Electroejaculation is a procedure used to obtain semen samples from sexually mature male mammals. The procedure is used for breeding programs and research purposes in various species, as well as in the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction[disambiguation needed] in human males. This procedure is used frequently with large mammals, particularly bulls and some domestic animals, as well as humans who have certain types of anejaculation. Electroejaculation has also been used for cryoconservation of animal genetic resources where one would collect semen and stored in low temperatures with the intent of conserving genetic material and future revival.
In the practice of veterinary medicine and animal science, it is common to collect semen from domestic ruminants using electro-ejaculation without sedation or anesthesia. Only in goats is mild sedation sometimes used. Because of the significant skeletal muscle contractions it causes, electroejaculation is not used in stallions — except in rare cases, under general anesthesia.
In humans, electroejaculation is usually carried out under a general anesthetic. An electric probe is inserted into the rectum adjacent to the prostate gland. The probe delivers an AC voltage, usually 12–24 volts sine wave at a frequency of 60 Hz, with a current limited to usually 500 mA, although some devices can generate currents of up to 1 A. The probe is activated for 1–2 seconds, referred to as a stimulus cycle. Ejaculation usually occurs after 2–3 stimulus cycles. Care must be taken when using currents greater than 500 mA, as tissue burns may result due to heating of the probe. The stimulus voltage stimulates nearby nerves, resulting in contraction of the pelvic muscles and ejaculation.
Application to endangered species conservation
The procedure has been adopted and modified as an assisted reproduction technique for managing endangered species, to ensure the production of offspring from incompatible pairs of animals where artificial insemination is feasible.
- Artificial vagina#Veterinary use
- Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources
- Erotic electrostimulation
- Frozen bovine semen#How semen is collected
- Horse breeding
- Semen collection
- JoGayle Howard, pioneer in animal electroejaculation techniques
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- "Beltron Instruments AC-1 Manual" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
- Dr. Marcus (February 14, 2010). "Rectal electro-ejaculation (REE)". ivf-infertility.com. p. 1. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Allahbadia, Gautam (11 October 2007). "Trans-rectal Electro-ejaculation (TREE)". The Rotunda Ramblings. Blogger. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Mauldin, Rick; Thepenier, Collette. Assisted Reproduction in Endangered Species Archived 2010-08-15 at the Wayback Machine, p. 16. Colorado State University, 2006.
- Shefi, Shai; Raviv, Gil; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Weissenberg, Ruth; Jalalian, Liza; Levron, Jacob; Band, Gili; Turek, Paul J.; Madgar, Igael (2006-11-01). "Posthumous sperm retrieval: analysis of time interval to harvest sperm". Human Reproduction. 21 (11): 2890–2893. doi:10.1093/humrep/del232. ISSN 0268-1161. PMID 16959804.
- Semen collection techniques: the artificial vagina, digital manipulation, and electroejaculation.