Electricity sector in Finland

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Nuclear power in Finland is a major source of electricity. A third reactor is under construction in Olkiluoto, with a fourth reactor planned. A third plant in Pyhäjoki is also approved and in planning.

The electricity sector in Finland relies on nuclear power, forest industry black liquor and wood consumption, cogeneration and electricity import from neighboring countries. In 2008 the consumption of electricity in Finland was 17 036 kWh/person. The European union (15) average was 7 409 kWh/person.[1] According to the Finnish Minister of Finance Jyrki Katainen the consumption of electricity will increase in Finland after 2010.[2] Co-generation of heat and electricity for industry process heat and district heating is common in Finland.

Consumption and import[edit]

Industry was the majority consumer of electricity between 1990 and 2005 with 52-54% of total consumption. The forest industry alone consumed 30-32%.[3]

Between 2000 and 2006, up to 7 TWh per year was imported from Sweden and up to 11.5 TWh from Russia. Net imports during this time varied between 7 TWh to Sweden and 7 TWh from Sweden, and 4 to 11 TWh from Russia. Since 2007, some electricity has also been imported from Estonia.[4]

In 2012, most of the imports were from Sweden (14.4 TWh net import) with Russia also contributing to the net imbalance (4.4 TWh import only), while exports to Estonia were larger than imports (1.1 TWh net export).[5]

Electricity in Finland TWh [5][6]
Year Consumption Production Netimport
2000 79 67 12
2001 81 71 10
2002 84 72 12
2003 85 80 5
2004 87 82 5
2005 85 68 17
2006 90 79 11
2007 90 78 13
2008 87 74 13
2009 81 69 12
2010 88 77 11
2011 84 70 14
2012 85 67 18

Electricity per person and by power source[edit]

Electricity per person in Finland (kWh/ hab.)[7]
Use Production Import Import % Fossil Nuclear Nuc. % Other RE Bio+waste Wind Non RE use* RE %*
2004 17,346 16,409 937 5.4% 7,061 4,344 25.0% 2,954 2,050 12,342 28.8%
2005 16,674 13,436 3,238 19.4% 4,459 4,432 26.6% 2,705 1,840 12,129 27.3%
2006 17,782 15,410 2,372 13.3% 6,135 4,444 25.0% 2,803 2,028 12,951 27.2%
2008 17,036 14,612 2,424 14.2% 5,182 4,345 25.5% 3,356 1,727 11,953 29.8%
2009 15,698 13,428 2,270 14.5% 4,822 4,409 28.1% 2,477* 1,670 56* 11,495 26.8%
* Other RE is waterpower, solar and geothermal electricity and windpower until 2008
* Non RE use = use – production of renewable electricity
RE % = (production of RE / use) * 100% Note: EU calculates the share of renewable energies in gross electrical consumption.

Capacity[edit]

The capacity of power stations in Finland was 12.9 GW in 2009 and 13.7 GW in 2005. The capacity of power stations in Sweden was 28.8 GW in 2009 and 27.9 GW in 2005.[8] There is a new nuclear reactor (European Pressurized Water Reactor) under construction in Olkiluoto. The Areva/Siemens contract was scheduled for delivery in 2009, with commercial production beginning in 2010. As of March 2015, the station remains under construction, with eventual production use most recently planned for 2018.[9]

Mode of production[edit]

Electricity by mode of production (%)[10]
Year Nuclear Hydro Gas Coal Wood Peat Oil Wind Other Net import
2008 25.3% 19.4% 12.3% 9.1% 10.8% 5.6% 0.7% 0.3% 1.3% 14.6%
2009 27.8% 15.5% 11.7% 12.8% 9.7% 5.1% 0.6% 0.3% 1.1% 14.9%
2010 25.0% 14.5% 12.5% 15.5% 11.4% 6.7% 0.5% 0.3% 1.3% 12.0%
2011 26.4% 14.6% 10.9% 10.8% 12.0% 6.0% 0.5% 0.6% 1.2% 16.4%
2012 25.9% 19.6% 7.7% 7.8% 11.8% 4.0% 0.3% 0.6% 1.3% 20.5%
2013 27.0% 15.1% 7.9% 11.9% 12.8% 3.5% 0.2% 0.9% 1.4% 18.7%
2014 27.1% 15.9% 6.5% 8.9% 12.6% 3.8% 0.2% 1.3% 1.5% 21.5%
2015 27.2% 20.1% 6.2% 5.8% 12.3% 3.5% 0.2% 2.8% 1.8% 19.8%

Fossil fuels[edit]

Except for peat, which is variously classed as either a fossil fuel or a slow-renewable fuel, Finland imports all the fossil fuels used for electricity production. Coal and natural gas account for most of the production, with some oil generators acting mostly as reserve. The use of fossil fuels has fallen from highs over 30% in 2003-2004 to 20% or below in 2012-2014. This is largely a consequence of cheap imported electricity, although domestic renewables have also increased in their share of production. [10]

Nuclear power[edit]

As of 2008, Finland's nuclear power program has four nuclear reactors in two power plants. The first of these came into operation in 1977. In 2009 nuclear power stations produced 22 TWh electricity which was 28% of total electricity consumption 81 TWh.[11]

Finland would have had one of the highest - or the highest - per capita nuclear electricity production in the world (7,050 kWh/year; 45%) in 2009, if the new reactor had been ready as scheduled. In 2009, other nations' per capita nuclear electricity production were France 6,371 kWh/year, Sweden 5,382 kWh/year, USA 2,699 kWh/year, Japan 2,198 kWh/year, and UK 1,120 kWh/year.[12]

Areva/Siemens estimate the new 1,600MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor in Olkiluoto will start in 2013. The construction would be 8 years (2005-2013) instead of 4 years (2005-2009). The nuclear capacity was 2,671 MW on 1 January 2006. With the new reactor, combined capacity will be over 4.2GW.[13] This will increase nuclear electricity production by 60%.

In 2010, the Finnish parliament gave permission for two more new nuclear reactors. Further, in March 2011, many politicians favored renewing the licenses for two old ones.

The Finnish company Fortum owns 45.5% of Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant and 22% Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden. In 2004, Fortum produced 17.9% of Swedish nuclear electricity (13.4 TWh / 75 TWh).[14]

Fortum owns 25.7% of the Russian nuclear power company Polyarnye Zori as a partner of TGK-1.[15]

In 2009, Finland imported nuclear fuel from Sweden (40%), Russia (18%), Germany (2%) and other countries (40%).[16] In 2006 the other country source of nuclear fuel was Spain.[17] Both Sweden and Spain intend to phase out nuclear power. This may impact the nuclear power fuel availability and price in Finland. Swedish people voted for phase-out of nuclear power plants on 23 March 1980.

Talvivaara Mining Company applied for uranium mining permission on 20 April 2010.[18] This was the first uranium application in the history of Finland. According to the Ministry of Trade, the EIA process on the application would run until 31 March 2011. However, on 31 March, the application was supplemented.[18] In February 2011, Talvivaara sold its uranium mining rights through 2027 to the Canadian company Cameco.[19]

Renewable energy[edit]

Between 2005-2014, Finland produced 25-30% of electricity as a percentage of demand from renewable energy. The largest source is hydropower (15-20%) which fluctuates yearly depending on rainfall, causing the share of renewable generation to also vary. Other major sources are wood-based energy resources like black liquor from the forest industry, accounting for approximately 12% on average. In recent years wind power (see below) has also gained a foothold. [10][20]

Wind power[edit]

In 2015, Finland covered 2.8% of its electricity demand with wind power production, up from 1.3% the previous year.[21][22] As of September 2016, the record peak was 1.2 GW on August 27, when domestic wind power covered 14% of the hourly electricity demand.[23]

EU, Finland and Sweden Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[24][25][26][27][28][29][30]
Country 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
EU-27 141,158 128,751 117,289 106,454 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
Finland 1001 627 448 288 199 197 147 142 109 86 82 82 52 43 39 38 38 17
Sweden 6025 5,425 4,470 3,582 2,769 2,004 1,444 1,085 832 583 493 452 404 345 295 241 220 178

In 2014 Finnish state was planning to reduce local municipal income from wind power by taking half of the tax income to the state (tax of real estate). This is suggested since state is afraid that the wind power market is overheated in Finland in 2014. There is in total 448 MW wind power in start of 2014. The reduced tax is aimed to low interest in wind power investments in the municipalities.[31] According to MTV News the wind power industry protested saying that the national wind power targets will unlikely be achieved. The Finnish permit system is also much more complicated than in Sweden. Historically the renewable energy targets in Finland has never been achieved.

In 2013 Sweden added new wind power capacity twice the volume Finland has in total.

Finnish Defence Forces have prevented wind power initiatives in eastern Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia due to interference with radar control.[32]

Companies[edit]

Nord Pool Spot is the power market for Norway, Denmark, Estonia, Sweden and Finland. The electric producers in Finland include: Fortum, Pohjolan Voima, Teollisuuden Voima and Helsingin Energia.

Transmission[edit]

Fingrid Oyj is a Finnish national electricity transmission grid operator.

Politics[edit]

In 2016 there has been renewed discussion about Finland's energy policy. Finland imports over 20% of the electricity used at peak usage. For example, in the hour between 17-18 on January 7, 2016, during a period of extreme cold, Finland imported 4,300 MW (28.5%) out of a record 15,100 MW of total usage (average over 1 hour).[33] The delays in the construction of the third reactor at the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant (est. 1,600 MWe when completed), which was projected to be operating commercially by 2010 but is now being estimated to be completed no earlier than 2018, have caused a significant domestic energy production deficit. A consortium of Finnish industry and power companies called Fennovoima has applied and been granted a permission to build another new nuclear power plant, delivered by Russia's Rosatom, which also has a 1/3 stake on the power plant. This has caused some concern among observers about Russia being able to manipulate Nordic electricity prices or use the power plant as a leverage in conflict situations. The plant is estimated to be operational by 2024 and projected to produce 1,200 MW of electricity.

The government of Finland has attempted to decrease the dependency on Russian energy by investing heavily in wind power, solar power and efficient energy use, but these measures have hardly been effective.[34] The Finnish Security Intelligence Service (Supo) indicated in 2016 that foreign intelligence activity in Finland was aimed at influencing decision-making in energy policy.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Energiläget i siffror 2009 Archived January 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Table 25: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source, 2008, kWh/person, Energimyndigheten Sweden
  2. ^ Helsingin Sanomat 26.4.2010 C8
  3. ^ Statistic 3.1, Year book 2006, Tilastokeskus
  4. ^ Energia, tilastokeskus, T3.01 Electricity import and export by country (Sähkön tuonti ja vienti maittain)
  5. ^ a b "Vuosikertomus 2012". Fingrid. p. 27. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  6. ^ Energiaennakko 2009 Tilastokeskus 2010
  7. ^ Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures Energiläget i siffror ,The Swedish Energy Agency, Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source, (kWh/person) Source: IEA/OECD 2006 T23 Archived July 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., 2007 T25 Archived July 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., 2008 T26 Archived July 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. 2009 T25 Archived January 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. and 2010 T49 Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Preliminary Energy Statistics 2009 Finnish statistical center 24.3.2010, Table 3.4 Available Electricity Capacity in Nordic Countries
  9. ^ "Olkiluoto 3 startup pushed back to 2018". 
  10. ^ a b c "Production and total consumption of electricity, GWh by Source, Year and Data". Retrieved 2016-09-14. 
  11. ^ Preliminary Energy Statistics 2009 T3.1 Production and total consumption of electricity
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2011-03-23.  Table 49
  13. ^ Capacity for Competition, Investing for an Efficient Nordic Electricity Market Report The Nordic competition authorities 1/2007; Capacity and electricity consumption page 58
  14. ^ Ägarstrukturen på elmarknaden Vem äger vad på den svenska elmarknaden? Energimarknadsinspektionen 5/2006
  15. ^ Kuolassa riittäisi sähköä myyntiinkin Jukka Lehtinen, Tekniikka & Talous 18.5.2006
  16. ^ Table 5.3: Energy imports and value by country of origin in 2008
  17. ^ Energy statistics in Finland, table 10.3 Energy Imports by Country of Origin 2006
  18. ^ a b TEM Uraanintuotanto Talvivaarasta
  19. ^ Lupahakemuksen täydennys, Talvivaara Sotkamo Oy, 31.3.2011
  20. ^ Preliminary Energy Statistics 2009 Finnish statistical center 24.3.2010, (Energiaennakko 2009 - taulukot Excel), Electricity T3.1
  21. ^ Suomen Tuulivoimayhdistys ry (2015-01-21). "Yli miljardi kWh – kotimainen tuulivoima merkittävään rooliin vuonna 2014". Retrieved 2015-02-20. 
  22. ^ Suomen Tuulivoimayhdistys ry (2016-01-20). "Ennätyksellinen tuulivoimavuosi 2015 - tuplattu tuotanto ja jätti-investoinnit". Retrieved 2016-09-14. 
  23. ^ "Tuulivoimatuotanto ylitti ensi kertaa 1000 megawatin rajan". Fingrid. 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  24. ^ EWEA Staff (2010). "Cumulative installed capacity per EU Member State 1998 - 2009 (MW)". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  25. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2011). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2010" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  26. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2012). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2011" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  27. ^ Wind in power: 2012 European statistics February 2013
  28. ^ VTT (2010)
  29. ^ 2013
  30. ^ "Wind in power 2015 European statistics" (PDF). February 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.  line feed character in |title= at position 14 (help)
  31. ^ Tuulivoimalakuntien verotuloja aiotaan leikata Helsingin Sanomat 19.2.2014 A13
  32. ^ Simo sai jättimäiset tuulivoimalat HS 3.4.2014 A10
  33. ^ "Sähkönkulutus nousi ensimmäistä kertaa yli 15 000 MW:n 7.1.2016". Fingrid. Fingrid. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016. 
  34. ^ Korhola, Eija-Riitta (20 January 2016). "Kyllä Siperia lopettaa". Levottomia ajatuksia jäsennellysti. Uusi Suomi Puheenvuoro. Retrieved 21 January 2016. 
  35. ^ Palomaa, Antti (25 April 2016). "Supo: Ulkomainen tiedustelu pyrki vaikuttamaan Suomen energiapolitiikkaan". Yle Uutiset. Yle. Retrieved 25 April 2016.