Elena Garro

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Elena Garro (December 11, 1916 – August 22, 1998) was a Mexican writer. She was once married to writer Octavio Paz.


Elena Garro was born to a Spanish father and a Mexican mother on December 11, 1916 in Puebla, Mexico. Frequently, Elena Garro is said to have been born in 1920, but that is wrong. (Hand Written Original Birth Certificate recorded February 7, 1917, says "11 Diciembre de PROX. Pasado," which means Dec. 11, 1916: [1] - The updated version is typed [2] [1] She spent her childhood in Mexico City but moved to Iguala, Guerrero, during the Cristero War. She studied literature, choreography and theater in the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City, where she was an active member of Julio Bracho's theatre group.[2] While she lived in Mexico City she met Octavio Paz, whom she married in 1937. They had one daughter, Helena Laura Paz Garro. She turned her love of the theatre to writing plays. Most of her works have been produced abroad, and many were printed many years after she had written them. Elena Garro and Octavio Paz were supposed to be divorced in 1959. Elena Garro declared she never divorced Octavio Paz and, if such a document exists, a fraudulent divorce document was created-(Personal conversation with Elena Garro in 1997 with Patricia Rosas Lopategui and Casey Reed, wherein Elena Garro declared that no formal document of her divorce with Octavio Paz with Elena Garro's signature exists.) According to her final will, Elena died believing she was not legally divorced.

After the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre, she accused certain Mexican intellectuals of being responsible of instigating the students and later abandoning them. These accusations caused resentment in the intellectual community who repudiated her. In 1972, Garro left the country and lived in exile in France for twenty years.

When she returned to Mexico in 1994 she lived in Cuernavaca [3][citation needed]. She suffered from lung cancer due to her heavy smoking and Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (CONACULTA) covered her medical expenses. She later died from this illness.

Her work touches on the themes of the marginalization of women and racism. Most important was her criticism of the Mexican government. She also portrayed a critical vision of the Mexican Revolution (1910) in her master novel "Los recuerdos del porvenir" (1963), which was awarded the Xavier Villarutia Prize, and which has been translated into several languages. Her novel "Y Matarazo no llamó . . . " criticizes how the government used excessive force to stop the labor strike. In her short story, "La culpa es de los tlaxcaltecas," she vindicates la Malinche. Her play "Felipe Angeles" is a documentary drama where she resurrects the General Felipe Angeles, a revolutionary leader who was executed in 1919 by the government of Venustiano Carranza] against the will of the people. This was a result of his success in saving the lives of many people in Chihuahua, when Pancho Villa ordered the execution of one hundred soldiers. He is also known for his triumph in Zacatecas. Angeles fought against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz with Francisco Madero, president of Mexico who was also assassinated.



  • Felipe Ángeles (1979)
  • Un hogar sólido y otras piezas en un acto (1958)
  • Los pilares de doña Blanca
  • El rey mago
  • Andarse por las ramas
  • Ventura Allende
  • El encanto
  • Los perros (1967)
  • El árbol (1963)
  • La dama boba
  • El rastro
  • Benito Fernández
  • La mudanza
  • Parada San Ángel
  • La señora en su balcón. (1994 ISBN. 968-856-379-X)
  • Sócrates y los gatos. (2003. ISBN 970-651-708-1)


Short stories[edit]

  • “El día que fuimos perros”, 1963.
  • “La culpa es de los tlaxcaltecas”.
  • “La semana de colores”, 1964 (ISBN 968-419-882-5).
  • “Andamos huyendo Lola”, 1980.
  • El accidente y otros cuentos inéditos.


News report[edit]

  • Revolucionarios mexicanos



{{ Agent for Elena Garro and Helena Paz Garro - Patricia Rosas Lopategui has an official Birth Certificate - Hand written Acta de Nacimiento Acta de nacimiento de Elena Garro. Registro Civil de la ciudad de Puebla, Puebla, México. Libro 122, acta 72, p. 21. [3]

The updated version from the Mexican data base in Puebla, 2001 [4] }}

  1. ^ according to both the original hand written version and printed updated data base of the Mexican Birth Certificate
  2. ^ Cortes and Barrea-Marlys. Encyclopedia of Latin American Theatre. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 2003. pp:301.Print
  3. ^ Cortes and Barrea-Marlys. Encyclopedia of Latin American Theatre. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 2003. pp:301.Print

Further reading[edit]


  • Luiselli, Alessandra. "La voluntad gótica de Elena Garro en su novela Ines", Alba de América 31:59 (2011) 64-79.
  • Luiselli, Alessandra. "Elena Garro", Letras Mexicanas. Ensayos críticos sobre escritores mexicanos de la segunda mitad del siglo veinte. Mexico: UNAM, 2006.153-173. ISBN 970-32-3594-8
  • La doble memoria de la loca. Sergio Callao en Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana. Lima-Hanover 2001
  • Melgar, Lucía; Gabriela Mora: Elena Garro: lectura múltiple de una personalidad compleja. Puebla: Benemérita Univ. Autónoma de Puebla, 2002. ISBN 968-863-628-2
  • A different reality: Studies on the work of Elena Garro, ed. by Anita K. Stoll. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell Univ. Press, 1990.ISBN 0-8387-5166-0
  • Perea-Fox, Susana: "Elena Garro y los rostros del poder". D.F. México, Editorial Cenzontle, 2007. ISBN 978-970-9929-08-9
  • Rosas Lopátegui, Patricia: Yo sólo soy memoria: biografía visual de Elena Garro. Mexico: Ed. Castillo, 2000. ISBN 970-20-0088-2
  • Rosas Lopátegui Patricia: "Testimonios sobre Elena Garro". Biografía exclusiva y autorizada de Elena Garro, Monterrey, México, Ediciones Castillo, 2002. ISBN 970-20-0285-0
  • Rosas Lopátegui Patricia: "El asesinato de Elena Garro. Periodismo a través de una perspectiva biográfica", México, Porrúa, 2005. ISBN 970-07-6159-2
  • Rosas Lopátegui, Patricia: El asesinato de Elena Garro. Periodismo a través de una perspectiva biográfica, Monterrey, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, 2a. ed. aumentada, 2015. ISBN 978-607-27-0324-7
  • Rosas Lopátegui, Patricia, Yo quiero que haya mundo... Elena Garro 50 años de dramaturgia (coordinadora, autora y compiladora), Editorial Porrúa-Buap, México, 2008 ISBN 978-970-07-7691-0.
  • Schmidhbuer, Guillermo, "Cátedra de Damas: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz y Elena Garro". México: Universidad de Guadalajara, 2003. ISBN 970-27-0293-3
  • Schmidhuber, Guillermo, "En busca de un hogar sólido I y II" (two plays with Elena Garro as character). Argentina: Editorial Teatro Vivo, 2004. ISBN 987-21678-1-8
  • Toruño, Rhina. "Tiempo, destino, y opresion en la obra de Elena Garro". New York: Mellen University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7734-4258-8
  • Toruño, Rhina. "Tiempo, destino, y opresion en la obra de Elena Garro". Update, 2nd Edition. San Salvador, El Salvador: Universidad Tecnologica de El Salvador, 1998. ISBN 99923-21-00-8
  • Toruño, Rhina. "Cita con la memoria: "Elena Garro cuenta su vida a Rhina Toruño". Buenos Aires, Argentina: Prueba de Galera Ediciones, 2004 ISBN 987-20648-6-5
  • Winkler, Julie A.: Light into shadow: marginality and alienation in the work of Elena Garro. New York; Vienna: Lang, 2001. (Currents in comparative Romance languages and literatures; 76 ) ISBN 0-8204-4071-X
  • Toruño-Haesnly, Rhina. "Encounter with Memory". Bloomington, Indiana: Palibrio, 2011 (hardcover) ISBN 978-1-4633-0457-7, (softcover) ISBN 978-1-4633-0456-0, (ebook) ISBN 978-1-4633-0455-3