Elena of Montenegro
|Elena of Montenegro|
Elena in 1900
|Queen consort of Italy|
|Tenure||29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946|
|Empress consort of Ethiopia|
|Tenure||9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941|
|Queen consort of the Albanians|
|Tenure||16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943|
|Born||8 January 1873|
|Died||28 November 1952 (aged 79)|
Sanctuary of Vicoforte, Italy
|Spouse||Victor Emmanuel III of Italy|
|Father||Nicholas I of Montenegro|
prev. Eastern Orthodox
|Reference style||Her Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
Princess Elena of Montenegro, or more commonly known as Queen Elena of Italy (Montenegrin: Jelena Petrović Njegoš; 8 January 1873 – 28 November 1952) was the daughter of King Nicholas I of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić. As wife of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, she was Queen of Italy from 1900 until 1946, Empress consort of Ethiopia from 1936 until 1941 and Queen consort of the Albanians from 1939 until 1943.
She was born in Cetinje as daughter of Montenegrin Prince and future King Nicholas I and his wife Milena. At the age of 10, she went to the Institute for young ladies in Saint Petersburg, Russia. She was talented at painting and architecture, and she designed the monument for Prince Danilo I.
As the result of Elena's marriage to King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy on 24 October 1896, she converted to Catholicism from Orthodoxy and became Queen of Italy when her husband acceded to the throne in 1900. Her mother was so distressed with the fact that Elena had changed her religion that she refused to come to the wedding ceremony in Rome.
Due to the Fascist conquest of Ethiopia in 1936 and Albania in 1939, Queen Elena briefly used the claimed titles of Empress of Ethiopia and Queen of Albania; both titles were dropped when her husband formally renounced them in 1943.
She influenced her husband to lobby Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy, for creation of the independent Kingdom of Montenegro in 1941. In 1943 she subsequently obtained the release from a German prison of her nephew, Prince Michael of Montenegro, and his wife, Geneviève. Prince Michael had been imprisoned after refusing to become King of Montenegro under the protection of Italy.
The Queen and the wars
On 29 July 1900, following his father's assassination, Victor Emmanuel ascended the Italian throne. Officially, Elena assumed her husband's whole titles: she became Queen of Italy, and with the birth of the Italian Colonial Empire she became Queen of Albania and Empress of Ethiopia.
On 28 December 1908 Messina was hit by a disastrous earthquake. Queen Elena helped with the rescuers, as some photographs show. This helped to increase her popularity within the country. During the First World War Elena worked as a nurse and, with the help of the Queen Mother, she turned Quirinal Palace and Villa Margherita into hospitals. To raise funds, she invented the "signed photograph", which was sold at the charity desks. At the end of the war, she proposed to sell the crown treasures in order to pay the war debts.
Elena was the first Inspector of the Voluntary Nurses for the Italian Red Cross from 1911 until 1921. She studied medicine and was able to obtain a laurea honoris causa. She financed charitable institutions for people with encephalitis, tuberculosis, former soldiers and poor mothers.
On 15 April 1937 Pope Pius XII gave her the Golden Rose of Christianity, the most important honour for a Catholic lady at the time. Pope Pius XII, in a condolence telegram sent to her son Umberto II for the queen's death, defined her a "Lady of charitable work".
In 1939, three months after the German invasion of Poland and the declaration of war by the United Kingdom and France, Elena wrote a letter to the six European queens still neutral (Queen Alexandrine of Denmark, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, Queen Elisabeth of Belgium, Queen Ioanna of Bulgaria and Queen Mother Maria of Yugoslavia) in order to avoid the great tragedy World War II would become.
On 25 July 1943 Victor Emmanuel III had Benito Mussolini arrested. The king left Rome on 9 September to flee to Brindisi with the help of the Allies and Elena followed her husband in his escape. In contrast, on 23 September their daughter Mafalda was arrested by the Nazis and sent to Buchenwald concentration camp, where she died in 1944.
Exile and death
Following the war, on 9 May 1946, Victor Emmanuel III abdicated in favour of their son Umberto, and the former king assumed the title of Count of Pollenzo. On 2 June 1946 a referendum resulted in 52 percent of voters favouring an Italian republic over the monarchy. The republic was formally proclaimed four days later, and the House of Savoy's reign over Italy formally ended on 12 June 1946. Elena and Victor Emmanuel III went to Egypt, where they were welcomed with great honor by King Faruk, but forced to live the rest of their lives in exile. Vittorio Emmanuel III died a year later of pulmonary congestion in Alexandria. Elena stayed in Egypt a short time before moving to France. There, in Montpellier, she was diagnosed with a severe form of cancer, and died while having surgery to treat it.
65 years after her death, on 15 December 2017, the remains of Elena were repatriated from Montpellier, to the sanctuary of Vicoforte, near Turin. The remains of Victor Emmanuel III were transferred two days later from Alexandria, and interred alongside hers.
King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Queen Elena had 5 children:
- Princess Yolanda Margherita Milena Elisabetta Romana Maria of Savoy (1901–1986), married to Giorgio Carlo Calvi, Count of Bergolo, (1888–1978), with issue;
- Princess Mafalda Maria Elisabetta Anna Romana of Savoy (1902–1944), married to Prince Philipp of Hesse (1896–1980) with issue;
- Prince Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria of Savoy, Prince of Piedmont, later Umberto II, King of Italy (1904–1983) married Princess Marie José of Belgium (1906-2001), with issue.
- Princess Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria of Savoy (1907–2000), married to Boris III, King of Bulgaria (1894-1943), with issue;
- Princess Maria Francesca Anna Romana of Savoy (1914–2001), who married Prince Luigi of Bourbon-Parma (1899–1967), with issue.
Arms and monogram
- House of Petrović-Njegoš: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I, Special Class
- House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Austrian Imperial and Royal Family: Dame of the Imperial and Royal Order of the Starry Cross, 1st Class
- Bavarian Royal Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Theresa
- Bulgarian Royal Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Merit
- Nazi Germany: Grand Officer of the Order of Social Welfare, Special Class
- Iran: Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of Aftab
- Spanish Royal Family: 945th Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa
- Yugoslav Royal Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St. Sava
- Holy See: Recipient of the Golden Rose (twice)
- Paolo Griseri. "Il fascismo, le leggi razziali, la fuga". La Repubblica. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Nicole Winfield. "Remains of Exiled Italian King to be Returned after 70 years". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 17, 2017. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- "SAVOIA". Genmarenostrum.com. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "König Vittorio Emanuele III. und Königin Elena von Italien, King and Queen of Italy". Flickr.com. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Official Visit Of The House Of Savoy To Pius Xi Pictures". Getty Images. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Photographic image" (JPG). Imgc.allpostersimages.com. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Photographic image" (JPG). Numismaticatrionfale.com. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Mussolini In Spotlight Over Affair Claims Pictures". Getty Images. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "The Glittering Casa Savoia, a selection of Italian royal pictures (4)". Angelfire.com. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2016.[self-published source][better source needed]
- "The Glittering Casa Savoia, a selection of Italian royal pictures (6)". Angelfire.com. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2016.[self-published source][better source needed]
- [dead link]
- "The Royals Of Italy After A Reception On Campidoglio Pictures". Getty Images. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
Media related to Elena of Montenegro at Wikimedia Commons
- The Njegoskij Fund Public Project : Private family archives-based digital documentary fund focused on history and culture of Royal Montenegro.
- Crnogorska princeza Jelena
Elena of MontenegroBorn: 8 January 1873 Died: 28 November 1952
Margherita of Savoy
| Queen consort of Italy
29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946
Marie-José of Belgium
| Empress consort of Ethiopia
(Not internationally recognised)
9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941
Géraldine Apponyi de Nagyappony
| Queen consort of Albania
16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943