Elisabeth Catherina Koopmann-Hevelius (in Polish called Elżbieta Heweliusz; January 17, 1647–December 22, 1693) is considered one of the first female astronomers. Originally from Danzig, Poland, she contributed to improve the work and observations done together with her husband Johannes Hevelius.
Elisabeth Koopmann (or Kaufmann, German: "merchant") was, like Hevelius and his first wife, a member of a rich merchant family in the city of Danzig (Gdańsk) located in Pomeranian Voivodeship of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and a member of the trade organisation called Hansa. Elisabetha Koopman's parents were Nicholas Koopman (the Dutch word for "Merchant") (1601-1672) who was a prosperous merchant and Joanna Mennings (or Menninx) (1602-1679). Nicholas and Joanna were married in Amsterdam in 1633. They moved from Amsterdam to Hamburg then, in 1636, they moved to Danzig. It was in this city, largely German speaking but a part of Poland at the time, that their daughter Elisabetha was born.
It was a fascination for astronomy which led Elisabetha, when still only a child, to approach Johannes Hevelius, an astronomer of international repute who had a complex of three houses in Danzig which contained the best observatory in the world. The marriage of the seventeen-year-old to fifty-two-year-old Hevelius in 1663 allowed her also to pursue her own interest in astronomy by helping him manage his observatory. They had a son, who died soon after birth, and three daughters who survived. The eldest of the three daughters was named Catherina Elisabetha (after her mother) and baptized in St Catherine's Church, Danzig, on 14 February 1666. From the writings of Johann III Bernoulli we know that Elisabetha contracted smallpox and was permanently scarred by it. Following his death in 1687, she completed and published Prodromus astronomiae (1690), their jointly compiled catalogue of 1,564 stars and their positions. The work included information on their methods of calculations and examples of how they determined latitude and longitude of stars using the sectant and quadrant. The book, however, was published only with Johannes name as author.
Elisabeth's Contributions to Science
Elisabeth was educated in Latin and used her knowledge of Latin to write correspondence to other scientists. Elisabeth taught herself Latin, which further proves that she prioritized science and being able to spread her and her husband's ideas but also to gain more knowledge from other scientists. Her most notable achievement was the completion and publication of the seminal work "Prodromus astronomiae" in 1690, following the death of her husband, Johannes Hevelius. This astronomical catalog meticulously documented the positions and data for 1,564 stars, representing a significant advancement in the field of celestial observation and recording. Her contributions to this project went beyond mere data collection; she actively engaged in the complex calculations and methodology essential to producing such a comprehensive star catalog. These calculations and methods were indicative of the meticulous and systematic approach she brought to her astronomical work, which significantly advanced the field during her time. Elisabeth and Johannes Hevelius' joint observations of the sky were characterized by their use of advanced astronomical instruments. Employing tools such as brass sextants and octants in their observatory in Danzig, they contributed significantly to the refinement of observational techniques during the 17th century. These instruments played a crucial role in their astronomical pursuits, allowing for precise measurements and observations that advanced the understanding of celestial bodies.
A complimentary remark was always made about Madam Hevelius, who was the first woman, to my knowledge, who was not frightened to face the fatigue of making astronomical observations and calculations.
Elisabeth's life was dramatized in the German language historical novel Die Sternjägerin (The Star Huntress)(2006).
- Nicolaes Koopman x Johanna Mennincx, 13 october 1633, Stadsarchief Amsterdam, both from Hamburg ('van Hamborgh')
- Hockey, Thomas (2009). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Stories of Women Stargazers, Dora Musielak, March 30, 2009
- Gotthilf Löschin: Geschichte Danzigs von der ältesten bis zur neuesten Zeit: mit beständiger Rücksicht auf Cultur der Sitten, Wissenschaften, Künste, Gewerbe und Handelszweige, Volume 1, 1828 
- Reser, Anna; Mceill, Leila (2021). Forces of nature; the women who changed science. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 9780711248977.
- Bernardi, Gabriella (2022), Jones, Claire G.; Martin, Alison E.; Wolf, Alexis (eds.), "Domestic Astronomy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries", The Palgrave Handbook of Women and Science since 1660, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 269–287, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-78973-2_13#citeas, ISBN 978-3-030-78973-2, retrieved 2023-05-06
- Bernardi, Gabriella (2016), Bernardi, Gabriella (ed.), "Elisabetha Catherina Koopman Hevelius (1647–1693)", The Unforgotten Sisters: Female Astronomers and Scientists before Caroline Herschel, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 67–74, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26127-0_11, ISBN 978-3-319-26127-0, retrieved 2023-05-06
- Cook, Alan (2000). "Johann and Elizabeth Hevelius, Astronomers of Danzig". Endeavour.
- "J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson: Catherina Elisabetha Koopman Hevelius". University of St. Andrews. December 2008.
- Eric Walz, Die Sternjägerin. Blanvalet Taschenbuch Verlag. 2006. ISBN 3442365236.
- Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. "Hevelius, Elisabetha Koopman". In: Women in Science, The MIT Press, 1986, p. 99 ISBN 0-262-15031-X (Short encyclopedia article)
- Walz, E. 2006. The Star Huntress. Random House/Bertelsmann. ISBN 978-3-442-36523-4 (Historical novel)