Elie Wiesel

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Elie Wiesel
KBE
Elie Wiesel 2012 Shankbone.JPG
Wiesel at the 2012 Time 100
Born Eliezer Wiesel
(1928-09-30)September 30, 1928
Sighet, Kingdom of Romania
Died July 2, 2016(2016-07-02) (aged 87)
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Occupation Author, professor, activist
Nationality American
Ethnicity Jewish
Alma mater University of Paris, Sorbonne
Subjects The Holocaust, religion, philosophy
Notable works Night (1960)
Notable awards Nobel Peace Prize (1986)
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Congressional Gold Medal
Grand Officer of the Order of the Star of Romania
Legion of Honour
Spouse Marion Erster Rose
(m. 1969–2016; his death)[1]
Children 1

Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel KBE (/ˈɛli viˈzɛl/, Yiddish: אליעזר וויזל‎, Elyezer Vizel;[2][3] September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. He was the author of 57 books, written mostly in French and English, including Night, a work based on his experiences as a prisoner in the Auschwitz and Buchenwald concentration camps.[4]

Along with writing, he was a professor of the humanities at Boston University, which created the Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies in his honor. He was involved with Jewish causes, and helped establish the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. In his political activities he also campaigned for victims of oppression in places like South Africa and Nicaragua and genocide in Sudan. He publicly condemned the 1915 Armenian genocide and remained a strong defender of human rights during his lifetime. He had been described as "the most important Jew in America" by the Los Angeles Times.[5]

Wiesel was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, at which time the Norwegian Nobel Committee called him a "messenger to mankind," stating that through his struggle to come to terms with "his own personal experience of total humiliation and of the utter contempt for humanity shown in Hitler's death camps", as well as his "practical work in the cause of peace", Wiesel had delivered a message "of peace, atonement and human dignity" to humanity.[6] He was a founding board member of the New York Human Rights Foundation and remained active throughout his life.[7][8]

Early life[edit]

The house in which Wiesel was born

Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet (now Sighetu Marmației), Maramureș in the Carpathian Mountains in Romania.[9] His parents were Sarah Feig and Shlomo Wiesel. At home, Wiesel's family spoke Yiddish most of the time, but also German, Hungarian, and Romanian.[10][11] Wiesel's mother, Sarah, was the daughter of Dodye Feig, a celebrated Vizhnitz Hasid and farmer from a nearby village. Dodye was active and trusted within the community.

Wiesel's father, Shlomo, instilled a strong sense of humanism in his son, encouraging him to learn Hebrew and to read literature, whereas his mother encouraged him to study the Torah. Wiesel has said his father represented reason while his mother Sarah promoted faith.[12] Wiesel was instructed that his genealogy traced back to Rabbi Schlomo, son of Yitzhak, and was a descendant of Rabbi Yeshayahu ben Abraham Horovitz ha-Levi, an author.[13]

Wiesel had three siblings—older sisters Beatrice and Hilda, and younger sister Tzipora. Beatrice and Hilda survived the war and were reunited with Wiesel at a French orphanage. They eventually emigrated to North America, with Beatrice moving to Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Tzipora, Shlomo, and Sarah did not survive the Holocaust.

Imprisoned and orphaned during the Holocaust[edit]

Buchenwald concentration camp, photo taken April 16, 1945, five days after liberation of the camp. Wiesel is in the second row from the bottom, seventh from the left, next to the bunk post.[14]

In March 1944, Germany occupied Hungary which extended the Holocaust into that country.[a] Wiesel was 15, and he with his family, along with the rest of the town's Jewish population, were placed in one of the two confinement ghettos set up in Máramarossziget (Sighet), the town where he had been born and raised. In May 1944, the Hungarian authorities, under German pressure, began to deport the Jewish community to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where up to 90 percent of the people were exterminated on arrival.[15]

After they were sent to Auschwitz, his mother and his younger sister were killed.[15] Wiesel and his father were later deported to the concentration camp at Buchenwald. Until that transfer, he admitted to Oprah Winfrey, his primary motivation for trying to survive Auschwitz was knowing that his father was still alive: "I knew that if I died, he would die."[16] After they were taken to Buchenwald, however, his father only survived for eight months, dying just a few weeks before the camp was liberated.[15] In Night,[17] Wiesel recalled the shame he felt when he heard his father being beaten and was unable to help.[15][18]

Wiesel was tattooed with inmate number "A-7713" on his left arm.[19][20] The camp was liberated by the U.S. Third Army on April 11, 1945.[21]

Post-war career as writer[edit]

France[edit]

After World War II ended and Wiesel was freed, he joined a transport of 1,000 child survivors of Buchenwald to Ecouis, France, where the Œuvre de secours aux enfants (OSE) had set up a rehabilitation center. Wiesel subsequently joined a smaller group of 90 to 100 boys from Orthodox homes who wanted kosher facilities and a higher level of religious observance; they were cared for in a home in Ambloy under the directorship of Judith Hemmendinger. This home was subsequently moved to Taverny and operated until 1947.[22][23]

Afterwards Wiesel traveled to Paris where he learned French and studied literature, philosophy and psychology at the Sorbonne.[15] He heard lectures by philosopher Martin Buber and existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre and he spent his evenings reading works by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Franz Kafka, and Thomas Mann.[24]

By the time he was 19, he had begun working as a journalist, writing in French, while also teaching Hebrew and working as a choirmaster.[25] He wrote for Israeli and French newspapers, including Tsien in Kamf (in Yiddish).[24]

In 1946, after learning of Irgun's bombing of the King David Hotel, Wiesel made an unsuccessful attempt to join the underground movement. In 1948, he translated articles from Hebrew to Yiddish for Irgun periodicals, but never became a member of the organization.[26] In 1949 he traveled to Israel as a correspondent for the French newspaper L'arche. He then was hired as Paris correspondent for the Israeli newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth, subsequently becoming its roaming international correspondent.[27]

Excerpt from Night

Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never.

Elie Wiesel, from Night.[28]

For ten years after the war, Wiesel refused to write about or discuss his experiences during the Holocaust. He began to reconsider after a meeting with the French author François Mauriac, the 1952 Nobel Laureate in Literature who eventually became Wiesel's close friend. Mauriac was a devout Christian who had been with the French Resistance during the war. He compared Wiesel to "Lazarus rising from the dead," and saw from Wiesel's tormented eyes, "the death of God in the soul of a child."[29][30] Mauriac persuaded him to begin writing about his harrowing experiences.[24]

Wiesel first wrote the 900-page memoir Un di velt hot geshvign (And the World Remained Silent) in Yiddish, which was published in abridged form in Buenos Aires.[31] Wiesel rewrote a shortened version of the manuscript in French, La Nuit, in 1955. It was translated into English as Night in 1960.[32] The book sold few copies after its publication, but still attracted interest from reviewers, leading to television interviews with Wiesel and meetings with literary figures such as Saul Bellow.

After its increased popularity, Night was eventually translated into 30 languages with ten million copies sold in the United States. Film director Orson Welles at one point had wanted to make it into a feature film, but Wiesel refused, feeling that his memoir would lose its meaning if it were told without the silences in between his words.[33] Oprah Winfrey made it a spotlight selection for her book club in 2006.[15]

United States[edit]

In 1955, Wiesel moved to New York as foreign correspondent for the Israel daily, Yediot Ahronot.[27] In 1969, he married Marion Erster Rose, who was from Austria, who also translated many of his books.[27] They had one son, Shlomo Elisha Wiesel, named after Wiesel’s father.[27][34]

Wiesel in 1987.

In the U.S., he went on to write over 40 books, most of them non-fiction Holocaust literature, and novels. As an author, he has been awarded a number of literary prizes and is considered among the most important in describing the Holocaust from a highly personal level.[27] As a result, some historians credited Wiesel with giving the term "Holocaust" its present meaning, although he did not feel that the word adequately described that historical event.[35]

The 1979 book and play The Trial of God are said to have been based on his real-life Auschwitz experience of witnessing three Jews who, close to death, conduct a trial against God, under the accusation that He has been oppressive of the Jewish people. Regarding his personal beliefs, Wiesel calls himself an agnostic.[36]

Wiesel also played a role in the initial success of The Painted Bird by Jerzy Kosinski by endorsing it before revelations that the book was fiction and, in the sense that it was presented as all Kosinski's true experience, a hoax.[37][38]

Wiesel published two volumes of memoirs. The first, All Rivers Run to the Sea, was published in 1994 and covered his life up to the year 1969. The second, titled And the Sea is Never Full and published in 1999, covered the years from 1969 to 1999.[39]

Political activism[edit]

We had a champion who carried our pain, our guilt and our responsibility on his shoulders for generations.

George Clooney[40]

Wiesel and his wife, Marion, started the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity in 1986. He served as chairman for the Presidential Commission on the Holocaust (later renamed US Holocaust Memorial Council) from 1978 to 1986, spearheading the building of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.[41][42]

The museum gives The Elie Wiesel Award to "internationally prominent individuals whose actions have advanced the Museum’s vision of a world where people confront hatred, prevent genocide, and promote human dignity."[43] The Foundation had invested its endowment with money manager Bernard L. Madoff's investment Ponzi scheme, costing the Foundation $15 million and Wiesel and his wife much of their own personal savings.[44][45]

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986 for speaking out against violence, repression, and racism.[46] The Norwegian Nobel Committee described Wiesel as "one of the most important spiritual leaders and guides in an age when violence, repression and racism continue to characterize the world."[28] Wiesel explained his feelings during his acceptance speech:

Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented. Sometimes we must interfere. When human lives are endangered, when human dignity is in jeopardy, national borders and sensitivities become irrelevant.[28]

He received many other prizes and honors for his work, including the Congressional Gold Medal in 1985, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and The International Center in New York's Award of Excellence.[47] He was also elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1996.[48]

Wiesel at a celebration for President Obama's inauguration in 2009

Wiesel co-founded Moment Magazine with Leonard Fein in 1975. They founded the magazine to provide a voice for American Jews.[49] He was also a member of the International Advisory Board of NGO Monitor.[50]

Wiesel became a popular speaker on the subject of the Holocaust. As a political activist, he also advocated for many causes, including Israel, the plight of Soviet and Ethiopian Jews, the victims of apartheid in South Africa, Argentina's Desaparecidos, Bosnian victims of genocide in the former Yugoslavia, Nicaragua's Miskito Indians, and the Kurds.[51][52]

In 2003 he discovered and publicized the fact that at least 280,000 Romanian and Ukrainian Jews, along with other groups, were massacred in Romanian-run death camps.[53]

In early 2006 Wiesel accompanied Oprah Winfrey as she visited Auschwitz, a visit which was broadcast as part of The Oprah Winfrey Show.[54] On November 30, 2006, Wiesel received a knighthood in London in recognition of his work toward raising Holocaust education in the United Kingdom.[55]

In September 2006 he appeared before the UN Security Council with actor George Clooney to call attention to the humanitarian crisis in Darfur. When Wiesel died, Clooney wrote, "We had a champion who carried our pain, our guilt and our responsibility on his shoulders for generations."[40]

In 2007, Wiesel was awarded the Dayton Literary Peace Prize's Lifetime Achievement Award.[56] That same year, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity issued a letter condemning Armenian genocide denial, a letter that was signed by 53 Nobel laureates including Wiesel. Wiesel has repeatedly called Turkey's 90-year-old campaign to downplay its actions during the Armenian genocide a double killing.[57]

President George W. Bush, joined by the Dalai Lama and Wiesel, October 17, 2007, to the ceremony at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., for the presentation of the Congressional Gold Medal to the Dalai Lama

In 2009, Wiesel criticized the Vatican for lifting the excommunication of controversial bishop Richard Williamson, a member of the Society of Saint Pius X.[58]

In June 2009, Wiesel accompanied US President Barack Obama and German Chancellor Angela Merkel as they toured Buchenwald.[59] Wiesel was an adviser at the Gatestone Institute.[60] In 2010, Wiesel accepted a five-year appointment as a Distinguished Presidential Fellow at Chapman University. In that role, he made a one-week visit to Chapman annually to meet with students and offer his perspective on subjects ranging from Holocaust history to religion, languages, literature, law and music.[61]

In July 2009, Wiesel announced his support to the minority Tamils in Sri Lanka. He said that "Wherever minorities are being persecuted we must raise our voices to protest...the Tamil people are being disenfranchised and victimized by the Srilankan authorities. This injustice must stop. The Tamil people must be allowed to live in peace and flourish in their homeland."[62][63][64]

In 2009, Wiesel returned to Hungary for the first visit since the Holocaust. During his visit, Wiesel participated in a conference at the Upper House Chamber of the Hungarian Parliament, met Prime Minister Gordon Bajnai and President László Sólyom, and made a speech to the approximately 10,000 participants of an anti-racist gathering held in Faith Hall.[65][66] However, in 2012, he protested against "the whitewashing" of Hungary's involvement in the Holocaust, and he gave up the Great Cross award he had received from the Hungarian government.[67][68]

Wiesel was active in trying to prevent Iran from making nuclear weapons, stating that "the words and actions of the leadership of Iran leave no doubt as to their intentions."[69] He also condemned Hamas for the "use of children as human shields" during the 2014 Israel-Gaza Conflict.[70] The Times refused to run the advertisement, saying "the opinion being expressed is too strong and too forcefully made and will cause concern amongst a significant number of Times readers."[71][72]

Wiesel often emphasized the Jewish connection to Jerusalem, and has criticized the Obama administration for pressuring Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to halt East Jerusalem Israeli settlement construction.[73][74] He stated that "Jerusalem is above politics. It is mentioned more than six hundred times in Scripture—and not a single time in the Koran.... It belongs to the Jewish people and is much more than a city..."[75][76]

Teaching[edit]

Wiesel was particularly fond of teaching and held the position of Andrew Mellon Professor of the Humanities at Boston University since 1976,[77] where he taught in both its religion and philosophy departments.[5] He became a close friend of the president and chancellor John Silber.[78] The university created the Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies in his honor.[77] From 1972 to 1976 Wiesel was a Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York and member of the American Federation of Teachers.[79][80]

In 1982 he served as the first Henry Luce Visiting Scholar in Humanities and Social Thought at Yale University.[5] He also co-instructed Winter Term (January) courses at Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida. From 1997 to 1999 he was Ingeborg Rennert Visiting Professor of Judaic Studies at Barnard College of Columbia University.[81]

Personal life[edit]

Wiesel at the 2008 World Economic Forum

In 1969 he married Marion Erster Rose, who originally was from Austria and also translated many of his books.[27] They had one son, Shlomo Elisha Wiesel, named after Wiesel’s father.[27][34] The family lived in Greenwich, Connecticut.[82]

Wiesel was attacked in a San Francisco hotel by 22-year-old Holocaust denier Eric Hunt in February 2007, but was not injured. Hunt was arrested the following month and charged with multiple offenses.[83][84]

In February 2012, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints performed a posthumous baptism of Simon Wiesenthal's parents.[85] After Wiesel's name had been submitted to be proxy baptized, he spoke out against the practice of posthumously baptizing Jews and asked presidential candidate and Latter-day Saint Mitt Romney to denounce it. Romney's campaign declined to comment, directing such questions to church officials.[86]

Death[edit]

Wiesel died on the morning of July 2, 2016 at his home in Manhattan, aged 87.[44][87][88]

Utah senator Orrin Hatch paid tribute to Wiesel in a speech on the Senate floor the following week, where he said that "With Elie's passing we have lost a beacon of humanity and hope. We have lost a hero of human rights and a luminary of Holocaust literature,"[89]

Awards and honors[edit]

Honorary degrees[edit]

Wiesel has received more than 90 honorary degrees from colleges worldwide.[103]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1940, after the Second Vienna Award, the town of Sighet (Máramarossziget) was returned to Hungary.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Central Synagogue". centralsynagogue.org. 
  2. ^ Recording of Elie Wiesel saying his name at TeachingBooks.net
  3. ^ National Library Service
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  5. ^ a b c d , Distinguished Speaker Series, March 3, 2003
  6. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize for 1986: Elie Wiesel". Nobelprize.org. October 14, 1986. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Elie Wiesl". Human Rights Foundation. Retrieved July 3, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Human Rights Foundation Lauds OAS Discussion on Venezuela". Latin American Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 3, 2016. 
  9. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Elie Wiesel". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. 
  10. ^ "The Life and Work of Wiesel". Public Broadcasting Service. 2002. Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Elie Wiesel Biography". Academy of Achievement. October 22, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  12. ^ Fine 1982:4.
  13. ^ Wiesel, Elie, and Elie Wiesel Catherine Temerson (Translator). "Rashi (Jewish Encounters)." 9780805242546. Schocken, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 27 Oct. 2016.
  14. ^ "Elie Wiesel — Photograph". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Elie Wiesel, Holocaust Survivor And Nobel Laureate, Dead At 87", Huffington Post, July 2, 2016
  16. ^ "Inside Auschwitz", Oprah Winfrey broadcast visit, January 2006
  17. ^ "Night by Elie Wiesel". Aazae. 
  18. ^ Donadio, Rachel (January 20, 2008). "The Story of 'Night'". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Eliezer Wiesel, 1986: Not caring is the worst evil" (PDF). Nobel Peace Laureates. 
  20. ^ Kanfer, Stefan (June 24, 2001). "Author, Teacher, Witness". TIME. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  21. ^ See the film Elie Wiesel Goes Home, directed by Judit Elek, narrated by William Hurt. ISBN 1-930545-63-0
  22. ^ Niven, William John (2007). The Buchenwald Child: Truth, Fiction, and Propaganda. Harvard University Press. p. 49. ISBN 1571133399. 
  23. ^ Schmidt, Shira, and Mantaka, Bracha. "A Prince in a Castle". Ami, September 21, 2014, pp. 136-143.
  24. ^ a b c Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Beating the Odds: A Teen Guide to 75 Superstars Who Overcame Adversity, ABC CLIO (2008) pp. 154–156
  25. ^ Sternlicht, Sanford V. (2003). Student Companion to Elie Wiesel. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-313-32530-8. 
  26. ^ Elie Wiesel: Conversations. Elie Wiesel, Robert Franciosi. "Elie Wiesel: Conversations". University Press of Mississippi, 2002. p. 81. "Interviewer: Why after the war did you not go on to Palestine from France? Wiesel: I had no certificate. In 1946 when the Irgun blew up the King David Hotel, I decided I would like to join the underground. Very naively I went to the Jewish Agency in Paris. I got no further than the janitor who asked: "What do you want?" I said, "I would like to join the underground." He threw me out. About 1948 I was a journalist and helped one of the Yiddish underground papers with articles, but I was never a member of the underground."
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  28. ^ a b c "Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor and Nobel Peace Prize winner, dies at 87", PBS, July 2, 2016
  29. ^ Fine, Ellen S. Legacy of Night: The Literary Universe of Elie Wiesel, State Univ. of New York Press (1982) p. 28
  30. ^ Wiesel, Elie. Night, Hill and Wang (2006) p. ix
  31. ^ Naomi Seidman (Fall 1996). "Elie Wiesel and the Scandal of Jewish Rage". Jewish Social Studies. 3:1: 5. 
  32. ^ Andrew Grabois (February 25, 2008). "Elie Wiesel and the Holocaust". Beneath The Cover. Retrieved August 29, 2012. 
  33. ^ Ravitz, Jessica (May 27, 2006). "Utah Local News – Salt Lake City News, Sports, Archive – The Salt Lake Tribune". Sltrib.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b Telushkin, Joseph. "Rebbe", pp. 190–191. HarperCollins, 2014.
  35. ^ Wiesel:1999, 18.
  36. ^ Wiesel, Elie (2000). And the Sea Is Never Full: Memoirs, 1969–. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8052-1029-3. Some of the questions: God? 'I'm an agnostic.' A strange agnostic, fascinated by mysticism. 
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  39. ^ And the Sea Is Never Full, New York Times book review, January 2, 2000
  40. ^ a b "Reaction to death of Holocaust survivor, author Elie Wiesel", Associated Press, July 2, 2016
  41. ^ video: 2016 Presidential Tribute to Elie Wiesel, 6 minutes
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  45. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/27/business/27madoff.html?_r=0
  46. ^ "Elie Wiesel, Holocaust Survivor And Nobel Laureate, Dies At 87", NPR, July 2, 2016
  47. ^ "Elie Weisel {sic}: Nobel Laureate, Author, Professor", Wharton Club of DC
  48. ^ "American Academy of Arts and Letters - Current Members". Retrieved July 3, 2016. 
  49. ^ "About – Moment Magazine". Moment Magazine. Retrieved June 22, 2016. 
  50. ^ "International Advisory Board Profiles: Elie Wiesel". NGO Monitor. 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
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  52. ^ "Remembering Elie Wiesel", Jewish Standard, July 7, 2016
  53. ^ "Hundreds pay tribute in Elie Wiesel's native Romania", AFP, July 7, 2016
  54. ^ "Oprah and Elie Wiesel Travel to Auschwitz". oprah.com. January 1, 2006. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  55. ^ a b Cohen, Justin (November 30, 2006). "Wiesel Receives Honorary Knighthood". TotallyJewish.com. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  56. ^ McAllister, Kristin (October 15, 2007). "Dayton awards 2007 peace prizes". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  57. ^ Holthouse, David (Summer 2008). "State of Denial: Turkey Spends Millions to Cover Up Armenian Genocide". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  58. ^ Pullella, Philip (January 28, 2009). "Elie Wiesel attacks pope over Holocaust bishop". Reuters. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  59. ^ "Visiting Buchenwald, Obama speaks of the lessons of evil". CNN. June 5, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  60. ^ "Board of Advisors" Gatestone Institute. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  61. ^ Sahagun, Louis. "Wiesel offers students first-hand account of Holocaust". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  62. ^ "The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity". www.eliewieselfoundation.org. Retrieved 2016-07-03. 
  63. ^ "Sri Lanka's victimization of Tamil people must stop - Elie Wiesel". Retrieved July 3, 2016. 
  64. ^ "Sri Lanka's victimization of Tamil people must stop - Elie Wiesel". www.tamilguardian.com. Retrieved 2016-07-03. 
  65. ^ Quatra.Net Kft. (November 10, 2009). "Elie Wiesel Magyarországon" (in Hungarian). Stop.hu. Retrieved September 13, 2010. 
  66. ^ "Magyarországra jön Elie Wiesel" (in Hungarian). Hetek.hu. November 13, 2009. Retrieved September 13, 2010. 
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  69. ^ "Elie Wiesel Says 'Iran Must Not Be Allowed to Remain Nuclear' in Full Page Ads in NYT, WSJ". Algemeiner Journal. December 18, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
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  72. ^ Greenslade, Roy (August 8, 2014). "The Times refuses to carry ad accusing Hamas of 'child sacrifice'". The Guardian. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
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  85. ^ Fletcher Stack, Peggy (February 13, 2012). "Mormon church apologizes for baptisms of Wiesenthal's parents". The Salt Lake Tribune. Salt Lake City, Utah. 
  86. ^ "Elie Wiesel calls on Mitt Romney to make Mormon church stop proxy baptisms of Jews". The Washington Post. February 14, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2016. 
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  92. ^ Congressional Gold Medal Recipients (1776 to Present)
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Other books[edit]

External links[edit]

Speeches and interviews