The album was recorded in a rented factory in Berlin in October 1969, using just a two-track Revoxtape recorder. Its style is a unique form of free jazz, electronic art music, and instrumental rock; or as Sound on Sound magazine described it, "free electronic rock". Its instrumentation ranges from conventional instruments such as the guitar, organ, drums, and cello to various custom-made electronic devices implemented by Edgar Froese and found sounds such as broken glass, burning parchment, and dried peas being shaken in a sieve. The backwards vocals at the end of side two are of Edgar Froese reading from the back of a ferry ticket from Dover to Calais. The original LP had a balloon inserted in the cover; the 2004 Japan CD release is a copy of the original LP cover and includes the balloon.
Electronic Meditation is the only Tangerine Dream album to feature the line-up of Edgar Froese, Klaus Schulze and Conrad Schnitzler. The 2002 CD reissue on Sanctuary Records revealed that there were two previously uncredited musicians: organist Jimmy Jackson and flautist Thomas Keyserling.