Electricity sector in Venezuela

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The electricity sector in Venezuela is one of the few in the world to rely primarily on hydroelectricity, which accounted for 64% in 2015[1] (71% in 2004[2]).

Electricity production[edit]

In 2015, the total of electricity production reaches 117 TWh, of which 64% comes from hydro, 19% from gas and 17% from oil.[1] Losses however are uncommonly high, reaching 34% of production.[1]

In 2015, Venezuela produced 75 TWh of hydropower, which accounts 1.9% of world's total[3], a small increase over the production of 2004 of 70 TWh .[2] The installed capacity had however in 2012 reached 26 GW[4] from a total of 13.76 GW at the end of 2002, where 4.5 GW were under construction and 7.4 GW planned.[5] The World Energy Council energy resource report of 2010 estimates the gross theoretical hydropower production could reach 731 TWh per annum, of which 100 TWh are economically exploitable[6], an increase over the 320 TWh estimates of 2004.[5]

Hydroelectricity production is concentrated on the Caroní River in Guayana Region. Today it has 4 different dams. The largest hydroplant is the Guri dam with 10,200 MW of installed capacity, which makes it the third-largest hydroelectric plant in the world.[7] Other hydroelectric projects on the Caroní are Caruachi Dam, Macagua I, Macagua II and Macagua III, with a total of 15.910 MW of installed capacity in 2003. A new dams, Tocoma (2 160 MW) and Tayucay (2 450 MW), was under construction between Guri and Caruachi in 2003. With a projected installed capacity for the whole Hydroelectric Complex (upstream Caroni River and downstream Caroni River), between 17.250 and 20.000 MW were planned for 2010.

Organizations[edit]

The largest power companies are state-owned CVG Electrificación del Caroní (EDELCA), a subsidiary of the mining company Corporación Venezolana de Guayana (CVG), and Compania Anonima de Administracion y Fomento Electrico (CADAFE) accounting respectively for approximately 63% and 18% of generating capacities. Other state-owned power companies are ENELBAR and ENELVEN-ENELCO (approximately 8% of capacities). In 2007, PDVSA bought 82.14% percent of Electricidad de Caracas (EDC) from AES Corporation as part of a renationalization program. Subsequently, the ownership share rose to 93.62% (December 2008).[8] EDC has 11% of Venezuelan capacity, and owns the majority of conventional thermal power plants.[9][10] The rest of the power production is owned by private companies.

The national transmission system (Sistema Inrterconectado Nacional- SIN) is composed by four interconnected regional transmission systems operated by EDELCA, CADAFE, EDC and ENELVEN-ENELCO. Oficina de Operacion de Sistema Interconectados (OPSIS), jointly owned by the four vertical integrated electric companies, operate the SIN under an RTPA regime.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "IEA - Report : Venezuela : Electricity and Heat for 2015". www.iea.org. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  2. ^ a b "Key World Energy Statistics -- 2006 Edition" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
  3. ^ "Key World Energy Statistics -- 2017 Edition" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  4. ^ "Venezuela - International - Analysis - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  5. ^ a b "Survey of energy resources" (PDF). World Energy Council. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
  6. ^ "Survey of energy resources 2010" (PDF). World Energy Council. 2010. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  7. ^ "Venezuela: Energy overview". BBC. 2006-02-16. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ a b "Venezuela". International energy regulation network. July 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
  10. ^ Manuel Augusto Acosta Pérez; Juan José Rios Sanchez (2004-09-05). "The electric business in Venezuela:restructuring and investment opportunities" (PDF). World Energy Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2007-07-10.