Electricity sector in Pakistan

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Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 42 independent power producers (IPPs) that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.

Electricity generation has increased by 3.18% in 2015 as a result of Government of Pakistan (GoP) efforts and China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The country has begun diversifying its energy producing capacity by investing in coal, nuclear energy, solar energy and wind energy to help offset the energy shortage while larger projects greater than 1000 MW such as the Diamer-Bhasha Dam, Kohala Hydropower Project, Pakistan Port Qasim Power Project, Sahiwal Coal Power Project, Thar Engro Coal Power Project, Hub Coal Power Project and new nuclear plants are now under construction or planned.[1]

History[edit]

Pakistan electricity sector is a developing market. For years, the matter of balancing the country's supply against the demand for electricity had remained a largely unresolved matter. The country faced significant challenges in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Electricity generators were seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors indicating it to be one of the key issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country was facing growing shortages. Other problems included lack of efficiency, rising demands for energy, and political instability.[2] Provincial and federal agencies, who are the largest consumers, often do not pay their bills.[3]At one point electricity generation had shrunk by up to 50% due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels.[4] The country was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit.[5] Load Shedding and power blackouts had become severe in Pakistan before 2016.[6]

As late as 2015 massive long-standing electricity shortages continued with long-standing failure to provide reliable service and rampant corruption being met by public protests, unauthorized connections, and refusal by consumers to pay for intermittent service.[7][8][9]

Installed capacity[edit]

  • Electricity – total installed capacity: 23,928 MW (2015)[10]
  • Electricity – Sources (2014)
    • fossil fuel – 14,635 MW – 64.2% of total(oil-35.2% + gas-29%)
    • hydro – 6,611 MW – 29% of total
    • nuclear – 1,322 MW – 5.8% of total
    • average demand-17,000 MW
    • shortfall-between 5,000 MW and 6,000 MW

There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA, K-Electric, IPPs and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).

The break-up of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of Jan-2012) is as follows:[citation needed]

WAPDA Hydel

WAPDA Thermal

WAPDA’s total hydel and thermal capacity is 11,272 MW. Hydel electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between minimum of 2,414 MW and maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.

K-Electric

  • Korangi Power Complex, Combined Cycle Power Plant (KPC) 247 MW
  • Korangi Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi (KGTPS) 100 MW
  • Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE (STGTPS) 100 MW
  • Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim (BQPS-I) 1260 MW
  • Combined Cycle Power Plant (BQPS-II) 560 MW
  • Combined Cycle Power Plant (BQPS-III) Construction Initiated 900 MW

K-Electric total generation capacity is 1756 MW.

Independent Power Producers (IPPs)

  • AES Lalpir Limited, Mehmood Kot, Muzaffargarh District, Punjab 362 MW
  • AES Pak Gen, Mehmood Kot, Muzaffargarh District, Punjab 365 MW
  • Altern Energy Limited, Tehsil Fateh Jang, Attock District 29 MW
  • Atlas Power, Sheikhupura District 225 MW
  • Attock Gen Limited, Morgah, Rawalpindi District 165 MW
  • CMEC Power (Pvt.) Limited 330 MW
  • DHA Cogen Limited, Karachi, Karachi South District 94 MW
  • Eastern Power Company, Pasrur, Sialkot District 152.5 MW
  • Engro Powergen Qadirpur Limited (Formerly Engro Energy (Pvt.) Limited), Ghotki, Ghotki District, Sindh 226.5 MW
  • Fauji Kabirwala Power Company Limited (FKPCL), Kabirwala, District Khanewal 157 MW
  • First Tri-Star Modaraba 110 MW
  • Foundation Power Company Daharki Limited (FPCDL), Daharki, Ghotki District, Sindh 179 MW
  • Grange Holdings Limited Power Plant, Arifwala Tehsil, Pakpattan District, Punjab 165 MW
  • Green Electric (Pvt.) Limited 188 MW
  • Gujranwala Energy Limited (GEL), Gulistan Group, Sanguwali, Wazirabad Tehsil, Gujranwala District, Punjab 201.5 MW
  • Gul Ahmad Energy Limited (GAEL), Korangi District, Karachi 136 MW
  • Habibullah Coastal Power Company (HCPC) (Pvt.) Limited, Quetta, Balochistan 140 MW
  • Halmore Power Generation Company (Pvt.) Limited, Bhikki, Sheikhupura District, Punjab 225 MW
  • HUBCO Narowal Power Plant (HNPP), Narowal District, Punjab 225 MW
  • HUBCO Hub Power Plant, Hub, Lasbela District, Balochistan 1292 MW
  • Intergen (Pvt.) Limited 165 MW
  • Japan Power Generation, Lahore 120 MW
  • Kohinoor Energy Limited, Lahore 131 MW
  • Kot Addu Power Company Limited (Privatized) 1638 MW
  • Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki 232 MW
  • Liberty Power Tech. Limited 202 MW
  • Lucky Electric Power Company Limited 660 MW
  • Nishat Chunian Power 200 MW
  • Nishat Power Limited 200 MW
  • Orient Power Company (Pvt.) Limited 225 MW
  • Radian Energy Power Generation Company (Pvt.) Limited 164 MW
  • Rousch Power, Khanewal 412 MW
  • Saba Power Company, Sheikhupura 114 MW
  • Saif Power Plant Qadirabad, Sahiwal 225 MW
  • Sapphire Electric Company Limited 235 MW
  • Siddiqsons Energy Limited 350 MW
  • Sindh Nooriabad Power Company Phase-II (Pvt.) Limited 52 MW
  • Sitara Energy 80 MW
  • Southern Electric Power Company Limited, Raiwind 110 MW
  • Star Power Generation Limited 133.5 MW
  • Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi 126 MW
  • Uch (Uch-I and Uch-II) Power Limited, Dera Murad Jamali, Nasirabad 990 MW

Total generation capacity of IPPs by the end of 2016 was 11612 MW.[11]

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

  • KANUPP 137 MW
  • CHASNUPP-1 325 MW
  • CHASNUPP-2 325 MW
  • CHASNUPP-3 340 MW

Total electricity generated from PAEC is 1127 MW.

Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO)

  • Nandipur Power Project 425 MW

Solar Energy

  • Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park, Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur District, Punjab 400 MW[12]

Wind Energy

  • Yunus Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
  • Metro Wind Power Co Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
  • Tenaga Generai Limited, Gharo, Sindh 49 MW
  • Gul Ahmed Wind Power Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
  • Master Wind Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 52 MW
  • FFC Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 50 MW
  • Zorlu Enerji Pakistan, Jhimpir, Sindh 56 MW
  • Tapal Wind Energy Limited, Jhimpir, Sindh 30 MW
  • HydroChina Dawood Power Limited, Gharo, Sindh 49 MW

The total power generation capacity of Pakistan is 21,143 MW and the electricity demand (as of April 2010) is 14,500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10,000 MW.

Electricity generation[13][edit]

  • Electricity – generation: 109.25 TWh (2015-2016)
  • Electricity – generation by source (2015-2016)
    • fossil fuel: 64% of total
    • hydro: 30% of total
    • nuclear: 5% of total

Electricity consumption[14][edit]

  • Electricity – consumption: 90.36 TWh (2015-2016)
  • Electricity – exports: 6.01% (2015-2016)
  • Electricity – imports: .49% (2015-2016)
  • Electricity Consumption per Capita = 970 kWh/Capita (2015-2016)

Effects of natural and man-made disasters[edit]

During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2005 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the floods and rainfalls the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of natural disasters on nuclear plants specially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, since the plant lies over a geological fault.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Due to over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation,[29] some environmental impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact on Pakistan's mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of severe floods have become evident.[30][31][32][33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/16-loadshedding-to-end-by-next-summer-us-hs-06
  3. ^ Power Politics:Pakistan's energy crisis The Economist, 21 May 2012
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ "Pakistan's Ongoing Electricity Shortage". Energy Tribune. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  6. ^ "More Crises in Pakistan: Electricity, Flour, Sugar, Water, Sui Gas Crises – What is the way out? : ALL THINGS PAKISTAN". Pakistaniat.com. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  7. ^ "Research Report on Electricity Shortage in Pakistan (Research Methodology)". Scribd.com. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  8. ^ Declan Walsh (May 18, 2013). "Pakistan, Rusting in Its Tracks". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2013. natural disasters and entrenched insurgencies, abject poverty and feudal kleptocrats, and an economy near meltdown 
  9. ^ Declan Walsh; Salman Masood (May 27, 2013). "Pakistan Faces Struggle to Keep Its Lights On". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  10. ^ "About Pakistan". Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB). Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  11. ^ "Independent Power Producers (IPPs) Setup Under Power Policy 2002". National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ "State of Industry Report 2015" (PDF). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  14. ^ "State of Industry Report 2015" (PDF). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA). Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  15. ^ "Asia Times: Pakistan's nuclear program built on shifting sands". Atimes.com. 23 December 1999. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. [permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Archive | Your Source of News on the World Wide Web". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  18. ^ http://one.wfp.org/country_brief/asia/pakistan/assessments/wfp080934.pdf
  19. ^ chandru. "Chashma Power Plant: Chansnupp will continue to be accident prone". Southasiaanalysis.org. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  20. ^ "The Citizen's Trust". Thecitizenstrust.blogspot.com. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  21. ^ "Fresh flood warnings issued". PakTribune. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Pakistan Cuts Qadirpur Gas Field Output After Demand Declines". Businessweek. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "Downpours hamper Pakistan flood relief for 15 million – Detail News : Nepal News Portal". The Himalayan Times. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  24. ^ Anis, Khurrum (11 August 2010). "Pakistan Cuts Qadirpur Gas Field Production After Floods, Reduced Demand". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  25. ^ "Kapco power plant may shut down on flood concerns | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. [permanent dead link]
  27. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/12-pakistan+floods+threaten+power+plants--bi-07
  28. ^ [4][dead link]
  29. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=90379
  30. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070317035727/http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1157962466160&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience%2FHSELayout. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ [5] Archived 5 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ Author. "Middle East Report Online | Middle East Research and Information Project". Merip.org. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  33. ^ "US bombs flood-devastated Pakistan". Mwcnews.net. 14 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Robert M. Hathaway, editor, and Michael Kugelman, editor, Powering Pakistan, Oxford University Press, USA (January 15, 2010), hardcover, 216 pages ISBN 978-0195476262