Pristimantis caryophyllaceus

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Pristimantis caryophyllaceus
Pristimantis caryophyllaceus.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Craugastoridae
Genus: Pristimantis
Species: P. caryophyllaceus
Binomial name
Pristimantis caryophyllaceus
(Barbour, 1928)
Synonyms

Eleutherodactylus caryophyllaceus (Barbour, 1928)

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus is a species of frog in the family Craugastoridae. It is found in Costa Rica and Panama; records from Colombia prior to 2010 refer to Pristimantis educatoris.[2] However, taxonomy of Pristimantis caryophyllaceus and P. educatoris remain unsettled, and many sources continue to report Pristimantis caryophyllaceus from Colombia.[1][3][4][5]

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus is sometimes known as the La Loma robber frog,[1][2][4] after La Loma, its type locality on the trail between Chiriquicito and Boquete, in the Bocas del Toro Province of Panama.[2]

Description[edit]

Males grow to 24 mm (0.94 in) and females to 26 mm (1.0 in) in snout–vent length. Tympanum is not clearly visible. Dorsal colouration is highly variable: yellow, pinkish, brownish, greyish, or dark green. There are always distinct darker spots on the dorsal surface, in some individuals extending into dark crossbars. The ventral surface is white, sometimes with some dark pigmentation.[4]

Reproduction[edit]

Eggs are laid on leaves[1][4] or on the ground.[5] Females brood the eggs, covering them with their bodies.[1][4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

The species' natural habitats are primary lowland moist and wet forest, premontane wet forests, and rainforests. They occur in the leaf-litter and low vegetation,[1] and also in bromeliads.[5] They are nocturnal.[5]

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus is threatened by habitat loss and possibly chytridiomycosis. It has disappeared from lowland areas of Costa Rica.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Pounds, J.; Bolaños, F.; Solís, F.; Ibáñez, R.; Chaves, G.; Savage, J.; Jaramillo, C.; Fuenmayor, Q.; Castro, F.; Grant, T.; et al. (2008). "Pristimantis caryophyllaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Pristimantis caryophyllaceus (Barbour, 1928)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Acosta-Galvis, A.R. (2015). "Pristimantis caryophyllaceus (Barbour, 1928)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.05.2015. www.batrachia.com. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Pristimantis caryophyllaceus". Amphibians of Panama. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d Luis Humberto Elizondo C.; Federico Bolaños V. (2011). "Pristimantis caryophyllaceus". Biodiversidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. Retrieved 6 June 2015.