Electron (software framework)
|Initial release||15 July 2013|
20.1.0 / 25 August 2022
19.0.0-beta.4 / 5 May 2022
|Operating system||Linux, macOS and Windows|
|Platform||IA-32, x86-64, ARM|
It was originally built for Atom. Electron is the main GUI framework behind several open-source projects including Atom, GitHub Desktop, Light Table, Visual Studio Code, WordPress Desktop, and Eclipse Theia.
Electron applications comprise multiple processes. There is the "main" process and several "renderer" processes. The main process runs the logic for the application (e. g. menus, shell commands, lifecycle events), and can then launch multiple renderer processes by instantiating an instance of the
BrowserWindow class, which loads a window that appears on a user's screen rendering HTML and CSS.
Both the main and renderer processes can run with Node.js integration if the
nodeIntegration field in the main process is set to
In September 2021, Electron moved to an 8 week release cycle between major versions to match the release cycle of Chromium Extended Stable and to comply with a new requirement from the Microsoft Store that requires browser-based apps to be within 2 major versions of the latest release of the browser engine.
Electron actively supports the latest three stable major versions. From September 2021 to May 2022, four major versions were temporarily supported due to the change in release cycles.
|Release||Status||Release date||End of life date||Chromium version||Node.js version||Module version||N-API version||ICU version|
|Latest preview version of a future release: v20.x.y||Alpha||2022-08-02||?||104||16.15||?||?||?|
|Current stable version: v19.x.y||Current||2022-05-24||?||102||16.14||106||?||?|
|Older version, yet still maintained: v18.x.y||Active||2022-03-29||?||100||16.13||103||?||?|
|Older version, yet still maintained: v17.x.y||Active||2022-01-31||?||98||16.13||101||?||?|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v16.x.y||End-of-Life||2021-11-15||2022-05-24||96||16.9||99||?||?|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v15.x.y||End-of-Life||2021-09-21||2022-05-24||94||16.5||98||?||?|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v14.x.y||End-of-Life||2021-08-30||2022-03-29||92||14.17||89||8||69.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v13.x.y||End-of-Life||2021-05-25||2022-01-31||91||14.16||89||7||68.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v12.0.x||End-of-Life||2021-03-02||2021-11-15||89||14.16||87||7||68.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v11.4.x||End-of-Life||2020-11-16||2021-08-30||87||12.18||85||5||65.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v10.4.x||End-of-Life||2020-08-25||2021-05-25||85||12.16||82||5||65.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v9.4.x||End-of-Life||2020-05-18||2021-03-02||83||12.14||80||5||65.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v8.3.x||End-of-Life||2020-02-04||2020-11-16||80||12.13||76||5||65.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v7.3.x||End-of-Life||2019-10-22||2020-08-25||78||12.8||75||4||64.2|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v6.1.x||End-of-Life||2019-07-29||2020-05-18||76||12.4||73||4||64.2|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v5.1.x||End-of-Life||2019-04-24||2020-02-04||73||12.0||70||4||63.1|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v4.2.x||End-of-Life||2018-12-20||2019-10-22||69||10.11||69||3||62.2|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v3.1.x||End-of-Life||2018-09-18||2019-07-29||66||10.2||64||3||?|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v2.0.x||End-of-Life||2018-05-01||2019-04-24||61||8.9||57||?||?|
|Old version, no longer maintained: v1.8.x||End-of-Life||2017-12-12||2018-12-20||59||8.2||57||?||?|
Desktop applications built with Electron include Atom, balenaEtcher, Eclipse Theia, Microsoft Teams, Slack and Visual Studio Code. Additionally, Brave Browser was based on Electron before it was rewritten to use Chromium directly.
The most common criticism of Electron is that it necessitates software bloat when used for simple programs. As a result, Michael Larabel has referred to the framework as "notorious among most Linux desktop users for being resource heavy, not integrating well with most desktops, and generally being despised". Meanwhile, Joey Sneddon states that this tradeoff is sensible as Electron greatly lowers the cost of developing and maintaining cross-platform software.
- Apache Cordova
- Chromium Embedded Framework (CEF)
- HTML Application
- Qt WebEngine
- JavaFX WebView
- Progressive web application
- "electron/electron". GitHub. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Release Notes for v20.1.0". 25 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
- "electron v19.0.0-beta.4". 5 May 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
- "electron/LICENSE at master". GitHub. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
- Sawicki, Kevin (23 April 2015). "Atom Shell is now Electron". Electron. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
- "electron/electron". GitHub. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Electron Internals: Using Node as a Library". electronjs.org. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
- Horner, Gabriel (10 December 2015). "Light Table 0.8.0". lighttable.com. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
- "GitHub Repository". GitHub. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- "Theia - Cloud and Desktop IDE Platform". theia-ide.org. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
- "New Electron Release Cadence | Electron". electronjs.org. 14 July 2021.
- "Electron Support | Electron". electronjs.org.
- "Release electron v19.0.0 · electron/electron". GitHub.
- "Release electron v18.0.0 · electron/electron". GitHub.
- "Release electron v17.0.0 · electron/electron". GitHub.
- "Release electron v16.0.0 · electron/electron". GitHub.
- Sawicki, Kevin (23 April 2015). "Atom Shell is now Electron". Electron. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Etcher on GitHub". GitHub. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- msdmaguire. "How Microsoft Teams uses memory - Microsoft Teams". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
- "Building hybrid applications with Electron". Several People Are Coding. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- Bright, Peter (29 April 2015). "Microsoft's new Code editor is built on Google's Chromium". Ars Technica. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "Open Source project". GitHub. 29 March 2022.
- Proven, Liam (19 November 2021). "Some FOSS gems: Franz, RamBox, Pidgin and more". The Register. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
- Larabel, Michael (9 February 2019). "Electron Apps Are Bad, So Now You Can Create Desktop Apps With HTML5 + Golang". Phoronix. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
- Sneddon, Joey (23 July 2017). "Seriously folks, Electron apps aren't that bad". OMG Ubuntu. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
- Gallagher, Sean (7 August 2019). "Skype, Slack, other Electron based apps can be easily backdoored". Ars Technica. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
- Hoffman, Chris (15 August 2019). "That native app is probably just an old web browser". How To Geek. Retrieved 26 August 2022.