Eleutherios the Younger
In 663, Emperor Constans II demanded an increase in tribute from Africa and moved the imperial court to Syracuse in Sicily. The Exarch of Africa, Gennadios refused to provide the additional revenue that Constans demanded and subsequently expelled the emperor’s representative. Eleutherios the Younger led the local citizens, who joined a garrison of troops, to expel Gennadios in 665. Gennadios fled to the court of the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I at Damascus, asking him for aid in recapturing Carthage. In 665, the Caliph sent a force to invade Byzantine Africa, but Gennadios died in late 665, upon reaching Alexandria.
- Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
- Pringle, Denys (1981). The Defence of Byzantine Africa from Justinian to the Arab Conquest: An Account of the Military History and Archaeology of the African Provinces in the Sixth and Seventh Century. Oxford, United Kingdom: British Archaeological Reports. ISBN 0-86054-119-3.
|Exarch of Africa
665/666 – unknown