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Electronic visa

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Immigration departments of most countries require electronic visa holder to provide printed confirmation receipt at port of entry.

An electronic visa (E-Visa) and an electronic travel authorization (ETA, also styled eTA) are digital travel permits commonly required in conjunction with a valid passport for entry into specific jurisdictions. These electronic travel documents have gained prominence in the modern era of digital connectivity and streamlined travel processes.


Beginning in the 2000s many countries introduced e-visas and electronic travel authorisations (ETAs) as an alternative to traditional visas. An ETA is a kind of pre-arrival registration, which may or may not be officially classified as a visa depending on the issuing jurisdiction, required for foreign travellers who are exempted from obtaining a full visa. In contrast to the procedures that typically apply in regard to proper visas, per which the traveller normally has no recourse if rejected, if an ETA is rejected the traveller can choose to apply for a visa instead. In contrast, an e-visa is simply a visa that travellers can apply for and receive online without visiting the issuing state's consular mission or visa agency.

Differences Between eVisa and eTA[edit]

Electronic Visa (eVisa) and Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) are digital travel documents that enable travelers to gain entry into foreign countries. Despite their apparent similarities, these two forms of travel authorization exhibit notable distinctions:

  • It is crucial to clarify that an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) should not be confused with a traditional visa. These documents serve distinct purposes and have varying eligibility criteria.[citation needed]
  • eTAs are legally not a kind of visa, and are generally limited to travelers hailing from countries that have entered into a Visa Waiver Program with the destination country, while eVisas are typically available to a broader spectrum of countries and territories. Travellers are still able to apply for a visa if an eTA is rejected.[citation needed]

Limit and validity[edit]

  • The differences between eVisas and eTAs extend to the duration of their validity and the constraints they impose on travel.[citation needed]
  • eVisas typically carry a validity period ranging from 30 to 60 days, making them suitable for relatively short-term visits.[citation needed]
  • Conversely, eTAs are often granted more extended periods of validity, allowing for greater flexibility in planning multiple visits over time.[citation needed]

Multiple entries[edit]

  • Another pivotal distinction lies in the number of entries permitted by these travel documents.[citation needed]
  • eTAs frequently enable travelers to make multiple entries into the destination country during the document's validity period, catering to those with recurring travel needs.[citation needed]
  • Conversely, eVisas are conventionally designed for single-entry use, meaning travelers can enter the country only once during the visa's validity.[citation needed]


The following jurisdictions require certain categories of international travellers to hold an ETA or e-visa to clear border controls upon arrival, if they don't need a visa:

  • Australia: Australia administers two distinct categories of ETA. The Electronic Travel Authority scheme is available to citizens of a variety of North America and Asian countries while the eVisitor scheme provides a similar facility for nationals of the European Union and the European Economic Area.
    • Electronic Travel Authority: Development of the Electronic Travel Authority system commenced in January 1996. It was first implemented in Singapore on a trial basis on 11 September 1996, for holders of Singaporean and American passports travelling on Qantas and Singapore Airlines. Implementation of online applications began in June 2001.[1][2] The current ETA came into effect on 23 March 2013 replacing older ETAs (subclass 976, 977 and 956) while offering a single authorisation for both tourist and business purposes.[3] The ETA allows the holder to visit Australia for unlimited times, up to 3 months per visit, in a 12-month period for tourism or business purposes. There is no visa application charge but a service charge of AU$20 applies for applications lodged online. At the time of travel to, and entry into, Australia, all holders of an ETA must be free from tuberculosis and must not have any criminal convictions for which the sentence or sentences (whether served or not) total 12 months or more.[4] The ETA is currently available to passport holders of a handful of jurisdictions in Asia and North America.[a]
    • eVisitor programme: The eVisitor scheme was established to create a reciprocal short stay travel arrangement for nationals of Australia and the European Union, while still maintaining Australia's universal visa system. In essence, while nationals of the European Union and European Economic Area are still theoretically issued visas, the burden posed by the system is so minimal as to satisfy the EU's requirement for visa reciprocity on the part of states whose nationals are accorded visa free access to the Schengen Area.[6][7] The eVisitor is available to citizens of all 27 European Union member states and 9 other countries. The eVisitor is issued free of charge and allows the holder to visit Australia for unlimited times, up to 3 months per visit, in a 12-month period for tourism or business purposes. At the time of travel to, and entry into, Australia, all holders of an eVisitor must be free from tuberculosis and must not have any criminal convictions for which the sentence or sentences (whether served or not) total 12 months or more.[6] Holders of most jurisdictions[b] in Western Europe are eligible to enter Australia under the eVisitor programme.
  • East African Community: From February 2014, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda issue an East African Tourist Visa.[9] The visa costs 100 USD and has no restrictions on nationality. It is a non-extendable multiple-entry 90-day visa that has to be first used to enter the country that issued it.[10]
  • Hong Kong: Indian nationals and Taiwanese nationals from the areas administered by the Republic of China[c] as formal international travel. There are arrangements exist for travel between territories controlled by the Republic of China and territories controlled by the People's Republic of China. [d] do not require a visa to enter Hong Kong, but must apply for a pre-arrival registration (PAR) prior to arrival. If not successful, Indian travellers may apply for a visa instead. Taiwanese people are eligible only if they were born in Taiwan or entered Hong Kong as an ROC nationals before, otherwise they should instead apply for an entry permit (a de facto visa) to enter Hong Kong using their Republic of China passport. They may alternatively enter Hong Kong using a Mainland Travel Permit for Taiwan Residents issued by mainland Chinese authorities without any additional permit.
  • India: India permits nationals of most jurisdictions[e] to clear border controls using an e-visa. Travellers holding an e-Visa must arrive via 26 designated airports[f] or 3 designated seaports.[g]
  • Kenya: From 1 January 2021, Kenya solely issues e-visas and physical visas are no longer available.[12]
  • New Zealand: New Zealand has required that visa waiver travellers (other than citizens of Australia, members of a visiting force, or individuals associated with a scientific programme or expedition in Antarctica sponsored by a party to the Antarctic Treaty) obtain an Electronic Travel Authority (NZeTA) since 1 October 2019.[13]
  • Canada: Travellers from visa-free countries entering Canada by air, except American nationals (including those with and without full citizenship), French citizens arriving from Saint Pierre and Miquelon and holders of United States Permanent Residence cards, must obtain an ETA prior to arrival but not if arriving by land or sea. Travellers from 14 other countries normally require a visa to enter Canada, but are eligible to apply for an ETA for entry by air if they have held a Canadian visa within the 10 years prior to applying or if they currently hold a valid non-immigrant American visa.[h] Such travellers must still have a valid Canadian visa to enter by land or sea.
  • United States: Travellers under the Visa Waiver Program are required to obtain permission through the Electronic System for Travel Authorisation (ESTA) if arriving in America by any mode of transportation as of 2023. Travellers using a passport issued by the Government of Bermuda to a British Overseas Territories Citizen, entering as a Canadian citizen, or entering under other visa exemption arrangements (such as the Compact of Free Association) are not required to hold an ESTA clearance.
  • Pakistan: Visitors from several jurisdictions may enter Pakistan for tourism without obtaining a visa in advance provided they hold an ETA.[i]
  • Seychelles: All visitor from Seychelles (except  Kosovo) does not require a visa. However, they need SEBS (Seychelles Electronic Border System). It must need to be fulfilled 30 days before the entry, and pay a fee. Travellers of all ages need to do that, while Seychellois citizens and permanent residents still need the Embarkation Information Form.[16]
  • South Korea: eligible visa-free visitors must obtain Korea Electronic Travel Authorization (K-ETA).
  • Sri Lanka: Travellers to Sri Lanka must obtain an ETA prior to getting a visa on arrival at the entry port, except for a few countries where the ETA is exempted, and for a few countries where a visa must obtained in advance. Citizens of India, Pakistan, and other countries in the northwestern part of Asia receive discounted ETAs.[17]
  • Qatar: From 27 September 2017, citizens of all nationalities who hold valid residence permits or visas from either Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the Schengen countries, the United Kingdom, the United States of America or the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council can obtain an ETA for up to 30 days. The authorization may be extended online for 30 additional days.[18] Qatar introduced an e-Visa system on 23 June 2017. All countries except  Egypt,  Israel,  Kosovo and  Palestine that do not qualify for visa on arrival or visa free entry may apply for a tourist visa online through the eVisa system.[19] Visas are issued within four working days if all documents are submitted and are valid for a stay period up to 30 days in Qatar.[20]
  • United Kingdom: Citizens of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE can obtain an Electronic Visa Waiver, or EVW, online to enter the United Kingdom.[j][21] The Nationality and Borders Bill, before the parliament in Spring 2022, includes a proposal to introduce the Electronic Travel Authorisation system for all non-UK and Irish citizens.[22][23]
Map of states with ETA or eVisa facilities
  States granting eVisas universally
  States granting eVisas to select nationalities
  States without eVisa facilities but requiring ETAs from some visa exempt visitors or visitors eligible for a visa on arrival
  States that plan to introduce eVisas or ETAs in the future
  States without ETA and eVisa facilities

An electronic visa (e-Visa or eVisa) or Electronic travel authorization (or ETA) is stored in a computer and is linked to the passport number so no label, sticker, or stamp is placed in the passport before travel. The application is done over the internet, and the receipt acts as a visa, which can be printed or stored on a mobile device.

These lists are not exhaustive. Some countries may have more detailed classifications of some of these categories reflecting the nuances of their respective geographies, social conditions, economies, international treaties, etc.

Country Mode Universal eligibility VoA alternative Ref.
 Angola Pre-approval X X [24]
 Antigua and Barbuda eVisa X [25]
 Armenia eVisa X [26]
 Argentina eVisa (called ETA) X X [27]
 Ascension Island eVisa X [28]
 Australia ETA X X [29]
 Azerbaijan eVisa X partial [30]
 Bahrain eVisa X partial [31]
 Benin eVisa X [32]
 Cambodia eVisa X [33]
 Djibouti eVisa [34]
 Egypt eVisa X partial [35]
 Ethiopia eVisa partial [36]
 Gabon eVisa partial [37]
 Georgia eVisa X X [38]
 Guinea eVisa X [39]
 Guinea-Bissau Pre-approval [40]
 Hong Kong ETA/eVisa X [41][42]
 India eVisa X partial [43]
Iran Iran eVisa X [44]
 Ivory Coast eVisa X [45]
 Japan eVisa X [46]
 Kenya eVisa X [47]
 Kuwait eVisa X [48]
 Kyrgyzstan eVisa partial [49]
 Laos eVisa X [50]
 Lesotho eVisa X [51]
 Madagascar eVisa [52]
 Malawi eVisa [53]
 Malaysia eVisa X [54][55]
 Mexico ETA X X [56]
 Mongolia Pre-approval X partial [57]
 Montserrat eVisa X [58]
 Morocco eVisa/ETA X partial [59]
 Myanmar eVisa X partial [60]
 New Zealand ETA X X [61]
 Nigeria eVisa X partial [62]
 Oman eVisa X [63]
 Pakistan ETA X X [64]
 Papua New Guinea eVisa X [65]
 Qatar eVisa
 Russia eVisa X X [66]
 Rwanda eVisa [67]
 Saint Helena eVisa X [68]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis eVisa X [69]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa X [70]
 Saudi Arabia eVisa X [71]
 Singapore eVisa X X [72]
 South Sudan eVisa X [73]
 Sri Lanka ETA X [74]
 Seychelles ETA X [75]
 Suriname eVisa X [76]
 Taiwan eVisa X partial [77]
 Tajikistan eVisa X X [78]
 Tanzania eVisa [79]
 Thailand eVisa/Pre-approval X [80]/[81]
 Turkey eVisa X X [82]
 Uganda eVisa X [83]
 Ukraine eVisa X X [84]
 United Kingdom EVW X X [85]
 Uzbekistan eVisa X X [86]
 Vietnam eVisa X X [87]
 Zambia eVisa partial [88]
 Zimbabwe eVisa partial [89]

Russia maintains an eVisa program for visitors from certain countries arriving to Russian Far East, Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Region and Kaliningrad Region.[90] And will introduce a single electronic visa from 1 January 2021.[91]

Future introduction[edit]

Authorities of Brazil,[92] Belarus,[93] Chad,[94] Republic of the Congo,[95] Democratic Republic of the Congo,[96] Equatorial Guinea,[97] Ghana,[98] Kazakhstan,[99] Liberia,[100] South Africa,[101] and Tunisia[102] have announced plans to introduce electronic visas in the future.

  • United Kingdom The United Kingdom is rolling out eVisas to replace all physical immigration documents, such as biometric residence permits and visa vignettes on passports. The process was started in 2024, with most visas going electronic in 2025 [104] As this will only apply to visa-required visitors, this is separate to the established ETA system for visa-waived visitors.


  1. ^ Eligible jurisdictions are:[5]
  2. ^ Holders of the following passports are eligible:[8]
  3. ^ The area under the definition consists of:
  4. ^ Documents required for travel between the PRC and ROC are:
  5. ^ This includes nationals of:[11]
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ Eligible jurisdictions are:[14]
  9. ^ Eligible jurisdictions are as follows:[15]
  10. ^ A holder of an EVW authorisation can visit and/or study in the UK for up to 6 months without a visa. An EVW is only valid for one entry, and a new EVW must be obtained each time an eligible person wishes to enter the UK to visit and/or study for up to 6 months without a visa. The EVW is valid for visits up to 90 days to Ireland once a holder has cleared immigration in the United Kingdom.


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  3. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Electronic Travel Authority (subclass 601)". Australian Embassy, Republic of Korea. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
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  5. ^ "For Electronic Travel Authority Applicants – Who can apply". Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
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