Electricity sector in Pakistan

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Electricity generation in kalaam, swat

Electricity in Pakistan (Urdu: بجلی‎) is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 42 independent power producers (IPPs) that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.

History[edit]

Pakistan electricity sector is a developing market. For years, the matter of balancing the country's supply against the demand for electricity had remained a largely unresolved matter. The country faced significant challenges in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Electricity generators were seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors indicating it to be one of the key issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country was facing growing shortages. Other problems included lack of efficiency, rising demands for energy, and political instability.[1] Provincial and federal agencies, who are the largest consumers, often do not pay their bills.[2] At one point electricity generation had shrunk by up to 50% due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels.[3] The country was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit.[4] Load Shedding and power blackouts had become severe in Pakistan before 2016.[5]

Economic Survey 2017-18 unfolds that Pakistan's installed capacity to generate electricity has surged up to 29,573MW by February 2018 which stood at 22,812MW in June 2013, showing the growth of 30 percent.[6]

Installed capacity[edit]

Pakistan's installed capacity to generate electricity has surged up to 33,836 MW by February 2019 which stood at 23,337 MW in 2014, showing the growth of 45 percent in five years.

Thermal[edit]

Station Location Coordinates Capacity (MW) In-service Date Notes Refs
Kot Addu Power Company Kot Addu, Punjab 1,600 Multi Fuel-Fired Thermal Station.
Hub Power Company Hub, Balochistan 24°54′21″N 66°41′41″E / 24.9057°N 66.6946°E / 24.9057; 66.6946 (Hub River) 1,292 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Hubco Narowal Power Plant Narowal, Punjab 32.059067, 74.781222, 225 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Nishat Power Ltd Lahore, Punjab 31.122560, 73.905405 200 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Nishat Chunian Power Ltd Lahore, Punjab 200 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Saba Power Company Ltd Sheikhupura, Punjab 31.733013, 73.873654 125 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Southern Electric Power Company Ltd Raiwind, Lahore 31.291388, 74.249188 136 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Tapal Energy Ltd Karachi, Sindh 24.999713, 66.906860 126 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Japan Power Generation Pvt Ltd Raiwind, Punjab 31.325566, 74.262225 135 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Kohinoor Energy Ltd Lahore, Punjab 31.263200, 74.187321 131 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Liberty Power Tech Faisalabad, Punjab 200 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
AES Lal Pir Power Muzaffargarh, Punjab 30°06′19″N 71°09′49″E / 30.10528°N 71.16361°E / 30.10528; 71.16361 (AES Lalpir) 362 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
AES PakGen Muzaffargarh, Punjab 30°06′19″N 71°09′49″E / 30.10528°N 71.16361°E / 30.10528; 71.16361 (AES PakGen) 365 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Attock Gen Ltd Rawalpindi, Punjab 165 Furnace Oil Fired Plant.
Jamshoro Power Station Jamshoro, Sindh 25°28′20″N 68°15′58″E / 25.47222°N 68.26611°E / 25.47222; 68.26611 (Jamshoro Power Station) 850 Oil and Natural Gas-Fired Thermal Station.
Bin Qasim Power Plant I Karachi, Sindh 24.785546, 67.358929 1,260 Oil and Natural Gas-Fired Thermal Station
Sitara Energy Ltd Faisalabad, Punjab 31.533111, 73.393330 85 Diesel and Natural Gas Fired Plant.
Saif Power Ltd Sahiwal, Punjab 30.696164, 73.260541 225 Diesel and Natural Gas Fired Plant.
Attock Refinery Ltd Rawalpindi, Punjab 33.5575853,73.0766997 18 Heavy Fuel Oil
Atlas Power Ltd Sheikhpura, Punjab 225 Heavy Fuel Oil

Natural Gas[edit]

Station Location Coordinates Capacity (MW) In-service Date Notes Refs
Guddo Thermal Power Plant Guddu, Sindh 28°25′38″N 69°41′49″E / 28.42722°N 69.69694°E / 28.42722; 69.69694 (Jamshoro Power Station) 2,402 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Fauji Foundation Power Company Daharki Ltd Daharki, Sindh 27.985137, 69.673544 185 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Uch-I, II Power Plant Dera Murad Jamali, Balochistan 28.582798, 68.171539 1000 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Nandipur Power Project Gujranwala, Punjab 32.245294, 74.270007 425 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Habibullah Coastal Power Pvt Company Quetta, Balochistan 140 Combined Cycle Power Plant
WAPDA Quetta Thermal Power Station Quetta, Balochistan 30°26′38″N 66°59′49″E / 30.44389°N 66.99694°E / 30.44389; 66.99694 (Quetta Thermal Power Station) 35 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Liberty Power Project Daharki, Sindh 235 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Rousch (Pakistan) Power Limited Abdul Hakeem, Pakistan, Punjab 30°34′06″N 72°08′24″E / 30.56833°N 72.14000°E / 30.56833; 72.14000 (Rousch (Pakistan) Power Limited) 450 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Engro Powergen Qadirpur Ltd Ghotki, Sindh 28°01′37″N 69°21′47″E / 28.02694°N 69.36306°E / 28.02694; 69.36306 (Engro Powergen) 227 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Halmore Power Generation Company Ltd Sheikhupura, Punjab 225 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Orient Power Company Ltd Kasur, Punjab 229 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Saif Power Limited Sahiwal, Punjab 229 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Bin Qasim Power Plant II Karachi, Sindh 24.781873, 67.359767 560 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Fauji Kabirwala Power Company Kabirwala, Punjab 30.524865, 71.954946 157 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Sapphire Electric Company Ltd Muridke, Punjab 234 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Sindh Nooriabad Power Company Pvt Ltd Jamshoro, Sindh 100 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Haveli Bahadur Shah Power Plant Jhang, Punjab 1,230 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Bhikki RLNG-based Power Project Sheikhupura, Punjab 1,180 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Balloki Power Plant Balloki, Punjab 1,223 Combined Cycle Power Plant
Altern Energy Ltd Fateh Jang, Punjab 32 Combined Cycle Power Plant

Coal[edit]

Station Location Capacity (MW) Status
Lakhra Power Plant Jamshoro, Sindh 150 Operational.
Sitara Chemical Industries Ltd Faisalabad, Punjab 40 Operational since 2016.
Fauji Fertilizer Power Plant Karachi, Sindh 118 Operational since 2017.
Sahiwal Coal Power Project Sahiwal, Punjab 1320 Operational since 2017.
Maple Leaf Power Ltd Mianwali, Punjab 40 Operational since 2017.
Port Qasim Coal Power Project Karachi, Sindh 1320 Operational since 2017.
DG Cement Coal Power Project DG Khan, Punjab 30 Operational since 2017.
Hub Coal Power Project Hub, Balochistan 1320 Operational since 2018.
Engro Powergen Thar Pvt Ltd Tharparkar, Sindh 660 Operational since 2019.

Hydroelectricity[edit]

Pakistan produced 8250 MW of hydropower in 2018 and by 2040, when under construction hydropower projects are completed, this will increase to 29000 MW.

Station Community Location Capacity (MW) In-Service Date Status
Tarbela Dam Tarbela, KPK 34°05′23″N 72°41′54″E / 34.08972°N 72.69833°E / 34.08972; 72.69833 (Mangla Dam) 4,888 1974 Operational.
Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project Attock, Punjab 33°46′48″N 72°15′35″E / 33.78000°N 72.25972°E / 33.78000; 72.25972 (Ghazi Barotha Dam) 1,450 2002 Operational.
Mangla Dam Mirpur, Azad Kashmir 33°08′31″N 73°38′42″E / 33.14194°N 73.64500°E / 33.14194; 73.64500 (Mangla Dam) 1,150 1967 Mangla Refurbishment Project is under construction wherein the generating units of Mangla Hydel Power Station will be refurbished by closing down one tunnel (two generating units) at a time. First two units will be refurbished by December 2018, the next two by December 2019 and the other two by December 2020.Refurbishment of all the 10 generating units will be completed by the year 2024. After undergoing refurbishment project is completed capacity will increase by another 310 MW.
Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir 34°23′34″N 73°43′08″E / 34.39278°N 73.71889°E / 34.39278; 73.71889 (Neelum-Jhelum) 969 2018 Operational. The Plant has been producing 1040 MW beyond its capacity, a rare precedence in hydel power sector.[7]
Warsak Dam Peshawar, KPK 34°09′50″N 71°21′29″E / 34.16389°N 71.35806°E / 34.16389; 71.35806 (Warsak Dam) 243 1960 Operational. Extension and rehabilitation is being planned. The total cost of the rehabilitation project €162 million is being co-financed with the KfW (€40 million), EIB (€4.5 million), AFD (€41.5 million) and Pakistan government contributions.
Chashma Barrage Chashma, Punjab 184 2001 Operational.
Patrind Hydropower Plant Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir 147 2017 Operational.
Duber Khwar Hydropower Project Kohistan, KPK 130 2013 Operational.
Allai Khwar Hydropower Project Mansehra, KPK 121 2013 Operational.
Golen Gol Hydropower Project Chitral, KPK 108 2018 Operational.
Jinnah hydropower project Jinnah Barrage, Punjab 96 2013 Operational.
New Bong Escape Hydropower Plant Mirpur, Azad Kashmir 84 2013 Operational.
Malakand-III Hydropower Project Malakand, KPK 81 2008 Operational.
Khan Khwar Hydropower Project Shangla, KPK 72 2013 Operational.
Daral Khwar Hydropower Plant Swat District, KPK 36.6 2018 Operational.
Jagran-I Dam Neelum, Azad Kashmir 34°36′1.52″N 73°45′44.20″E / 34.6004222°N 73.7622778°E / 34.6004222; 73.7622778 (Jagran-I HPP) 30.4 2000 Operational.
Rasul Barrage Hydropower Project Mandi Bahauddin, Punjab 32°40′49″N 73°31′15″E / 32.68028°N 73.52083°E / 32.68028; 73.52083 (Rasul Dam) 22 1952 Operational.
Jabban Hydropower Plant Malakand, KPK 22 1935 Operational.
Dargai Hydropower Plant Malakand, KPK 20 1953 Operational.
Naltar-IV Hydropower Plant Naltar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 18 2007 Operational.
Gomal Zam Dam South Waziristan 17.4 2013 Operational.
Satpara Dam Skardu 17.3 2012 Operational.
Ranolia Hydropower Plant Kohistan, KPK 17 2016 Operational.
Naltar-V Hydropower Project Naltar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 14.4 2016 Operational.
Nandipur Hydropower Plant Gujranwala, Punjab 13.8 1963 Operational.
Shadiwal Hydropower Plant Shadiwal Warriach, Punjab 13.5 1961 Operational.
Chichonki Malian Hydropower Plant Sheikhupura, Punjab 13.2 1959 Operational.
Marala Hydropower Project Sialkot, Punjab 7.64 2018 Operational.
Reshun Dam Chitral 4.5 1991 Operational.
Kurram Garhi Hydropower Plant Kurram Garhi, KPK 4 1958 Operational.
Nalter-II Hydropower Project Naltar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 2.28 Operational.
Renala Khurd Hydropower Plant Renala Khurd, Punjab 1.1 1925 Operational.
Darawat Dam Jamshoro, Sindh 0.5 2014 Operational.
Machai Hydropower Plant Mardan, KPK 2.6 2017 Operational.
Chashma Dam Chashma, Punjab 1.2 2000 Operational.
Kathai Dam Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir 3.2 1995 Operational.
Kundal Shahi Hydropower Project Neelam Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 2 1992 Operational.
Kel Htdropower Project Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir 0.45 Operational.
Leepa Dam Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir 2 Operational.
Pehur Dam Pehur, KPK 18 2012 Operational.
Sishi Dam Chitral, KPK 2 Operational.
Singul Dam Gilgit-Baltistan 1.2 Operational.
Bubind Dam Astore 0.64 Operational.
Gilgit Dam Gilgit-Baltistan 10.63 Operational.
Skardu-I Dam Skardu 6.96 Operational.
Skardu-II, III Dams Skardu 1.64 Operational.
Chilas-I Dam Chilas 5.62 Operational.
Hunza Dam Hunza Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 5.13 Operational.
Shyok Dam Shyok Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 4.85 Operational.
Astore Dam Astore 3.11 Operational.
Kachura-II Dam Skardu 3 Operational.
Ghizar Dam Ghizer District, Gilgit-Baltistan 2 Operational.
Thak Dam Chilas 2.00 Operational.
Phandar Dam Ghizer District, Gilgit-Baltistan 2 Operational.
Bordas Dam Ghanche 2 Operational.
Kharmang Dam Kharmang Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 1.89 Operational.
Yasin Dam Ghizer District, Gilgit-Baltistan 1.61 Operational.
Bunnar Chilas Dam Diamer District, Gilgit-Baltistan 1.5 Operational.
Roundu Dam Roundu Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 1.52 Operational.
Kar Gah-I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII Hydropower Project Gilgit-Baltistan 13.34 Operational.
Jaglot-I, II Hydodropower Project Jaglot 1.32 Operational.
Darel-I, II Dams Ghanche 1.2 Operational.
Dunsam power station Ghanche, Gilgit-Baltistan
Boladas-I Dam Hunza Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan 0.64 Operational.
Khunjerab Dam Gujrab River 0.59 Operational.
Gol Dam Skardu 0.4 Operational.
Harpo-I, Harchu, Dainyor, Gurikot, Kayo, Dango Das Hydropower Project Gilgit-Baltistan 2 Operational.
Manthoka, Astore, Gulmit, Tolti-I, Khaplu-I, Kachura-I, Darel Hydropower Project Gilgit-Baltistan 1.5 Operational.
Khaibar-I, II, Mushki, Rattu, Misgar, Ghandus, Kiris-I, Thally-I, Mendi, Stak Hydropower Project Gilgit-Baltistan 4.85 Operational.
Tangir-I, Chillas-II, Hayul, Khaplu-I, Sumayar-I, Mehdabad, Nomal, Pari Hydropower Project Gilgit-Baltistan 1.5 Operational.
[[Jaglot Sai, Sermik-I, Olding-I, Thore, Minapin-I, Ahmadabad-I, II, Chalt-I, Sosat Hydropower, Jalalabad, Tangir Dam, Bunner, Parishing/Louse, Shirting, Sher Qila, Shigar , Khyber-I, Khyber-II, Chalt, Naz Bar, Hisper-I, Haramosh, Tormik-I, Basho-I, Sermik, Pion, Chitral Hydel, Jari, Machai]] Gilgit-Baltistan 1 Operational.
Hasanabad-I, II, III, IV, V Dams Hunza Valley 2 Operational.
Dumsum Dam Gah 1.5 Operational.
Balagond Dam Gah 1.5 Operational.
Ishkuman-I, II Dams Ishkuman 2.38 Operational.
Ashuran Dam 1.2 Operational.
Thall Dam 0.4 Operational.
Bumborat, Rashang HPP, Matta HPP, Shishi, Karora, Kalam HPP, Keyal, Kaghan, Duber, Jalkot, Gram Chashma, Damori, Keel, Pattika, Chinari, Serai, Kumrat HPPs Various Locations in KPK 2.2 Operational.

Nuclear[edit]

Station Community Location Capacity (MW) Status
(KANUPP-1) Karachi, Sindh 24°50′41″N 66°47′20″E / 24.84472°N 66.78889°E / 24.84472; 66.78889 (Karachi Nuclear Power Plant) 85 Operational since 1972.
(CHASNUPP-1) Mianwali, Punjab 32°23′20″N 71°27′45.5″E / 32.38889°N 71.462639°E / 32.38889; 71.462639 (Chashma Nuclear Power Plant) 320 Operational since 2000.
(CHASNUPP-2) Mianwali, Punjab 32°23′20″N 71°27′45.5″E / 32.38889°N 71.462639°E / 32.38889; 71.462639 (Chashma Nuclear Power Plant) 320 Operational since 2011.
(CHASNUPP-3) Mianwali, Punjab 32°23′20″N 71°27′45.5″E / 32.38889°N 71.462639°E / 32.38889; 71.462639 (Chashma Nuclear Power Plant) 340 Operational since 2016.
(CHASNUPP-4) Mianwali, Punjab 32°23′20″N 71°27′45.5″E / 32.38889°N 71.462639°E / 32.38889; 71.462639 (Chashma Nuclear Power Plant) 340 Operational since 2017.

Wind Power[edit]

Station Community Location Capacity (MW) Status
Jhimpir Wind Power Plant Jhimpir, Sindh 56.4 Operational since 2009.
Jhimpir Wind Energy Project Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2012.
FFC Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2013.
Three Gorges First Wind Farm Pakistan Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2014.
Foundation Wind Energy–I & II Pvt Ltd Gharo, Sindh 100 Operational since 2015.
Sapphire Wind Power Pvt Ltd Gharo, Sindh 52.8 Operational since 2015.
Yunus Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2016.
Metro Wind Power Co Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2016.
Tenaga Generai Ltd Gharo, Sindh 50 Operational since 2016.
Gul Ahmed Wind Power Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2016.
Master Wind Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 52.8 Operational since 2016.
Zorlu Enerji Pakistan Jhimpir, Sindh 56.4 Operational since 2016.
Tapal Wind Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 30 Operational since 2016.
HydroChina Dawood Power Ltd Gharo, Sindh 50 Operational since 2017.
Sachal Energy Wind Farm Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2017.
United Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 100 Operational since 2017.
Hawa Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2018.
Burj Capital Jhimpir Project Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since 2018.
Three Gorges Second Wind Farm Pakistan Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 100 Operational since 2018.
Tricon Boston Corporation Jhimpir, Sindh 150 Operational since 2018.
Zephyr Power Ltd Gharo, Sindh 50 Operational since 2019.

Solar Power[edit]

Station Community Location Capacity (MW) Status
Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park Bahawalpur, Punjab 400 Operational since 2016.
Harappa Solar Pvt Ltd Sahiwal, Punjab 18 Operational since 2018.
Bukhsh Solar Pvt Ltd Lodhran, Punjab 10 Under construction. To be operational by Mar 2018.[8]

Electricity generation[9][edit]

  • Electricity – generation: 123.25 GWh (2017)
  • Electricity – generation by source (2019)
    • Furnace oil: 14% of total
    • Natural gas: 31% of total
    • Coal: 16% of total
    • Hydroelectric: 29% of total
    • Nuclear: 4% of total
    • Renewable (Solar & Wind) : 5% of total
    • Others(Bagasse, Waste Heat Recovery etc.) : 1% of total

Electricity consumption[9][edit]

  • Electricity – consumption: 90.36 GWh (2015-2016)
  • Electricity – exports: 6.01% (2015-2016)
  • Electricity – imports: .49% (2015-2016)
  • Electricity Consumption per Capita = 971 kWh/Capita (2015-2016)

Governance and sector reform[edit]

Recent reforms include the unbundling and corporatization of the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) into 10 regional distribution companies, 4 government-owned thermal power generation companies and a transmission company, the National Transmission and Despatch Company. The hydropower plants were retained by WAPDA as WAPDA Hydroelectric. All are fully owned by the government. K-Electric Limited (formally known as Karachi Electric Supply Company), which is responsible for power generation and distribution in the Karachi area, is listed on the stock exchanges and is privately owned. Privately owned independent power producers generated 53% of the country's power in FY2016.[10]

Effects of natural and man-made disasters[edit]

During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2005 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the floods and rainfalls the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of natural disasters on nuclear plants specially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, since the plant lies over a geological fault.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] Due to over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation,[3] some environmental impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact on Pakistan's mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of severe floods have become evident.[25][26][27][28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/16-loadshedding-to-end-by-next-summer-us-hs-06
  2. ^ Power Politics:Pakistan's energy crisis The Economist, 21 May 2012
  3. ^ a b "The News International: Latest News Breaking, Pakistan News". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Pakistan's Ongoing Electricity Shortage". Energy Tribune. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  5. ^ "More Crises in Pakistan: Electricity, Flour, Sugar, Water, Sui Gas Crises – What is the way out? : ALL THINGS PAKISTAN". Pakistaniat.com. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  6. ^ https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/309535-country-s-installed-electricity-capacity-increases-by-30pc-to-29-573mw
  7. ^ https://www.dawn.com/news/1475055/neelum-jhelum-generates-power-beyond-its-installed-capacity
  8. ^ "National grid to have additional 556.52MW solar energy by 2018 - Daily Pakistan Observer -Daily Pakistan Observer –". pakobserver.net.
  9. ^ a b "State of Industry Report 2015" (PDF). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  10. ^ Asian Development Bank (2016), Access to Clean Energy Investment Program, Energy Sector Summary, p.2
  11. ^ "Asia Times: Pakistan's nuclear program built on shifting sands". Atimes.com. 23 December 1999. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  12. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Archive | Your Source of News on the World Wide Web". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  14. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ chandru. "Chashma Power Plant: Chansnupp will continue to be accident prone". Southasiaanalysis.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  16. ^ "The Citizen's Trust". Thecitizenstrust.blogspot.com. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  17. ^ "Fresh flood warnings issued". PakTribune. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  18. ^ "Pakistan Cuts Qadirpur Gas Field Output After Demand Declines". Businessweek. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  19. ^ "Downpours hamper Pakistan flood relief for 15 million – Detail News : Nepal News Portal". The Himalayan Times. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  20. ^ Anis, Khurrum (11 August 2010). "Pakistan Cuts Qadirpur Gas Field Production After Floods, Reduced Demand". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  21. ^ "Kapco power plant may shut down on flood concerns | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  22. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/12-pakistan+floods+threaten+power+plants--bi-07
  24. ^ [1][dead link]
  25. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070317035727/http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1157962466160&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience%2FHSELayout. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ [2] Archived 5 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Author. "Middle East Report Online | Middle East Research and Information Project". Merip.org. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  28. ^ "US bombs flood-devastated Pakistan". Mwcnews.net. 14 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Robert M. Hathaway, editor, and Michael Kugelman, editor, Powering Pakistan, Oxford University Press, USA (January 15, 2010), hardcover, 216 pages ISBN 978-0195476262