Electricity sector in Hong Kong

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Hong Kong being lit up at night

Electricity sector in Hong Kong ranges from generation, transmission, distribution and sales of electricity covering Hong Kong. There are two main providers of electricity in Hong Kong.

Companies[edit]

CLP Group ex-headquarter

Power generation in Hong Kong is managed by two major companies under a Scheme of Control arrangement with the Hong Kong Government.[1] These companies effectively operate in a regulated market.

Hongkong Electric Company[edit]

The Hongkong Electric Company (HEC; Chinese: 香港電燈有限公司) was founded on 1 December 1890 in British Hong Kong.[2] HEC's supply area includes Hong Kong Island and Lamma Island.

HEC owns and operates:

CLP Power Hong Kong Limited[edit]

The CLP Power Hong Kong Limited (CLP; Chinese: 中華電力有限公司) under the CLP Group was founded on 25 January 1901 as China Light & Power Company Syndicate in British Hong Kong. CLP's supply area includes Kowloon, New Territories and outlying islands except Lamma Island.

CLP owns the following power stations in Hong Kong territory under a joint-venture company Castle Peak Power Company Limited (CAPCO) with China Southern Power Grid International (HK) Co., Limited.

CLP also owns 25% shares of the Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station and wholly owns Guangzhou Pumped Storage Power Station in Conghua.[3]

Generation[edit]

Fuel[edit]

In 2012, Hong Kong relied on coal (53%), nuclear (23%), natural gas (22%) and a very small amount (2%) of renewable energy for its electricity generation.[4] As coal-firing generation units start to retire in 2017,[4] the Government plans to raise the share of natural gas to 50% in 2020 while maintaining the share of nuclear power at present levels.[5]

Power stations in Hong Kong[edit]

Castle Peak Power Station, Tuen Mun, the largest power station in Hong Kong

Hong Kong has currently 5 power stations, supplying 77% of its electricity needs.[6]

Black Point Power Station

Commissioned in 1996, the Black Point Power Station is a gas-fired power station located in Yung Long, Tuen Mun in the New Territories. It is the largest gas-fired power station in Hong Kong with an installed generation capacity of 2,500MW.

Castle Peak Power Station

Commissioned in 1982, the Castle Peak Power Station is a coal-fired power station located Tap Shek Kok, Tuen Mun in the New Territories. It is the largest power station in Hong Kong with an installed generation capacity of 4,108MW.

Lamma Power Station

Commissioned in 1982, the Lamma Power Station is a coal-fired power station located on Po Lo Tsui, Lamma Island in Islands District. It is the second largest power station in Hong Kong at an installed generation capacity of 3,736MW.[7]

Lamma Winds Power Station

Commissioned in 2006, the Lamma Winds Power Station is a wind turbine located on Lamma Island in Islands District. It is the only industrial-sized wind turbine in Hong Kong with an installed generation capacity of 800kW.

Penny's Bay Power Station

Commissioned in 1992, the Penny's Bay Power Station is a diesel-fired gas turbine power station located at Penny's Bay on Lantau Island. It is peaking power station with an installed generation capacity of 300MW.

Interconnection with China[edit]

Hong Kong electrical grid is interconnected with the China Southern Power Grid of Mainland China. Hong Kong imports 23% of its total electricity needs from generating facilities with CLP's equity situated in the mainland. These include a contractual agreement of 70% electricity output from the 2 x 944 MW Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and some peaking power/pumping load from Guangzhou Pumped Storage Power Station in Conghua.[3][6] Recently, CLP said that it would buy 10% more nuclear power from Daya Bay Plant, increasing the share to 80% of the plant's output capacity. But with the increasing electricity demand in southern China, it will be difficult for CLP to acquire 100% of the plant's output capacity.[8]

Transmission[edit]

Transmission line in Tai Po suburbs
Sheung Wan Zone Substation

HEC transmits electricity on Hong Kong Island at 275kV and 132kV voltage level to various load centers, in which the network consists mainly of underground and submarine cable. The network is owned and operated by HEC. There are only few remaining 132kV overhead lines in the system. The use of underground cable was chosen because it is ideal for a densely populated area like Hong Kong, and to ensure supply reliability even in bad weather, such as during typhoon.

There are also 6 dedicated cable tunnels to accommodate some of the 275kV fluid-filled cable circuits in Hong Kong Island and Lamma Island.[9] In most of the load centres, the voltage is being stepped down to 22 kV or 11 kV for distribution purpose.[10]

CLP transmits electricity in Kowloon and New Territories at 400kV and 132kV voltage level. These transmission networks consist mainly of overhead lines. The network is owned and operated by CLP Power. In most of the load centres, the voltage is stepped down to 11kV for distribution.

Transmission networks of CLP Power and HEC are interconnected by three 132kV submarine circuits from Hung Hom to North Point for emergency support but no economy power interchange is normally scheduled.

CLP's 400kV transmission network is also interconnected with the 500kV China Southern Power Grid in Guangdong Province.

Distribution[edit]

Overhead distribution line in Lamma Island
kWh meters in Hong Kong

Electricity is distributed at 22kV and 11kV voltage level to over 3,800 distribution substations on HEC side. CLP distributes power mainly at 11kV level. Voltage is further stepped down to 380V three-phase or 220V single-phase and supplied through low voltage cables to customers.

Control centre[edit]

The system control center located at Ap Lei Chau monitors and controls all of the switching in HEC's distribution substations remotely. CLP has its system control centre in Tai Po district.

Consumption[edit]

In 2013, 153362TJ (42.6TWh) of electricity was consumed, accounting for 54% of total energy consumption in Hong Kong. Electricity usage based on industry in Hong Kong are 66% (commercial), 26% (residential), 6% (industrial) and 2% (transportation).[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.enb.gov.hk/en/resources_publications/agreement/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ "Electricity Generation". HK Electric. 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2014-04-21. 
  3. ^ a b "立法會Legislative Council LC Paper No. CB(2)767/10-11(02) Ref : CB2/PL/SE Panel on Security" (PDF). 11 January 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  4. ^ a b Hong Kong Environment Bureau (March 2015). Report on the Public Consultation on Future Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation in Hong Kong (PDF) (Report). p. 1. Retrieved 2015-12-11. In 2012, coal dominated the overall fuel mix in Hong Kong (53%), followed by nuclear electricity imported from the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DBNPS) in the Mainland (23%), natural gas (22%), and oil and renewable energy (RE) (2%) ... existing coal-fired generating units start to retire from 2017 
  5. ^ "Public Consultation on Future Development of Electricity Market launched" (Press release). Hong Kong. Hong Kong Environment Bureau. 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2015-12-11. Having considered the public's views, the Government plans to increase the percentage of natural gas generation to around 50 per cent in 2020 ... nuclear import would account for around 25 per cent of the total fuel mix. 
  6. ^ a b "Hong Kong Needs ‘Dedicated Nuclear’ From China, Says Society". nucnet.org. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  7. ^ "Lamma Power Station Extension". HK Electric. 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2014-04-21. 
  8. ^ William Yu (2014-03-31). "Hong Kong will gain from a more diversified energy portfolio | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Retrieved 2014-04-21. 
  9. ^ "Cable Tunnels 電纜隧道" (PDF). 24 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  10. ^ "Transmission & Distribution". HK Electric. 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2014-04-21. 
  11. ^ "香港能源最終用途數據 Hong Kong Energy End-use Data 2015" (PDF). Sep 2015. Retrieved 2016-05-20. 

Further reading[edit]