|Synonyms||Partial gigantism-nevi-hemihypertrophy-macrocephaly syndrome, Wiedemann syndrome|
|Classification and external resources|
Proteus syndrome is a rare disorder that has genetic background that can cause tissue overgrowth involving all three embryonic lineages. Patients with Proteus syndrome tend to have an increased risk of embryonic tumor development. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of Proteus syndrome are highly variable. The syndrome is named after the Greek sea-god Proteus, who could change his shape. The condition appears to have been first described in the American medical literature by Drs. Samia Temtamy and John Rogers in 1976. Dr. Michael Cohen described it in 1979. Only a few more than 200 cases have been confirmed worldwide, with estimates that about 120 people are currently alive with the condition. As attenuated forms of the disease may exist, there could be many people with Proteus syndrome who remain undiagnosed. Those most readily diagnosed are also the most severely disfigured.
Signs and symptoms
Proteus syndrome causes an overgrowth of skin, bones, muscles, fatty tissues, and blood and lymphatic vessels. Proteus syndrome is a progressive condition wherein children are usually born without any obvious deformities. Tumors of skin and bone growths appear as they age typically in early childhood. The musculoskeletal manifestations are cardinal for the diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. The severity and locations of these various asymmetrical growths vary greatly but typically the skull, one or more limbs, and soles of the feet will be affected. There is a risk of premature death in affected individuals due to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism caused by the vessel malformations that are associated with this disorder. Because of carrying excess weight and enlarged limbs, arthritis and muscle pain may also be symptoms — as is the case for Mandy Sellars, a woman who has been diagnosed with a form of Proteus syndrome (but see "Notable Cases" below). Further risks may occur due to the mass of extra tissue.
The disorder itself does not uniformly cause learning impairments: the distribution of intelligence deficits among sufferers of Proteus syndrome appears higher than that of the general population, although this is difficult to determine with statistical significance. In addition, the presence of visible deformity may have a negative effect on the social experiences of the sufferer, causing cognitive and social deficits.
Afflicted individuals are at increased risk for developing certain tumors including unilateral Ovarian cystadenomas, testicular tumors, meningiomas, and monomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland.
The musculoskeletal manifestations of Proteus syndrome are frequent and recognizable. Patients tend to demonstrate a unique pattern of skeletal abnormalities. The orthopaedic features are usually bilateral, asymmetrical, progressive and involving all four limbs and spine. Afflicted patients usually have localized periarticular limb distortions, limb length discrepancy, and spine deformity. Patients with Proteus syndrome can have regular bone configuration and contours despite the bone enlargement. Patients can also exhibit hyperthyroidism of the skull and facial abnormalities. Because of the rarity of the syndrome and the variability of signs, the orthopaedic management should be individualized.
In 2011 researchers determined the cause of Proteus syndrome. In 26 of 29 patients who met strict clinical criteria for the disorder, Lindhurst et al. identified an activating mutation in AKT1 kinase in a mosaic state gene.
Previous research had suggested the condition linked to PTEN on chromosome 10, while other research pointed to chromosome 16. Prior to the findings regarding AKT1 in 2011, other researchers expressed doubt regarding the involvement of PTEN or GPC3, which codes for glypican 3 and may play a role in regulating cell division and growth regulation.
Many sources classify Proteus syndrome to be a type of nevus syndrome. The lesions appear to be distributed in a mosaic manner. It has been confirmed that the disorder is an example of genetic mosaicism.
A team of doctors in Australia have trial tested the drug rapamycin in the treatment of a patient said to have Proteus syndrome and have found it to be an effective remedy. However, the diagnosis of Proteus syndrome in this patient has been questioned by others. The Proteus syndrome research team in the National Human Genome Research Institute at the United States National Institutes of Health have initiated a Phase 0 dose finding trial with the AKT1 inhibitor ARQ 092, which is being developed by the Arqule Corporation. In earlier tests on tissue and cell samples obtained from patients, ARQ 092 reduced phosphorylation of AKT and downstream targets of AKT in as little as two hours. The Phase 0 trial opened in November 2015 and recruited patients in a study titled "Dose Finding Trial of ARQ 092 in Children and Adults With Proteus Syndrome" This trial is based on in vitro data showing inhibition of AKT1 in cell lines from patients with Proteus syndrome.
In a 1986 article in the British Medical Journal, Michael Cohen and J.A.R. Tibbles put forward the theory that Joseph Merrick had suffered from Proteus syndrome. However, the exact condition suffered by Joseph Merrick is still not known with certainty.
Mandy Sellars has been diagnosed by some doctors as suffering from this condition. Her legs and feet have grown at a disproportionate rate since birth. However, in 2013, Sellars' case was profiled on British television in a special called Shrinking My 17 Stone Legs, in which it was determined that Sellars' condition was not, in fact, Proteus syndrome, but rather a PIK3CA gene mutation.
- Epidermal nevus syndrome
- Mosaic (genetics)
- List of radiographic findings associated with cutaneous conditions
- James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. p. 554. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
- Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.
- Jamis-Dow CA, Turner J, Biesecker LG, Choyke PL (2004). "Radiologic manifestations of Proteus syndrome". Radiographics. 24 (4): 1051–68. doi:10.1148/rg.244035726. PMID 15256628.
- Temtamy SA, Rogers JG (December 1976). "Macrodactyly, hemihypertrophy, and connective tissue nevi: Report of a new syndrome and review of the literature". The Journal of Pediatrics. 89 (6): 924–927. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(76)80597-5. PMID 993918.
- Opitz JM, Jorde LB (July 27, 2011). "Hamartoma Syndromes, Exome Sequencing, and a Protean Puzzle". The New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (7): 661–3. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1107384. PMID 21793737.
- Cohen MM, Hayden PW (1979). "A newly recognized hamartomatous syndrome". Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. 15 (5B): 291–6. PMID 118782.
- Woman's 11-stone legs may be lost at BBC
- EL-Sobky TA, Elsayed SM, EL Mikkawy DME (2015). "Orthopaedic manifestations of Proteus syndrome in a child with literature update". Bone Rep. 3:104-108. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2015.09.004. PMC 5365241. PMID 28377973
- Neglia, Ashley (May 2009). "Living With Proteus syndrome". AOL Health. Retrieved June 2009. Check date values in:
- Turner JT, Cohen MM, Biesecker LG (Oct 1, 2004). "Reassessment of the Proteus syndrome literature: application of diagnostic criteria to published cases". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 130A (2): 111–122. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30327. PMID 15372514.
- Bastos, Halisson; da Silva, Paula Fabiana Sobral; de Albuquerque, Marco Antônio Veloso; Mattos, Adriana; Riesgo, Rudimar Santos; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Winckler, Maria Isabel Bragatti; Bragatti, José Augusto; Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Zandoná, Denise Isabel (June 2008). "Proteus syndrome associated with hemimegalencephaly and Ohtahara syndrome: Report of two cases". Seizure. 17 (4): 378–382. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2007.11.001. PMID 18082431.
- Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters K, Turner J, Cannons JL, Bick D, Blakemore L, Blumhorst C, Brockmann K, Calder P, Cherman N, Deardorff MA, Everman DB, Golas G, Greenstein RM, Kato BM, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Kuznetsov SA, Miyamoto RT, Newman K, Ng D, O'Brien K, Rothenberg S, Schwartzentruber DJ, Singhal V, Tirabosco R, Upton J, Wientroub S, Zackai EH, Hoag K, Whitewood-Neal T, Robey PG, Schwartzberg PL, Darling TN, Tosi LL, Mullikin JC, Biesecker LG (Aug 18, 2011). "A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome". N Engl J Med. 365 (7): 611–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1104017. PMC . PMID 21793738.
- Smith JM, Kirk EP, Theodosopoulos G, Marshall GM, Walker J, Rogers M, Field M, Brereton JJ, Marsh DJ (2002). "Germline mutation of the tumour suppressor PTEN in Proteus syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 39 (12): 937–40. doi:10.1136/jmg.39.12.937. PMC . PMID 12471211.
- Cardoso MT, de Carvalho TB, Casulari LA, Ferrari I (2003). "Proteus syndrome and somatic mosaicism of the chromosome 16". Panminerva medica. 45 (4): 267–71. PMID 15206168.
- Thiffault I, Schwartz CE, Der Kaloustian V, Foulkes WD (October 2004). "Mutation analysis of the tumor suppressor PTEN and the glypican 3 (GPC3) gene in patients diagnosed with Proteus syndrome". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 130A (2): 123–7. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30335. PMID 15372512.
- "Entrez Gene: GPC3 glypican 3".
- Biesecker LG, Happle R, Mulliken JB, Weksberg R, Graham JM, Viljoen DL, Cohen MM (1999). "Proteus syndrome: differential diagnosis, and patient evaluation". Am J Med Genet. 84 (5): 389–95. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990611)84:5<389::AID-AJMG1>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 10360391.
- Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters K, Turner J, Cannons JL, Bick D, Blakemore L, Blumhorst C, Brockmann K, Calder P, Cherman N, Deardorff MA, Everman DB, Golas G, Greenstein RM, Kato BM, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Kuznetsov SA, Miyamoto RT, Newman K, Ng D, O'Brien K, Rothenberg S, Schwartzentruber DJ, Singhal V, Tirabosco R, Upton J, Wientroub S, Zackai EH, Hoag K, Whitewood-Neal T, Robey PG, Schwartzberg PL, Darling TN, Tosi LL, Mullikin JC, Biesecker LG (August 2011). "A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 365 (7): 611–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1104017. PMC . PMID 21793738.
- Marsh DJ, Trahair TN, Martin JL, Chee WY, Walker J, Kirk EP, Baxter RC, Marshall GM (April 22, 2008). "Rapamycin treatment for a child with germline PTEN mutation". Nature Clinical Practice Oncology. 5 (6): 357–361. doi:10.1038/ncponc1112. PMID 18431376.
- Cohen MM, Turner JT, Biesecker LG (November 1, 2003). "Proteus Syndrome: Misdiagnosis with PTEN Mutations". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 122A (4): 323–324. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.20474. PMID 14518070.
- Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Yourick, Miranda R.; Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker, Leslie G. (2015-12-11). "Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome". Scientific Reports. 5. doi:10.1038/srep17162. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC . PMID 26657992.
- "Dose Finding Trial of ARQ 092 in Children and Adults With Proteus Syndrome". ClinicalTrials.gov. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Oct 31, 2015. NCT02594215.
- Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Yourick, Miranda R.; Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker, Leslie G. (2015). "Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome". Scientific Reports. Nature. 5: 17162. doi:10.1038/srep17162. PMC . PMID 26657992. 17162.
- Tibbles JA, Cohen MM (1986). "The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 293 (6548): 683–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.293.6548.683. PMC . PMID 3092979.
- – Spiring P (2001). "The Improbable Elephant Man". Biologist (London) 48(3) 104., – The Sunday Telegraph, – BBC News, – Eurekalert!, – The Daily Telegraph
- Steve Corbett "Help! My leg weighs 17-stone!", Sun+, 15 February 2013, retrieved 16 December 2014