Electricity sector in Pakistan
Electricity in Pakistan (Urdu: بجلی) is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 42 independent power producers (IPPs) that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.
Pakistan electricity sector is a developing market. For years, the matter of balancing the country's supply against the demand for electricity had remained a largely unresolved matter. The country faced significant challenges in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Electricity generators were seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors indicating it to be one of the key issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country was facing growing shortages. Other problems included lack of efficiency, rising demands for energy, and political instability. Provincial and federal agencies, who are the largest consumers, often do not pay their bills. At one point electricity generation had shrunk by up to 50% due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels. The country was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit. Load Shedding and power blackouts had become severe in Pakistan before 2016.
Economic Survey 2017-18 unfolds that Pakistan's installed capacity to generate electricity has surged up to 29,573MW by February 2018 which stood at 22,812MW in June 2013, showing the growth of 30 percent.
Pakistan's installed capacity to generate electricity has surged up to 33,836 MW by February 2019 which stood at 23,337 MW in 2014, showing the growth of 45 percent in five years.
|Station||Location||Coordinates||Capacity (MW)||In-service Date||Notes||Refs|
|Kot Addu Power Company||Kot Addu, Punjab||1,600||Multi Fuel-Fired Thermal Station.|
|Hub Power Company||Hub, Balochistan||1,292||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Hubco Narowal Power Plant||Narowal, Punjab||32.059067, 74.781222,||225||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Nishat Power Ltd||Lahore, Punjab||31.122560, 73.905405||200||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Nishat Chunian Power Ltd||Lahore, Punjab||200||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Saba Power Company Ltd||Sheikhupura, Punjab||31.733013, 73.873654||125||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Southern Electric Power Company Ltd||Raiwind, Lahore||31.291388, 74.249188||136||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Tapal Energy Ltd||Karachi, Sindh||24.999713, 66.906860||126||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Japan Power Generation Pvt Ltd||Raiwind, Punjab||31.325566, 74.262225||135||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Kohinoor Energy Ltd||Lahore, Punjab||31.263200, 74.187321||131||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Liberty Power Tech||Faisalabad, Punjab||200||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|AES Lal Pir Power||Muzaffargarh, Punjab||362||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|AES PakGen||Muzaffargarh, Punjab||365||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Attock Gen Ltd||Rawalpindi, Punjab||165||Furnace Oil Fired Plant.|
|Jamshoro Power Station||Jamshoro, Sindh||850||Oil and Natural Gas-Fired Thermal Station.|
|Bin Qasim Power Plant I||Karachi, Sindh||24.785546, 67.358929||1,260||Oil and Natural Gas-Fired Thermal Station|
|Sitara Energy Ltd||Faisalabad, Punjab||31.533111, 73.393330||85||Diesel and Natural Gas Fired Plant.|
|Saif Power Ltd||Sahiwal, Punjab||30.696164, 73.260541||225||Diesel and Natural Gas Fired Plant.|
|Attock Refinery Ltd||Rawalpindi, Punjab||33.5575853,73.0766997||18||Heavy Fuel Oil|
|Atlas Power Ltd||Sheikhpura, Punjab||225||Heavy Fuel Oil|
|Station||Location||Coordinates||Capacity (MW)||In-service Date||Notes||Refs|
|Guddo Thermal Power Plant||Guddu, Sindh||2,402||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Fauji Foundation Power Company Daharki Ltd||Daharki, Sindh||27.985137, 69.673544||185||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Uch-I, II Power Plant||Dera Murad Jamali, Balochistan||28.582798, 68.171539||1000||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Nandipur Power Project||Gujranwala, Punjab||32.245294, 74.270007||425||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Habibullah Coastal Power Pvt Company||Quetta, Balochistan||140||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|WAPDA Quetta Thermal Power Station||Quetta, Balochistan||35||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Liberty Power Project||Daharki, Sindh||235||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Rousch (Pakistan) Power Limited||Abdul Hakeem, Pakistan, Punjab||450||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Engro Powergen Qadirpur Ltd||Ghotki, Sindh||227||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Halmore Power Generation Company Ltd||Sheikhupura, Punjab||225||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Orient Power Company Ltd||Kasur, Punjab||229||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Saif Power Limited||Sahiwal, Punjab||229||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Bin Qasim Power Plant II||Karachi, Sindh||24.781873, 67.359767||560||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Fauji Kabirwala Power Company||Kabirwala, Punjab||30.524865, 71.954946||157||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Sapphire Electric Company Ltd||Muridke, Punjab||234||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Sindh Nooriabad Power Company Pvt Ltd||Jamshoro, Sindh||100||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Haveli Bahadur Shah Power Plant||Jhang, Punjab||1,230||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Bhikki RLNG-based Power Project||Sheikhupura, Punjab||1,180||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Balloki Power Plant||Balloki, Punjab||1,223||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Altern Energy Ltd||Fateh Jang, Punjab||32||Combined Cycle Power Plant|
|Lakhra Power Plant||Jamshoro, Sindh||150||Operational.|
|Sitara Chemical Industries Ltd||Faisalabad, Punjab||40||Operational since 2016.|
|Fauji Fertilizer Power Plant||Karachi, Sindh||118||Operational since 2017.|
|Sahiwal Coal Power Project||Sahiwal, Punjab||1320||Operational since 2017.|
|Maple Leaf Power Ltd||Mianwali, Punjab||40||Operational since 2017.|
|Port Qasim Coal Power Project||Karachi, Sindh||1320||Operational since 2017.|
|DG Cement Coal Power Project||DG Khan, Punjab||30||Operational since 2017.|
|Hub Coal Power Project||Hub, Balochistan||1320||Operational since 2018.|
|Engro Powergen Thar Pvt Ltd||Tharparkar, Sindh||660||Operational since 2019.|
Pakistan produced 8250 MW of hydropower in 2018 and by 2040, when under construction hydropower projects are completed, this will increase to 29000 MW.
|Station||Community||Location||Capacity (MW)||In-Service Date||Status|
|Tarbela Dam||Tarbela, KPK||4,888||1974||Operational.|
|Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project||Attock, Punjab||1,450||2002||Operational.|
|Mangla Dam||Mirpur, Azad Kashmir||1,150||1967||Mangla Refurbishment Project is under construction wherein the generating units of Mangla Hydel Power Station will be refurbished by closing down one tunnel (two generating units) at a time. First two units will be refurbished by December 2018, the next two by December 2019 and the other two by December 2020.Refurbishment of all the 10 generating units will be completed by the year 2024. After undergoing refurbishment project is completed capacity will increase by another 310 MW.|
|Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant||Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir||969||2018||Operational. The Plant has been producing 1040 MW beyond its capacity, a rare precedence in hydel power sector.|
|Warsak Dam||Peshawar, KPK||243||1960||Operational. Extension and rehabilitation is being planned. The total cost of the rehabilitation project €162 million is being co-financed with the KfW (€40 million), EIB (€4.5 million), AFD (€41.5 million) and Pakistan government contributions.|
|Chashma Barrage||Chashma, Punjab||184||2001||Operational.|
|Patrind Hydropower Plant||Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir||147||2017||Operational.|
|Duber Khwar Hydropower Project||Kohistan, KPK||130||2013||Operational.|
|Allai Khwar Hydropower Project||Mansehra, KPK||121||2013||Operational.|
|Golen Gol Hydropower Project||Chitral, KPK||108||2018||Operational.|
|Jinnah hydropower project||Jinnah Barrage, Punjab||96||2013||Operational.|
|New Bong Escape Hydropower Plant||Mirpur, Azad Kashmir||84||2013||Operational.|
|Malakand-III Hydropower Project||Malakand, KPK||81||2008||Operational.|
|Khan Khwar Hydropower Project||Shangla, KPK||72||2013||Operational.|
|Daral Khwar Hydropower Plant||Swat District, KPK||36.6||2018||Operational.|
|Jagran-I Dam||Neelum, Azad Kashmir||30.4||2000||Operational.|
|Rasul Barrage Hydropower Project||Mandi Bahauddin, Punjab||22||1952||Operational.|
|Jabban Hydropower Plant||Malakand, KPK||22||1935||Operational.|
|Dargai Hydropower Plant||Malakand, KPK||20||1953||Operational.|
|Naltar-IV Hydropower Plant||Naltar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||18||2007||Operational.|
|Gomal Zam Dam||South Waziristan||17.4||2013||Operational.|
|Ranolia Hydropower Plant||Kohistan, KPK||17||2016||Operational.|
|Naltar-V Hydropower Project||Naltar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||14.4||2016||Operational.|
|Nandipur Hydropower Plant||Gujranwala, Punjab||13.8||1963||Operational.|
|Shadiwal Hydropower Plant||Shadiwal Warriach, Punjab||13.5||1961||Operational.|
|Chichonki Malian Hydropower Plant||Sheikhupura, Punjab||13.2||1959||Operational.|
|Marala Hydropower Project||Sialkot, Punjab||7.64||2018||Operational.|
|Kurram Garhi Hydropower Plant||Kurram Garhi, KPK||4||1958||Operational.|
|Nalter-II Hydropower Project||Naltar Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||2.28||Operational.|
|Renala Khurd Hydropower Plant||Renala Khurd, Punjab||1.1||1925||Operational.|
|Darawat Dam||Jamshoro, Sindh||0.5||2014||Operational.|
|Machai Hydropower Plant||Mardan, KPK||2.6||2017||Operational.|
|Chashma Dam||Chashma, Punjab||1.2||2000||Operational.|
|Kathai Dam||Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir||3.2||1995||Operational.|
|Kundal Shahi Hydropower Project||Neelam Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||2||1992||Operational.|
|Kel Htdropower Project||Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir||0.45||Operational.|
|Leepa Dam||Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir||2||Operational.|
|Pehur Dam||Pehur, KPK||18||2012||Operational.|
|Sishi Dam||Chitral, KPK||2||Operational.|
|Skardu-II, III Dams||Skardu||1.64||Operational.|
|Hunza Dam||Hunza Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||5.13||Operational.|
|Shyok Dam||Shyok Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||4.85||Operational.|
|Ghizar Dam||Ghizer District, Gilgit-Baltistan||2||Operational.|
|Phandar Dam||Ghizer District, Gilgit-Baltistan||2||Operational.|
|Kharmang Dam||Kharmang Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||1.89||Operational.|
|Yasin Dam||Ghizer District, Gilgit-Baltistan||1.61||Operational.|
|Bunnar Chilas Dam||Diamer District, Gilgit-Baltistan||1.5||Operational.|
|Roundu Dam||Roundu Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||1.52||Operational.|
|Kar Gah-I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII Hydropower Project||Gilgit-Baltistan||13.34||Operational.|
|Jaglot-I, II Hydodropower Project||Jaglot||1.32||Operational.|
|Darel-I, II Dams||Ghanche||1.2||Operational.|
|Dunsam power station||Ghanche, Gilgit-Baltistan|
|Boladas-I Dam||Hunza Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan||0.64||Operational.|
|Khunjerab Dam||Gujrab River||0.59||Operational.|
|Harpo-I, Harchu, Dainyor, Gurikot, Kayo, Dango Das Hydropower Project||Gilgit-Baltistan||2||Operational.|
|Manthoka, Astore, Gulmit, Tolti-I, Khaplu-I, Kachura-I, Darel Hydropower Project||Gilgit-Baltistan||1.5||Operational.|
|Khaibar-I, II, Mushki, Rattu, Misgar, Ghandus, Kiris-I, Thally-I, Mendi, Stak Hydropower Project||Gilgit-Baltistan||4.85||Operational.|
|Tangir-I, Chillas-II, Hayul, Khaplu-I, Sumayar-I, Mehdabad, Nomal, Pari Hydropower Project||Gilgit-Baltistan||1.5||Operational.|
|[[Jaglot Sai, Sermik-I, Olding-I, Thore, Minapin-I, Ahmadabad-I, II, Chalt-I, Sosat Hydropower, Jalalabad, Tangir Dam, Bunner, Parishing/Louse, Shirting, Sher Qila, Shigar , Khyber-I, Khyber-II, Chalt, Naz Bar, Hisper-I, Haramosh, Tormik-I, Basho-I, Sermik, Pion, Chitral Hydel, Jari, Machai]]||Gilgit-Baltistan||1||Operational.|
|Hasanabad-I, II, III, IV, V Dams||Hunza Valley||2||Operational.|
|Ishkuman-I, II Dams||Ishkuman||2.38||Operational.|
|Bumborat, Rashang HPP, Matta HPP, Shishi, Karora, Kalam HPP, Keyal, Kaghan, Duber, Jalkot, Gram Chashma, Damori, Keel, Pattika, Chinari, Serai, Kumrat HPPs||Various Locations in KPK||2.2||Operational.|
|(KANUPP-1)||Karachi, Sindh||85||Operational since 1972.|
|(CHASNUPP-1)||Mianwali, Punjab||320||Operational since 2000.|
|(CHASNUPP-2)||Mianwali, Punjab||320||Operational since 2011.|
|(CHASNUPP-3)||Mianwali, Punjab||340||Operational since 2016.|
|(CHASNUPP-4)||Mianwali, Punjab||340||Operational since 2017.|
|Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park||Bahawalpur, Punjab||400||Operational since 2016.|
|Harappa Solar Pvt Ltd||Sahiwal, Punjab||18||Operational since 2018.|
|Bukhsh Solar Pvt Ltd||Lodhran, Punjab||10||Under construction. To be operational by Mar 2018.|
- Electricity – generation: 123.25 GWh (2017)
- Electricity – generation by source (2019)
- Furnace oil: 14% of total
- Natural gas: 31% of total
- Coal: 16% of total
- Hydroelectric: 29% of total
- Nuclear: 4% of total
- Renewable (Solar & Wind) : 5% of total
- Others(Bagasse, Waste Heat Recovery etc.) : 1% of total
- Electricity – consumption: 90.36 GWh (2015-2016)
- Electricity – exports: 6.01% (2015-2016)
- Electricity – imports: .49% (2015-2016)
- Electricity Consumption per Capita = 971 kWh/Capita (2015-2016)
Governance and sector reform
Recent reforms include the unbundling and corporatization of the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) into 10 regional distribution companies, 4 government-owned thermal power generation companies and a transmission company, the National Transmission and Despatch Company. The hydropower plants were retained by WAPDA as WAPDA Hydroelectric. All are fully owned by the government. K-Electric Limited (formally known as Karachi Electric Supply Company), which is responsible for power generation and distribution in the Karachi area, is listed on the stock exchanges and is privately owned. Privately owned independent power producers generated 53% of the country's power in FY2016.
Effects of natural and man-made disasters
During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2005 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the floods and rainfalls the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of natural disasters on nuclear plants specially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, since the plant lies over a geological fault. Due to over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation, some environmental impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact on Pakistan's mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of severe floods have become evident.
- List of power stations in Pakistan
- List of electric supply companies in Pakistan
- Water and Power Development Authority
- Economy of Pakistan
- Private Power and Infrastructure Board
- Pakistan Electric Power Company
- Alternative Energy Development Board
- National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
- Karachi Electric Supply Company
- Pakistan national energy policy
- Rolling blackout
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