Electronics industry

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Workers in an electronics factory in Shenzhen, China

The electronics industry, especially meaning consumer electronics, emerged in the 20th century and has now become a global industry worth billions of dollars. Contemporary society uses all manner of electronic devices built in automated or semi-automated factories operated by the industry. Products are assembled from integrated circuits, principally by photolithography of printed circuit boards.

The size of the industry and the use of toxic materials, as well as the difficulty of recycling has led to a series of problems with electronic waste. International regulation and environmental legislation has been developed in an attempt to address the issues.


The electric power industry began in the 19th century and this led to the development of all manner of inventions. Gramophones were an early invention and this was followed by radio transmitters and receivers and televisions. The first digital computers were built in the 1940s with a slow development in technology and total sales. In the 1970s and 1980s, the vacuum tube, was largely supplanted by semiconductor components as the fundamental technology of the industry.[1]

The first working transistor, a point-contact transistor, was invented by William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen at Bell Laboratories in 1947.[2] The MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.[3][4][5][6] The MOS transistor revolutionized the electronics industry.[7][8] The MOS transistor is the most common semiconductor device in the world,[5][9] and the building block of modern digital electronics.[6][10]

The silicon-gate MOS integrated circuit (IC) was developed by Federico Faggin at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968.[11] The first single-chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was developed by Federico Faggin, using his silicon-gate MOS IC technology, with Intel engineers Marcian Hoff and Stan Mazor, and Busicom engineer Masatoshi Shima.[12] This led to the microcomputer revolution, which began in the 1970s. In the 1990s, the personal computer became popular. With the digital revolution and information revolution, the electronics industry has largely shifted to digital technology in the information age of the early 21st century.

The rapid progress of the electronics industry during the late 20th to early 21st centuries was achieved by rapid MOSFET scaling (Dennard scaling and Moore's law), down to the level of nanoelectronics in the early 21st century.[13] The MOSFET is the most widely manufactured device in history, with an estimated total of 13 sextillion MOS transistors manufactured as of 2018.[14][15]

The industry now employs large numbers of electronics engineers and electronics technicians to design, develop, test, manufacture, install, and repair electrical and electronic equipment such as communication equipment, medical monitoring devices, navigational equipment, and computers. Common parts manufactured are connectors, system components, cell systems, computer accessories, and these are made of alloy steel, copper, brass, stainless steel, plastic, steel tubing and other materials.[16]

Consumer electronics[edit]

Consumer electronics are products intended for everyday use, most often in entertainment, communications and office productivity. Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the broadcast receiver. Later products include personal computers, telephones, MP3 players, audio equipment, televisions, calculators, GPS automotive electronics, digital cameras and players and recorders using video media such as DVDs, VCRs or camcorders. Increasingly these products have become based on digital technologies, and have largely merged with the computer industry in what is increasingly referred to as the consumerization of information technology.

The CEA (Consumer Electronics Association) estimated the value of 2017 consumer electronics sales at US$319 billion or INR ₹ 21,98,700cr..[17]

Effects on the environment[edit]

Electrical waste contains hazardous but also valuable and scarce materials and up to 60 elements can be found in complex electronics.

The United States and China are the world leaders in producing electronic waste, each tossing away about 3 million tons each year.[18] China also remains a major e-waste dumping ground for developed countries.[18] The UNEP estimate that the amount of e-waste being produced - including mobile phones and computers - could rise by as much as 500 percent over the next decade in some developing countries, such as India.[19]

Increasing environmental awareness has led to changes in electronics design to reduce or eliminate toxic materials and to reduce energy consumption. The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) were released by the European Commission in 2002.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ International Directory of Company Histories. Vol. 14. St. James Press. 1996 – via FundingUniverse.
  2. ^ Manuel, Castells (1996). The information age : economy, society and culture. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631215943. OCLC 43092627.
  3. ^ "1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum.
  4. ^ Lojek, Bo (2007). History of Semiconductor Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 321–3. ISBN 9783540342588.
  5. ^ a b "Who Invented the Transistor?". Computer History Museum. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Triumph of the MOS Transistor". YouTube. Computer History Museum. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  7. ^ Chan, Yi-Jen (1992). Studies of InAIAs/InGaAs and GaInP/GaAs heterostructure FET's for high speed applications. University of Michigan. p. 1. The Si MOSFET has revolutionized the electronics industry and as a result impacts our daily lives in almost every conceivable way.
  8. ^ Grant, Duncan Andrew; Gowar, John (1989). Power MOSFETS: theory and applications. Wiley. p. 1. ISBN 9780471828679. The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is the most commonly used active device in the very large-scale integration of digital integrated circuits (VLSI). During the 1970s these components revolutionized electronic signal processing, control systems and computers.
  9. ^ Golio, Mike; Golio, Janet (2018). RF and Microwave Passive and Active Technologies. CRC Press. p. 18–2. ISBN 9781420006728.
  10. ^ Raymer, Michael G. (2009). The Silicon Web: Physics for the Internet Age. CRC Press. p. 365. ISBN 9781439803127.
  11. ^ "1968: Silicon Gate Technology Developed for ICs". Computer History Museum. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  12. ^ "1971: Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip". Computer History Museum. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  13. ^ Franco, Jacopo; Kaczer, Ben; Groeseneken, Guido (2013). Reliability of High Mobility SiGe Channel MOSFETs for Future CMOS Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9789400776630.
  14. ^ "13 Sextillion & Counting: The Long & Winding Road to the Most Frequently Manufactured Human Artifact in History". Computer History Museum. April 2, 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  15. ^ Baker, R. Jacob (2011). CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 7. ISBN 978-1118038239.
  16. ^ "Industries and Markets", Bracalente Manufacturing Group, Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  17. ^ CEA: Industry Statistics, archived from the original on 2009-04-21
  18. ^ a b "Urgent need to prepare developing countries for surges in E-Waste".
  19. ^ Section, United Nations News Service (2010-02-22). "As e-waste mountains soar, UN urges smart technologies to protect health". United Nations-DPI/NMD - UN News Service Section. Retrieved 2012-03-12.

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