Standard electrode potential (data page)

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The values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode and are for the following conditions:

  • A temperature of 298.15 K (25 °C);
  • An effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species or a species in a mercury amalgam;
  • A partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa.
  • An activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, or for water (solvent).
  • Although many of the half cells are written for multiple electron transfers, the tabulated potentials are for a single electron transfer. All of the reactions should be divided by the stoichiometric coefficient for the electron to get the corresponding corrected reaction equation.
  • Divide the potentials by 0.059 V to get pe° values, which are necessary for Nernst Equation and other thermodynamic calculations.

Legend: (s) – solid; (l) – liquid; (g) – gas; (aq) – aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam.

Half-reaction (V) Ref.
Oxidant Reductant
& -9
Zz 9
Sr+ + e Sr −4.10 [1]
Ca+ + e Ca −3.8 [1]
Pr3+ + e Pr2+ −3.1 [1]
N3N2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HN3(aq) −3.09 [2][3]
Li+ + e Li(s) −3.0401 [3][4]
N2(g) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH2OH(aq) + 2OH −3.04 [2]
Cs+ + e Cs(s) −3.026 [3]
Ca(OH)2 + 2e Ca + 2 OH −3.02 [1]
Er3+ + e Er2+ −3.0 [1]
Ba(OH)2 + 2e Ba + 2 OH −2.99 [1]
Rb+ + e Rb(s) −2.98 [3]
K+ + e K(s) −2.931 [3]
Ba2+ + 2e Ba(s) −2.912 [3]
La(OH)3(s) + 3e La(s) + 3OH −2.90 [3]
Fr+ + e Fr −2.9 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr(s) −2.899 [3]
Sr(OH)2 + 2e Sr + 2 OH −2.88 [1]
Ca2+ + 2e Ca(s) −2.868 [3]
Eu2+ + 2e Eu(s) −2.812 [3]
Ra2+ + 2e Ra(s) −2.8 [3]
Ho3+ + e Ho2+ −2.8 [1]
Bk3+ + e Bk2+ −2.8 [1]
Yb2+ + 2e Yb −2.76 [1]
Na+ + e Na(s) −2.71 [3][5]
Mg+ + e Mg −2.70 [1]
Nd3+ + e Nd2+ −2.7 [1]
Mg(OH)2 + 2e Mg + 2 OH −2.690 [1]
Sm2+ + 2e Sm −2.68 [1]
Be2O32− + 3 H2O + 4e 2 Be + 6 OH −2.63 [1]
Pm3+ + e Pm2+ −2.6 [1]
Dy3+ + e Dy2+ −2.6 [1]
No2+ + 2e No −2.50 [1]
HfO(OH)2 + H2O + 4e Hf + 4 OH −2.50 [1]
Th(OH)4 + 4e Th + 4 OH −2.48 [1]
Md2+ + 2e Md −2.40 [1]
Tm2+ + 2e Tm −2.4 [1]
La3+ + 3e La(s) −2.379 [3]
Y3+ + 3e Y(s) −2.372 [3]
Mg2+ + 2e Mg(s) −2.372 [3]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e Zr(s) + 4OH −2.36 [3]
Pr3+ + 3e Pr −2.353 [1]
Ce3+ + 3e Ce −2.336 [1]
Er3+ + 3e Er −2.331 [1]
Ho3+ + 3e Ho −2.33 [1]
H2AlO3 + H2O + 3e Al + 4 OH −2.33 [1]
Nd3+ + 3e Nd −2.323 [1]
Tm3+ + 3e Tm −2.319 [1]
Al(OH)3(s) + 3e Al(s) + 3OH −2.31
Sm3+ + 3e Sm −2.304 [1]
Fm2+ + 2e Fm −2.30 [1]
Am3+ + e Am2+ −2.3 [1]
Dy3+ + 3e Dy −2.295 [1]
Lu3+ + 3e Lu −2.28 [1]
Tb3+ + 3e Tb −2.28 [1]
Gd3+ + 3e Gd −2.279 [1]
H2 + 2e 2H −2.23 [1]
Es2+ + 2e Es −2.23 [1]
Pm2+ + 2e Pm −2.2 [1]
Tm3+ + e Tm2+ −2.2 [1]
Dy2+ + 2e Dy −2.2 [1]
Ac3+ + 3e Ac −2.20 [1]
Yb3+ + 3e Yb −2.19 [1]
Cf2+ + 2e Cf −2.12 [1]
Nd2+ + 2e Nd −2.1 [1]
Ho2+ + 2e Ho −2.1 [1]
Sc3+ + 3e Sc(s) −2.077 [6]
AlF63− + 3e Al + 6 F −2.069 [1]
Am3+ + 3e Am −2.048 [1]
Cm3+ + 3e Cm −2.04 [1]
Pu3+ + 3e Pu −2.031 [1]
Pr2+ + 2e Pr −2.0 [1]
Er2+ + 2e Er −2.0 [1]
Eu3+ + 3e Eu −1.991 [1]
Lr3+ + 3e Lr −1.96 [1]
Cf3+ + 3e Cf −1.94 [1]
Es3+ + 3e Es −1.91 [1]
Pa4+ + e Pa3+ −1.9 [1]
Am2+ + 2e Am −1.9 [1]
Th4+ + 4e Th −1.899 [1]
Fm3+ + 3e Fm −1.89 [1]
Np3+ + 3e Np −1.856 [1]
Be2+ + 2e Be −1.847 [1]
H2PO2 + e P + 2 OH −1.82 [1]
U3+ + 3e U −1.798 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr/Hg −1.793 [1]
H2BO3 + H2O + 3e B + 4 OH −1.79 [1]
ThO2 + 4H+ + 4e Th + 2 H2O −1.789 [1]
HfO2+ + 2 H+ + 4e Hf + H2O −1.724 [1]
HPO32− + 2 H2O + 3e P + 5 OH −1.71 [1]
SiO32− + H2O + 4e Si + 6 OH −1.697 [1]
Al3+ + 3e Al(s) −1.662 [1]
Ti2+ + 2e Ti(s) −1.63 [5]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Zr(s) + 2H2O −1.553 [7]
Zr4+ + 4e Zr(s) −1.45 [7]
Ti3+ + 3e Ti(s) −1.37 [8]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti(s) + H2O −1.31
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2TiO(s) + H2O −1.23
Zn(OH)42− + 2e Zn(s) + 4OH −1.199 [7]
Mn2+ + 2e Mn(s) −1.185 [7]
Fe(CN)64− + 6H+ + 2 e Fe(s) + 6HCN(aq) −1.16 [9]
Te(s) + 2e Te2− −1.143 [10]
V2+ + 2e V(s) −1.13 [10]
Nb3+ + 3e Nb(s) −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnH4(g) −1.07
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Si(s) + 2H2O −0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e B(s) + 3H2O −0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2e Fe(s) + 2OH −0.89 [9]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O + 2e 2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH −0.86 [9]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e Ti(s) + H2O −0.86
H2H2O + 2e H2(g) + 2OH −0.8277 [7]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e BiH3 −0.8 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(Hg) −0.7628 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(s) −0.7618 [7]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e 2Ta(s) + 5H2O −0.75
Cr3+ + 3e Cr(s) −0.74
Ag2S(s) + 2e 2Ag(s) + S2-(aq) −0.69
Au[Au(CN)2] + e Au(s) + 2CN −0.60
Ta3+ + 3e Ta(s) −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2e Pb(s) + 2OH −0.58
Ti2TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti2O3(s) + H2O −0.56
Ga3+ + 3e Ga(s) −0.53
U4+ + e U3+ −0.52 [11]
P H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e P(white)[note 1] + 2H2O −0.508 [7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO2(aq) + H2O −0.499 [7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e P(red)[note 1] + 3H2O −0.454 [7]
Fe2+ + 2e Fe(s) −0.44 [5]
C2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HOOCCOOH(aq) −0.43
Cr3+ + e Cr2+ −0.42
Cd2+ + 2e Cd(s) −0.40 [5]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e GeO(s) + H2O −0.37
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2e 2Cu(s) + 2OH −0.360 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(s) + SO42− −0.3588 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(Hg) + SO42− −0.3505 [7]
Eu3+ + e Eu2+ −0.35 [11]
In3+ + 3e In(s) −0.34 [10]
Tl+ + e Tl(s) −0.34 [10]
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e GeH4(g) −0.29
Co2+ + 2e Co(s) −0.28 [7]
P H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO3(aq) + H2O −0.276 [7]
V3+ + e V2+ −0.26 [5]
Ni2+ + 2e Ni(s) −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e AsH3(g) −0.23 [10]
AgI(s) + e Ag(s) + I −0.15224 [7]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Mo(s) + 2H2O −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e SiH4(g) −0.14
Sn2+ + 2e Sn(s) −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + e HO2•(aq) −0.13
Pb2+ + 2e Pb(s) −0.126 [5]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e W(s) + 2H2O −0.12
P(red) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.111 [7]
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HCOOH(aq) −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2Se(g) −0.11
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e CO(g) + H2O −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Sn(s) + H2O −0.10
SnO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnO(s) + 2H2O −0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6e W(s) + 3H2O −0.09 [10]
P(white) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.063 [7]
Fe3+ + 3e Fe(s) −0.04 [9]
C HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HCHO(aq) + H2O −0.03
H 2H+ + 2e H2(g) 0.0000 = 0
AgBr(s) + e Ag(s) + Br +0.07133 [7]
S4O62− + 2e 2S2O32− +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8e 3Fe(s) + 4H2O +0.085 [12]
N2(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6e 2NH4OH(aq) +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2e Hg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2NH3 +0.10 [10]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e Ru(NH3)62+ +0.10 [11]
N2H4(aq) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH4+ + 4OH +0.11 [2]
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6e Mo(s) + 4H2O +0.11
Ge4+ + 4e Ge(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e CH4(g) +0.13 [10]
C HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH3OH(aq) +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2S(g) +0.14
Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+ +0.15
Cu2+ + e Cu+ +0.159 [10]
S HSO4 + 3H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.16
UO22+ + e UO2+ +0.163 [11]
S SO42− + 4H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e Ti3+ + H2O +0.19
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e Sb(s) + H2O +0.20
AgCl(s) + e Ag(s) + Cl +0.22233 [7]
As H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e As(s) + 3H2O +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ge(s) + H2O +0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + e U4+ + 2H2O +0.273 [11]
Re3+ + 3e Re(s) +0.300
Bi3+ + 3e Bi(s) +0.308 [7]
VO2+ + 2H+ + e V3+ + H2O +0.34
Cu2+ + 2e Cu(s) +0.337 [10]
Fe [Fe(CN)6]3− + e [Fe(CN)6]4− +0.36
Fc+ + e Fc(s) +0.4 [13]
O2(g) + 2H2O + 4e 4OH(aq) +0.401 [5]
Mo H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3e Mo3+ + 2H2O +0.43
C CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH4(g) + H2O +0.50
S SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4e S(s) + 2H2O +0.50
Cu+ + e Cu(s) +0.520 [10]
C CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e C(s) + H2O +0.52
I3 + 2e 3I +0.53 [5]
I2(s) + 2e 2I +0.54 [5]
Au [AuI4] + 3e Au(s) + 4I +0.56
As H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3AsO3(aq) + H2O +0.56
Au [AuI2] + e Au(s) + 2I +0.58
MnO4 + 2H2O + 3e MnO2(s) + 4OH +0.59
S2O32 + 6H+ + 4e 2S(s) + 3H2O +0.60
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e MoO2(s) + 2H2O +0.65
C 1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2e Hydrochinon2.svg +0.6992 [7]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e H2O2(aq) +0.70
Tl3+ + 3e Tl(s) +0.72
PtCl62− + 2e PtCl42− + 2Cl +0.726 [11]
Se H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e Se(s) + 3H2O +0.74
PtCl42− + 2e Pt(s) + 4Cl +0.758 [11]
Fe3+ + e Fe2+ +0.77
Ag+ + e Ag(s) +0.7996 [7]
Hg22+ + 2e 2Hg(l) +0.80
N NO3(aq) + 2H+ + e NO2(g) + H2O +0.80
Fe 2FeO42− + 5H2O + 6e Fe2O3(s) + 10 OH +0.81 [9]
Au [AuBr4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Br +0.85
Hg2+ + 2e Hg(l) +0.85
Ir [IrCl6]2− + e [IrCl6]3− +0.87 [4]
MnO4 + H+ + e HMnO4 +0.90
Hg2Hg2+ + 2e Hg22+ +0.91 [10]
Pd2+ + 2e Pd(s) +0.915 [11]
Au [AuCl4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Cl +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e Mn3+ + 2H2O +0.95
NO3(aq) + 4H+ + 3e NO(g) + 2H2O(l) +0.958
Au[AuBr2] + e Au(s) + 2Br +0.96
Xe[HXeO6]3− + 2H2O + 2e + [HXeO4] + 4OH +0.99 [14]
[VO2]+(aq) + 2H+ + e [VO]2+(aq) + H2O +1.0 [15]
TeH6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e TeO2(s) + 4H2O +1.02 [15]
Br2(l) + 2e 2Br +1.066 [7]
Br2(aq) + 2e 2Br +1.0873 [7]
I IO3 + 5H+ + 4e HIO(aq) + 2H2O +1.13
Au [AuCl2] + e Au(s) + 2Cl +1.15
Se HSeO4 + 3H+ + 2e H2SeO3(aq) + H2O +1.15
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2Ag(s) + H2O +1.17
ClO3 + 2H+ + e ClO2(g) + H2O +1.18
Xe[HXeO6]3− + 5H2O + 8 e Xe(g) + 11OH +1.18 [14]
Pt2+ + 2e Pt(s) +1.188 [11]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e HClO2(aq) +1.19
I 2IO3 + 12H+ + 10e I2(s) + 6H2O +1.20
ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e ClO3 + H2O +1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e 2H2O +1.229 [5]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Mn2+ + 2H2O +1.23
Xe[HXeO4] + 3H2O + 6 e Xe(g) + 7OH +1.24 [14]
Tl3+ + 2e Tl+ +1.25
Cr2O72− + 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1.33
Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl +1.36 [5]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + e Co3+ + 2H2O +1.42
N 2NH3OH+ + H+ + 2e N2H5+ + 2H2O +1.42 [2]
I 2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e I2(s) + 2H2O +1.44
BrO3 + 5H+ + 4e HBrO(aq) + 2H2O +1.45
PbO β-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.460 [10]
PbO α-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.468 [10]
Br 2BrO3 + 12H+ + 10e Br2(l) + 6H2O +1.48
Cl 2ClO3 + 12H+ + 10e Cl2(g) + 6H2O +1.49
Cl HClO(aq) + H+ + 2e Cl(aq) + H2O +1.49 [1]
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O +1.51
O HO2 + H+ + e H2O2(aq) +1.51
Au3+ + 3e Au(s) +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Ni2+ + 2OH +1.59
Ce4+ + e Ce3+ +1.61
Cl 2HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Cl2(g) + 2H2O +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4e 2Ag+ + 3H2O +1.67
Cl HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HClO(aq) + H2O +1.67
Pb4+ + 2e Pb2+ +1.69 [10]
MnO4 + 4H+ + 3e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e Ag+ + H2O +1.77
O H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O +1.78
Co3+ + e Co2+ +1.82
Au+ + e Au(s) +1.83 [10]
BrO4 + 2H+ + 2e BrO3 + H2O +1.85
Ag2+ + e Ag+ +1.98 [10]
S2O82− + 2e 2SO42− +2.010 [7]
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e O2(g) + H2O +2.075 [11]
Mn HMnO4 + 3H+ + 2e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 e Xe(g) + 3H2O +2.12 [14]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 e Xe(g) + 6 H2O +2.18 [14]
FeO42− + 3e + 8H+ Fe3+ + 4H2O +2.20 [16]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Xe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32 [14]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e XeO3(aq) + 3H2O +2.42 [14]
F2(g) + 2e 2F +2.87 [4][5][10]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HF(aq) +3.05 [10]
KrF2(aq) + 2e Kr(g) + 2F(aq) +3.27 [17]
  1. ^ a b Not specified in the indicated reference, but assumed due to the difference between the value -0.454 and that computed by (2×-0.499 + -0.508)/3 = -0.502 exactly matching the difference between the values for white (-0.063) and red (-0.111) phosphorus in equilibrium with PH3.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Vanýsek, Petr (2011). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 92nd Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  4. ^ a b c Atkins, Peter (2010). Inorganic Chemistry (5th Edition). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-42-921820-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
  6. ^ David R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Internet Version 2005, <http://www.hbcpnetbase.com>, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Vanýsek, Petr (2012). "Electrochemical Series". In Haynes, William M. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 93rd Edition. Chemical Rubber Company. pp. 5–80. ISBN 9781439880494. .
  8. ^ Gordon Aylward & Tristan Findlay (2008). "SI Chemical Data", 6th edition (John Wiley & Sons, Australia), ISBN 978-0-470-81638-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Iron | compounds information
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  12. ^ Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).
  13. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. (1 January 1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chemical Reviews. 96 (2): 877–910. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Xenon | compounds information
  15. ^ a b Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999), Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-19957-5 
  16. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website
  17. ^ http://acta.chem-soc.si/60/60-3-455.pdf

See also[edit]