Elián González

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Elian Gonzalez)

Elián González
Elian Gonzalez and father reunion.jpg
González (second from right) with his father, stepmother and half-brother in a photo taken a few hours after their reunion at Andrews Air Force Base in 2000
Born (1993-12-06) December 6, 1993 (age 29)
Alma materUniversity of Matanzas
Known forChild custody and immigration case
Parent(s)Juan Miguel González Quintana (father)
Elizabeth Brotons Rodríguez (mother, deceased)
RelativesLázaro González (paternal great-uncle)

Elián González Brotons (born December 6, 1993) is a Cuban industrial engineer and politician who, as a child, became embroiled in an international custody and immigration controversy in 2000 involving the governments of Cuba and the United States, his father Juan Miguel González Quintana, his other relatives in Cuba and in Miami, and Miami's Cuban community. In 2023, he was nominated for a seat in the National Assembly of People's Power.

González's mother Elizabeth Brotons Rodríguez drowned in November 1999 while attempting to leave Cuba with González and her boyfriend to get to the United States.[2][3] Elián Gonzalez was five years old when found nestled in an inner tube floating at sea three miles (5 km) from Florida's Fort Lauderdale coast. Two fishermen found Elián and reluctantly handed him over to the U.S. Coast Guard, as they feared he would be sent back to Cuba under the wet feet, dry feet policy since he had not yet reached land.[4] The Coast Guard assured them that Elián would be taken "ashore for medical reasons," deeming him eligible to stay.[4]: 152  Elián was immediately taken to a hospital and treated for dehydration and minor cuts on his body. It was later found that Elián's mother, Elisabeth Brotons Rodríguez, and Lázaro Munero García, her common-law husband, had escaped Cárdenas, Cuba, as part of a group with 14 refugees on a 17 ft (5.2 m) boat.[4] However, the others died in a storm, while a young couple escaped to the shore, and Elián was found.

Once he had been treated, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) provided Elián with a temporary deferral regarding his inspection, and further released Elián to his great-uncle, Lázaro González, who lived with his family in Miami's Little Havana.[4] These relatives informed the family in Cárdenas to prepare for an extreme hardship visa waiver. The former were told the next day that "some functionary of the government would be coming to get the boy" as a result of Fidel Castro's having met with Juan Miguel, Elián's father.[4]: 153  The involvement of the Cuban Communist leader in the case and the subsequent diplomatic note written to the U.S. Department of State emphasizing the father's demand for Elián's repatriation attracted international attention.[4] This is because Elián had become a "symbol to many exiles" reminding them of the solidarity of the Cuban exile community and its privileged status with economic refugee criteria.[4]: 153  While Elián escaped both Cuba and death, he soon entered custody battles waged by his father, Miami relatives, and state officials from the U.S. and Cuba.

On January 10, 2000, a Florida state court had ruled that the Florida family court was able to decide the merit of motion related with temporary custody by Lázaro González, stating that Elián should stay with the Miami relatives until a further custody hearing. However, Attorney General Janet Reno declared that the federal courts are responsible for deciding this case, and that the Miami relatives must appeal to the federal court.[5] Here, the objective of Reno was to provide the relatives with a chance to provide "any information" they could that would be "relevant in the decision". She again emphasized that the INS commissioner had declared that the father speaks for the son, and that his wishes were to have his son returned to him.[6]

Early life[edit]

Elián González was born December 6, 1993, to divorced parents.[1]

Journey to Florida[edit]

The journey from Cárdenas, Cuba, to Florida

On November 21, 1999, González, his mother Elizabeth Brotons Rodríguez, and twelve others left Cuba on a small aluminum boat with a faulty engine; González's mother and ten others died in the crossing. González and the other two survivors floated at sea until they were rescued by two fishermen, who handed them over to the U.S. Coast Guard.[7]

González's cousin Marisleysis said that the boat's motor broke down and they tried in vain to bail out the water with nylon bags, but a storm doomed their efforts. He told her he tried to help get the water out and his mother's boyfriend placed him in an inner tube for safety. "He said afterwards that he fell asleep and that when he woke up he never saw his mother again". He said, "I think she drowned too because she didn't know how to swim".[7]

Nivaldo Fernández Ferrán, one of the three survivors on the boat, said "Elizabeth protected her son to the end". According to Fernández Ferrán, they set out on their trip at 4 am, dragging inflated rubber floats, or inner tubes, in case they needed them. As they encountered bad weather, the boat's engine failed and the craft began to fill with water. After it went under, the passengers clung to the inner tubes in cold water, with waves reaching heights of three to four meters (10 to 13 feet).[8]

Afterwards, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) released González to his paternal great-uncle, Lázaro. According to The Washington Post, González's father, Juan Miguel González Quintana, had telephoned Lázaro from Cuba on November 22, 1999, to advise that González and his mother had left Cuba without Juan Miguel's knowledge, and to watch for their arrival.[9]

Custody dispute in the United States[edit]

The U.S. legislation system had enacted the Cuban Adjustment Act in 1966, which sought to provide political asylum for Cubans who fled their country in the hopes of a new life. Under the act, Cuban refugees without visas entering the United States were paroled, and after a year could apply for permanent resident status.[4] The US also issued 20,000 lottery visas every year to Cuban emigrants under the wet foot, dry foot policy.[4] Under this policy, those who reached the mainland were granted asylum, while those who were intercepted at sea by the U.S. Coast Guard were sent back to Cuba.[4]   

Lázaro González, backed by local Cuban Americans, took the position that the boy should remain in the United States and not be returned to his father. Marisleysis González (Lázaro's adult daughter) became Elián González's caretaker and spokesperson for the paternal relatives. Also, Armando Gutierrez, a local Cuban-American businessman, became a spokesman.[10] At the same time, Juan Miguel, with the support of Cuban authorities, demanded that his son be returned to Cuba.[citation needed]

On January 21, 2000, Elián González's grandmothers, Mariela Quintana and Raquel Rodríguez, flew from Havana to the United States to seek their grandson's return to Cuba. While they were able to meet with the boy only once at the Miami Beach home of Barry University president Sister Jeanne O'Laughlin, they journeyed to Washington and met with congressmen and Attorney General Janet Reno. After nine days of media coverage (during which Republican lawmakers acknowledged they did not have the votes to pass a bill to give González U.S. citizenship), they returned to Cuba to "a hero's welcome".[11]

On January 28, the Spanish foreign minister Abel Matutes called for the boy's return to Cuba, stating that international law dictated the return. Meanwhile, the Miami Gonzálezes denied allegations that they had offered Juan Miguel a house and a car if he abandoned the action and joined his son in Miami.[12] Juan Miguel was uninterested in emigrating.[citation needed]

Through January and February, Juan Miguel sent a number of open letters to the U.S. government—published in, among other places, the Cuban newspaper Granma—demanding the return of his son and refusing the Miami relatives' demands.[13]

Chicago-based fathers' rights attorney Jeffery M. Leving spearheaded the amicus brief, which set the foundation of the custody case to reunite González with his father in Cuba.[14] Manuel González, Elián Gonzalez's great uncle, later retained Leving to reunite González with his father.[15][16][17]

On March 21, Judge Kevin Michael Moore of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida dismissed the relatives' petition for asylum which they had filed on behalf of Elián González. Lázaro vowed to appeal.[18] On March 29, Miami-Dade County mayor Alex Penelas was joined by 22 other civic leaders in a speech in downtown Miami. Penelas indicated that the municipality would not cooperate with Federal authorities on any repatriation of the boy, and would not lend police assets or any other assistance in taking the boy.

On April 14, a video was released in which Elián González tells Juan Miguel that he wants to stay in the United States.[19] However, many thought that he had been coached,[20] as a male voice was heard off-camera directing the young boy.[citation needed] In a September 2005 interview with 60 Minutes after being sent back to Cuba, González stated that during his stay in the U.S., his family members were "telling me bad things about [my father]", and "were also telling me to tell him that I did not want to go back to Cuba, and I always told them I wanted to."[21]

Elián González remained a subject of media attention as he went to Walt Disney World Resort one day, then met with politicians the next. Throughout the custody battle, opinion polls showed that a majority of Americans believed González should be returned to his father in Cuba, and that doing so was in the boy's best interest.[22]

Attorney General Janet Reno ordered the return of Elián González to his father and set a deadline of April 13, 2000, but the Miami relatives defied the order. Negotiations continued for several days as the house was surrounded by protesters as well as police. The relatives insisted on guarantees that they could live with the child for several months and retain custody, and that González would not be returned to Cuba. Negotiations carried on throughout the night, but Reno claimed that the relatives rejected all workable solutions.[23]

On April 19, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals in Atlanta ruled that González must remain in the U.S. until the Miami Gonzálezes could appeal for an asylum hearing in May.[24]

A Florida family court judge revoked Lázaro's temporary custody, clearing the way for González to be returned to his father's custody. On April 20, Reno made the decision to remove González from the house and instructed law enforcement officials to determine the best time to obtain the boy. After being informed of the decision, Marisleysis said to a Justice Department community relations officer, "You think we just have cameras in the house? If people try to come in, they could be hurt."[23]

Seizure and reactions[edit]

A federal agent retrieves Elián from his relatives' home in Miami. This photo won the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News.[25]

In the pre-dawn hours of Saturday, April 22, agents of the Border Patrol's special BORTAC unit, as part of an operation in which more than 130 INS personnel took part,[26] approached the house, knocked on the door, and identified themselves. When no one responded, they entered. At the same time, pepper-spray and mace were employed against persons outside who attempted to interfere.[27] In the confusion, Armando Gutierrez called in Alan Diaz, of the Associated Press, to enter the house and enter a room with González, his great uncle's wife Angela Lázaro, her niece, the niece's young son, and Donato Dalrymple (one of the two men who had rescued him from the ocean). They waited in the room listening to agents searching the house. Diaz took a widely publicized photograph of a border patrol agent confronting Dalrymple and the boy.

INS also stated in the days after the raid that they had identified as many as two dozen persons who were "prepared to thwart any government operation", some of whom had concealed weapons while others had criminal records.[28][29]

Approximately 100 people protested against the raid as it took place, with some calling the INS agents "assassins".[30][clarification needed] Then-New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani described Border Patrol BORTAC agents involved in the seizure of Elian as "storm troopers" at least six times. Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association reacted with "strong disgust and dismay" to the Nazi imagery and demanded Giuliani's apology. Hillary Clinton, then running against Giuliani for a Senate seat, agreed with FLEOA in asking for an apology. He refused to apologize, though stated his criticism was aimed at Bill Clinton and AG Janet Reno. Giuliani withdrew from the race for unrelated reasons.[31]

Public opinion about the INS raid on the Miami González's house was widely polarized. There were two major focuses in media coverage of the event: the raid and the family reunions.[32] A Time magazine issue showed a photo of a joyful González being reunited with his father (the caption says "Papa!"), while Newsweek ran an issue that focused on the raid, entitled "Seizing Elián".[33]

Return to father's custody[edit]

Four hours after he was taken from the house in Miami, González and his father were reunited at Andrews Air Force Base.[34] The next day, the White House released a photograph showing a smiling González reunited with his father, which the Miami relatives disputed by claiming that it was a fake González in the photograph.[35] Later, González and his family were taken to the Aspen Institute Wye River Conference Center in Maryland (formerly known as "Wye Plantation"). The media were barred from access to the family.[36]

While the family was still at Andrews, New Hampshire senator Bob Smith, escorting the Miami González relatives, was turned away from the base by guards.[37] The May 5, 2000, Miami Herald reported that González was joined by his classmates (without their parents) and his teacher from his hometown, Cárdenas. The newspaper Granma released pictures of Elián in the Young Pioneer uniform of Cuba's Communist youth league.[38] On May 6, 2000, attorney Greg Craig took González and Juan Miguel to a dinner in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, DC, hosted by Smith and Elizabeth Bagley.[39]

After González was returned to his father's custody, he remained in the U.S. while the Miami relatives exhausted their legal options. A three-judge federal panel had ruled that he could not go back to Cuba until he was granted an asylum hearing, but the case turned on the right of the relatives to request that hearing on behalf of the boy.[40] On June 1, 2000, the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Elián was too young to file for asylum; only his father could speak for him, and the relatives lacked legal standing.[41] On June 28, 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to review the decision.[42] In the afternoon of the same day, seven months and one week after Elián González left Cuba, he and his family, along with his classmates and teacher, boarded two chartered planes at Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, for José Martí International Airport in Havana.[43]

Political ramifications[edit]

Commentators have suggested that the Elián González affair may have been a factor in voters' decisions in the 2000 United States presidential election, which could have affected the close outcome in Florida.[44][45][46][47] Al Gore's handling of the matter may have angered the predominantly Republican Cuban community over the boy's return to Cuba.[48] Gore initially supported Republican legislation to give the boy and his father permanent residence status,[49] but later supported the administration position. He was attacked by both sides in the dispute for his equivocal position.[50]

Life in Cuba[edit]

Youth and schooling[edit]

After his return to Cuba, Elián González lived with his father, stepmother, and three brothers in Cárdenas,[51][52] where his father, Juan Miguel, was a waiter at an Italian restaurant at Josone Park,[53] in Varadero, near Cárdenas. Elián's father was interviewed at the restaurant in 2004 by Keith Morrison of the NBC News program Dateline NBC and Cover to Cover on CNBC. Juan Miguel filmed a home video on which González was shown doing his arithmetic homework with Juan Miguel in their dining room, going to bed in his bedroom with his two younger half-brothers, and attending karate lessons.[54]

Morrison's TV report also showed an 18th-century building in Cárdenas which was previously used as a fire station and which was renovated and inaugurated on July 14, 2001, as a museum, called Museo de la Batalla de Ideas ("Museum of the Battle of Ideas"), which includes an exhibition room dedicated to González, which houses a life-size bronze statue of González raising a clenched fist. The former González home in Miami has similarly been turned into a museum, with the boy's bedroom left unaltered.[55] Juan Miguel is also a member of the National Assembly and has attended events for the Communist Party of Cuba with González, who has been called up to the stage to meet Fidel Castro.

In September 2005, González was interviewed by 60 Minutes and stated during the interview that Fidel Castro was a friend, and that he considers Castro "not only as a friend but as a father"; González's aunt, Angela González, said she doubted whether the interview represented his true beliefs because of the alleged controls imposed by Cuba on information.[56] In December 2006, an ill Fidel Castro was unable to attend González's 13th birthday celebration, so his brother Raúl attended instead.[57]

On August 16, 2006, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed the dismissal of an excessive force lawsuit brought by Dalrymple and others against the federal government and Reno.[27]

González joined the Young Communist Union of Cuba in June 2008 shortly after graduating from junior high school. At age 15, he began military school.[58][59] In a November 2013 speech, González described his time in the United States as "very sad times for me, which marked me for my whole life", asserting that the Cuban Adjustment Act led to the denial of his rights, including "the right to be together with my father, the right to keep my nationality and to remain in my cultural context".[60]

College and career[edit]

In 2015, González was studying to be an industrial engineer, and hoped to marry his high school girlfriend and fiancée after finishing college. He stated that although he did not regret returning to Cuba, he would like to travel to the United States one day "to give my love to the American people".[52] In July 2016, he received a degree in industrial engineering from the University of Matanzas, and read a letter to Fidel Castro from his graduating class, vowing "to fight from whatever trench the revolution demands".[61]

After graduating in 2016, González began working as a technology specialist at a state-run company that makes large plastic water tanks.[62] On Father's Day in 2020, González announced that he and his fiancée were expecting a daughter within the following months.[63] González was nominated to run in the 2023 Cuban parliamentary election, seeking election to represent Cárdenas.[64][65]

Depictions in popular culture[edit]

The struggle between González's American family and his father was portrayed in the 2000 television film, A Family In Crisis: The Elian Gonzales Story, which starred Esai Morales as Elián's father, Juan Miguel Gonzalez; Laura Harring as Elián's cousin Marisleysis Gonzalez; and Alec Roberts in the title role.[66]

Elián is a 2017 documentary film directed by Ross McDonnell and Tim Golden, produced by Trevor Birney and executive produced by Alex Gibney. The film details González's story with exclusive interviews with him and his family in both Cuba and Miami. The film was co-produced by Fine Point Films and Jigsaw Productions and has a voiceover by Raul Esparza. The film premiered on April 19, 2017, at the Tribeca Film Festival. It opened in limited release in May, and appeared on CNN Films in August 2017.[67][62]

González was featured in the HBO documentary 537 Votes.

The 2000 conflict centered upon González was parodied in the South Park episode "Quintuplets 2000".[68]

The story was parodied in the first sketch of the Freddie Prinze, Jr. hosted episode of Saturday Night Live, as a part of its 25th season in 2000. Elian was played by Chris Kattan, while his aunt and uncle were portrayed by Ana Gasteyer and Horatio Sanz, respectively.

A song titled "Baby Elian" was released by the Manic Street Preachers in 2001 along with their album Know Your Enemy. The song was famously played at the Karl Marx Theatre in Cuba, with Cuban leader Fidel Castro rising to applaud the song.[69]

Elian is referenced in the third volume of the popular parody DJ mix "CVS Bangers" by DJ Hennessey Youngman. He exclaims in the introduction, "Banging down the doors of Valhalla looking for Elian González", and later "Where you at Elian".

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Elián González". Biography.com. February 28, 2019.
  2. ^ "Elian's relatives at war". BBC News. April 18, 2000.
  3. ^ Haberman, Clyde (January 14, 2000). "NYC; A Tug of War As Complex As War". The New York Times.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cova, A. D. (2015). The Elian Gonzalez case: The world's most-watched and politically-charged custody battle that reached the U.S. Supreme Court and determined a presidential election. Harvard Latino Law Review, 18(1), 152–200.
  5. ^ France-Presse, Agence (April 14, 2000). "The Elian Gonzalez case: Chronology; Custody Tug of War Over Cuban Boy". The New York Times.
  6. ^ "Reno Press Conference (2000)". c-span.org.
  7. ^ a b Plemming, Sue (March 27, 2000). "Cuban boy draws picture of shipwreck drama". cubanet.org, quoting a Fox News article. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  8. ^ Ray, Diana (February 14, 2000). "A Love Supreme". BNET, quoting insightmag.com. Retrieved October 6, 2008.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "The Politics of Elian". The Wall Street Journal. April 6, 2000. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  10. ^ Johnston, David (April 21, 2000). "THE ELIAN GONZALEZ CASE: THE OVERVIEW; U.S. Gathers Officers, Preparing To Take Cuban From Miami Kin". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  11. ^ "Heroes' welcome for Elian grandmothers". BBC. January 30, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  12. ^ "Spain backs Cuba over custody row". BBC. January 18, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  13. ^ "Elian's father makes new appeal". BBC. February 15, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  14. ^ The Group Who Filed Elian Gonzalez Brief, Supports INS Decision, PR Newswire, January 7, 2000. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
  15. ^ Jeffery Leving, attorney for Elian's great uncle Manuel Gonzalez, discusses the Elian Gonzalez custody hearing, CNN, May 11, 2000. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
  16. ^ Intervenor Applicant's Resp. to Pls.’ and Defs.’ Opp’n to Mot. to Intervene and Mot. for Relief Under Rule 17(c) at 1, 14., Gonzalez v. Reno, 86 F. Supp. 2d (S.D. Fla. 2000) (No. 00-0206).
  17. ^ Kapos, Shia (November 5, 2013). "Elian Gonzalez case comes full circle for Jeffery Leving". Crain's Chicago Business.
  18. ^ "Elian asylum case dismissed". BBC. March 21, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  19. ^ "Elian Says He Wants To Stay In USA". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  20. ^ Padgett, Tim (June 28, 2015). "How The Battle Over Elián González Helped Change U.S. Cuba Policy". NPR.org.
  21. ^ "Elian interview sparks Miami row". BBC News. September 30, 2005. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  22. ^ Newport, Frank (April 4, 2000). "Americans Continue to Favor the Return of Elian Gonzalez to Cuba". Gallup News Service. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
  23. ^ a b Martin, Patrick (April 25, 2000). "Rescue of Elian Gonzalez intensifies political crisis in US". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  24. ^ Bragg, Rick (April 20, 2000). "THE ELIAN GONZALEZ CASE: THE OVERVIEW; Cuban Boy Stays in U.S. for Now, a Court Decides". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  25. ^ "2001 Pulitzer Prizes". pulitzer.org.
  26. ^ "INS Awards Agents Who Rescued Elian Gonzalez". Radio Havana. August 2000. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. (See awards to INS for bravery)
  27. ^ a b "D. C. Docket No. 03-20588-CV-KMM" (PDF). United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. August 16, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  28. ^ Deyoung, Karen (April 28, 2000). "Officials feared danger in Elian raid". The Washington Post (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel). Retrieved June 18, 2007.[dead link]
  29. ^ Leahy, Patrick (June 8, 2000). "Statement of Patrick Leahy, Ranking Member, Senate Judiciary Committee, Concerning the Elian Gonzalez Case Subpoena". United States Senate. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  30. ^ "Federal agents seize Elian in predawn raid: Boy to be reunited with his father in Maryland". CNN. April 22, 2000. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013.
  31. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller (April 26, 2000). "Mayor Says 'Storm Trooper' Reflects Truth in Miami Case". The New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  32. ^ Smith, Terence (April 24, 2000). "Dueling Images". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on December 10, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  33. ^ "Tufts Expert Says Privacy, Emotional Support Needed for Elian Gonzalez". Tufts E-News. April 24, 2000. Archived from the original on July 13, 2003. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  34. ^ DeYoung, Karen (April 23, 2000). "Raid Reunites Elian and Father; U.S. Agents Seize Boy From Relatives and Fly Him Here; Protests Erupt in Miami". The Washington Post. p. A01.
  35. ^ Robles, Frances; Wheat, Jack (April 24, 2000). "Reunion Photo Stirs Controversy". Miami Herald. p. 7A.
  36. ^ "Raid critics still plan Senate hearings on Elian". The Palm Beach Post. April 26, 2000. p. 10A.
  37. ^ Thomas, Evan (May 1, 2000). "Raid and Reunion". Newsweek. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  38. ^ Borger, Julian (May 30, 2000). "Soft landing for castaway Elian as Cuba rolls out tattered red carpet". The Guardian.
  39. ^ Sands, David R. (June 2, 2000). "Elian's dad lauds court custody ruling". The Washington Times.
  40. ^ Bragg, Rick (March 12, 2000). "Judges Ask Tough Questions About Cuban Boy's Interests". The New York Times.
  41. ^ "Court gives government and father deadline to respond in Elian Gonzalez case". CNN. June 15, 2000. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008.
  42. ^ "Supreme Court refuses to block Elian Gonzalez's return to Cuba". Associated Press. June 28, 2000. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.
  43. ^ "Elian Gonzalez leaves U.S. for Cuba". CNN. June 28, 2000. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013.
  44. ^ "Special Event". CNN. Archived from the original on November 3, 2020. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  45. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (March 30, 2000). "Boy's Case Could Sway Bush-Gore Contest". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  46. ^ "The Hispanic Vote and the U.S. Presidential Election". wharton.upenn.edu. Knowledge@Wharton Network, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. November 3, 2004. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  47. ^ Alter, Jonathan (April 23, 2006). "Taking Sides". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  48. ^ Marks, Ted (May 2000). "The Saga of Elian Gonzalez: A News Media Riot?". MFAMedia.com.
  49. ^ 1. [106th] Whereas the mother of Elian Gonzalez sacrificed her life in fleeing Cuba to bring her son to a free country; (Introduced in House) [H.RES.480.IH] 2. [106th] Expressing the sense of Congress that Elian Gonzalez should be reunited with his father, Juan Gonzalez of Cuba. (Introduced in Senate) [S.CON.RES.79.IS] 3 . [106th] Expressing the sense of Congress that Elian Gonzalez should be reunited with his father, Juan Gonzalez of Cuba. (Introduced in House) [H.CON.RES.240.IH] 4. [106th] For the relief of Elian Gonzalez and other family members. (Placed on Calendar in Senate) [S.2314.PCS] 5. [106th] For the relief of Elian Gonzalez. (Introduced in House) [H.R.3532.IH] 6. [106th] For the relief of Elian Gonzalez-Brotons. (Placed on Calendar in Senate)[S.1999.PCS ][PDF] 7. [106th] For the relief of Elian Gonzalez-Brotons. (Introduced in House) [H.R.3531.IH]
  50. ^ Clymer, Adam (June 2, 2000). "While Conservatives and Liberals React, Gore and George Bush Hedge on Ruling". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  51. ^ Gonazelez, David (July 8, 2000). "Cardenas Journal; The Town That's Proud to Say Elian Lives Here". The New York Times.
  52. ^ a b Avila, Jim (May 21, 2015). "Elian Gonzalez, Now Grown, Opens Up About Life in Cuba" (Video). Nightline. ABC News. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  53. ^ Sequera, Vivian (November 23, 2000). "One year after fateful crossing, Elian is fading memory in Cuba". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 1, 2016 – via cjonline.com.
  54. ^ Morrison, Keith (March 20, 2016). "Video of Elian Gonzales". Dateline NBC – via nbcnews.com.
  55. ^ "Elian's Miami home turned into shrine". BBC News. October 22, 2001. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  56. ^ "Elian interview sparks Miami row". BBC News. September 30, 2005. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
  57. ^ "Raul Castro Attends Elian Gonzalez's 13th Birthday Party". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. December 6, 2006. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  58. ^ "Elian Gonzalez joins Cuba's youth Communists". CNN. Associated Press. June 15, 2008. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  59. ^ "Elian 'joins Cuba's communists'". BBC News. June 16, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  60. ^ "Elián González: My Time In The U.S. 'Marked Me For My Whole Life'". Fox News Latino. November 19, 2013. Archived from the original on November 20, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  61. ^ "Elián González, onetime political football, now a college grad in Cuba". Fox News Latino. July 15, 2016. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  62. ^ a b Oppmann, Patrick (August 24, 2017). "Cuba's Elián González says he wants to reconcile with his Miami relatives". CNN. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  63. ^ Oppmann, Patrick (June 21, 2020). "On Father's Day, Cuba's Elian Gonzalez announces he's set to become a dad". CNN.
  64. ^ Luscombe, Richard (February 8, 2023). "Elián González poised to be top Cuban lawmaker decades after Florida deportation". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
  65. ^ "Cuban Elian Gonzalez, rescued at sea as boy, now running for parliament". France24. Agence France-Presse. February 7, 2023. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
  66. ^ A Family In Crisis: The Elian Gonzales Story at IMDb
  67. ^ "Elián documentary revisits painful chapter in Cuban-American history". Miami Herald.
  68. ^ Bauder, David (April 27, 2000). "'South Park' Parodies Reno on Raid". Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 30, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  69. ^ "Manic Street Preachers – Baby Elian".
  70. ^ Daniels, Roger (2005). Guarding the golden door: American immigration policy and immigrants since 1882. Macmillan. p. 209. ISBN 0-8090-5344-6.
  71. ^ "ACLU amicus brief in the Elian Gonzalez matter, IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA No. 00-0206-CIV-HOEVELER". Archived from the original on July 26, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]