Elias David Sassoon (27 March 1820 – 21 March 1880), an Indian merchant and banker born in Baghdad, was the second son of David Sassoon, an Iraqi-Indian philanthropist Jewish businessman involved in trade in India and the Far East, with branches at Calcutta, Shanghai, Canton, and Hongkong; and his business, which included a monopoly of the opium-trade, extended as far as Yokohama, Nagasaki, and other cities in Japan. He was father to Jacob Elias Sassoon and Edward Elias Sassoon.
He was the first of his siblings to assist the family business' expansion into China when he opened a branch of the business there in 1844. He was also involved in his father's business in Bombay, India. In 1867, Elias established his own business based in Hong Kong and Shanghai.