-EN 62305
  •  Spain (ESP) UNE 21186. Protección contra el rayo
  •  Indonesia (INA) SNI 03-7015-2004
  •  India (IND) IS 2309
  •  China (CHN) GB/T 36490-2018

Electronics and communications[edit]

Electronic products safety standards[edit]

The manufacturers of electronic tools must take into account several standard for electronic safety to protect the health of humans and animals.

  • ANSI C95.3:1972 - Techniques & instrumentation for measurement of

potentially hazardous electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies.[21]

Communication and high frequency safety standards[edit]

Few standard were introduced for the harmful impact from high frequency, Canada (CAN) CB-02 Radio Equipment[23]

  • ANSI/IEEE 1.2 mW/Cm for antennas 1800-2000 MHz range.[24]
  • Radio Communication safety  United States (USA) ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992,[25] Russia (RUS) ГОСТ Р 50829-95
  • Mobile Communication safety 73/23/EEC and 91/263/EEC[26]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Controlling electrical hazard
  2. ^ Brainfilter.com
  3. ^ ESFI
  4. ^ The history of electrical safety
  5. ^ http://www.electrical-knowhow.com
  6. ^ Electrical installations
  7. ^ Physiological Effects of Electricity
  8. ^ Electrical injuries
  9. ^ electrical-installation.org
  10. ^ Australian Electrical Standards
  11. ^ BDS Official webpage
  12. ^ Brazilian National Standard Page
  13. ^ CCC Certification
  14. ^ https://www.tuev-nord.de
  15. ^ http://www.france-electric.com
  16. ^ British standard
  17. ^ Indian standard
  18. ^ Bezpieczenstwo-uzytkowania-i-funkcjonalne
  19. ^ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СТАНДАРТ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Система стандартов безопасности труда
  20. ^ https://www.osha.gov
  21. ^ "Electronic products safety standards" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-05-16. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  22. ^ http://www.metlabs.com
  23. ^ http://www.metlabs.com
  24. ^ High Frequency Radiation and Human Exposure Mahmoud M. Dawoud
  25. ^ Radio frequency safety standards
  26. ^ ГОСТ
  • Дулицкий Г. А., Комаревцев А. П. Электробезопасность при эксплуатации электроустановок напряжением до 1000 В. Справочник. — М.: Воениздат, 1988.
  • IEC 60050-195:1998. International Electrotechnical Vocabulary. Part 195: Earthing and protection against electric shock. Edition 1.0. – Geneva: IEC, 1998‑08.
  • Marinela Yordanova - Technical Safety,Bulgaria BDS standards,2010
  • M.M. Dawoud, A.S. Farag, J.M. Bakhashwain, and A. Frazi,"Study of EM Fields and

Radiated Power Generated from Dammam Radio Stations,"1998

  • N. Kuster, Q. Balzano, James C. Lin - Mobile Communications Safety, Springer Science & Business Media, 6 Dec 2012