21 January 1610|
Groton Manor, Suffolk, England
Newtown, Queens County, New York
|Known for||Early settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony|
Lt. Robert Feake
Martha Johanna Winthrop|
Elizabeth Fones Winthrop Feake Hallett (21 January 1610 – c. 1673) was an early settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony where her father-in-law (and uncle) John Winthrop served as Governor. Her subsequent behaviour would scandalize the Puritan colony.
A 2012 biography of Fones, by Missy Wolfe, is Insubordinate Spirit: A True Story of Life and Loss in Earliest America, 1610-1665.
Elizabeth Fones was born at Groton Manor, Suffolk, England on 21 January 1610 to Thomas Fones, a London apothecary, and his wife, Anne Winthrop, sister of John Winthrop, a staunch puritan and the eventual Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
As a young girl, Fones worked at her father's shop in London. To the dismay of her family, she entered a whirlwind courtship with her first cousin Henry Winthrop, a son of Governor John Winthrop; they were married on 25 April 1629, at the Church of St. Sepulchre at New Gate, London. A year later, her husband sailed alone for the Massachusetts Bay Colony on the ship Talbot, leaving his young bride behind in England on account of her pregnancy. The baby, a daughter named Martha Johanna Winthrop, was born on 9 May 1630 at Groton Manor. Shortly after his arrival in Massachusetts, Henry was killed in a drowning accident on 2 July 1630 when he went swimming in the North River after visiting an Indian village near Salem.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Fones sailed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her infant daughter Martha aboard the Lyon, arriving on 2 November 1631. Her father-in-law, uncle and guardian, John Winthrop, served as Governor of the Colony.
In 1632 Fones married her second husband, a wealthy landowner named Lt. Robert Feake (born 1602) in London, England He owned land in both Massachusetts and Connecticut. The marriage was arranged by her uncle (and former father-in-law), Gov. John Winthrop. In 1640, the Feakes acquired more land in what is now Greenwich, Connecticut. Indeed, she is considered one of the founders of Greenwich; what is now called 'Greenwich Point' was known for much of its early history as 'Elizabeth's Neck' in recognition of Elizabeth Fones and their 1640 purchase of the Point and much of what is today called Old Greenwich. The fact that she, as a woman, had property in her own name was viewed with dismay in the more rigid society of the day. They had five children: Elizabeth (born 1633), Hannah (born 1637), John (born 1639), Robert (born 1642) and Sarah (born before 1647). In 1647, due to financial, domestic, and personal problems, Lt. Feake went insane and abandoned his wife and children.
Following her husband's desertion, Fones deeply scandalised the rigid Puritan society in which she lived by marrying her husband's business manager, William Hallett, without evidence that she and Lt. Feake were divorced. Fones had two sons with Hallett: William (born c. 1648) and Samuel (born c. 1650). Their marriage took place in August 1649 and was officiated by her former brother-in-law John Winthrop, Jr.. Only her close blood relationship to the Governor saved her from prosecution for adultery, for which she could have been hanged. Nevertheless, Fones and her new husband and family were forced to leave Connecticut and Massachusetts for the more tolerant Dutch colony of New Netherlands / New York, where they were eventually recognized as husband and wife, possibly due to the friendship Fones formed with Judith Stuyvesant, wife of Director-General Peter Stuyvesant. The Halletts settled in an area which was later called Hallett's Cove and is now known as Astoria, Queens, near Hell Gate.
In September 1655, Fones and her family survived an attack by the Hackensack tribe of Indians; however, the Indians set fire to their house and farm, burning both to the ground. She purchased land in Flushing and Newtown, Queens County on 1 October from Edward Griffin. The following year, William Hallett was made "Schout" or chief-official of Flushing.
Fones has numerous descendants in the United States, including those descending from the marriage of her only child by Henry Winthrop, Martha Johanna, to Thomas Lyon of Byram Neck, Greenwich, Connecticut, whose home, the Thomas Lyon House, is on the National Register of Historic Places. Fones' daughter Hannah Feake married John Bowne who was a North American pioneer for religious freedom with the Flushing Remonstrance. Their descendants include Robert Bowne, founder of Bowne & Co. publishing in 1775 - until 2010 it was the oldest publicly traded company in the US, and Walter Bowne, 59th Mayor of New York. Vermont Governor Howard Dean, Amelia Earhart, a 20th-century female pioneer, and Secretary of State John Forbes Kerry and his ex-wife Julia Thorne, are also descendants of Fones, as are Bill Gates, Johnny Depp, and European industrialist and art collector Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza.
- Winthrop (1891), pp. 2–4, 10.
- Whitmore (1864)
- Winthrop (1891), p. 2.
- Buckland (2000), p. 1.
- Mayo (1948), p. 60.
- Anderson (1995), p. 1030.
- Bremer (2005), pp. 130–131.
- Raymer (1963), p. 51.
- Miller (1907), pp. 28–29.
- Mayo (1948), pp. 60–61.
- Winthrop (1891), p. 4.
- Bremer (2005), p. 187.
- Mayo (1948), pp. 59–61.
- Buckland (2000), pp. 1–3.
- Mayo (1948), p. 61.
- Mayo (1948), pp. 1–5.
- Bremer (2005)
- Winthrop (1891), p. 3.
- Anderson (1995), p. 2040.
- Miller (1907), p. 28.
- Latting (1880)
- Mead (1911), pp. 4–9.
- "From Monakewego to Greenwich Point". Greenwich Point History. Friends of Greenwich Point. Archived from the original on November 17, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- Winthrop (1891), pp. 2–4.
- Buckland (2000), p. 9.
- Winthrop (1891), pp. 3, 10.
- Mead (1911), pp. 8–9.
- Winthrop (1891), p. 13.
- Seton, p. 621.
- Wolfe, Missy. Insubordinate Spirit: A True Story of Life and Loss in Earliest America Guilford, CT, 2012, page 181.
- Winthrop (1891), pp. 4, 9–10, 14–16.
- Descendants of Elizabeth Fones. Dowling Family Genealogy http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=dowfam3&id=I30235 Accessed March 1, 2015
- Anderson, Robert Charles (1995). The Great Migration Begins, Volume II, G-O. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society.
- Bremer, Francis J. (2005). John Winthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517981-1.
- Buckland, Miriam Renwick (2000). Elizabeth: Elizabeth Fones Winthrop Feake Hallett. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society.
- Latting, John J. (1880). New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 1880.
- Mayo, Lawrence Shaw (1948). The Winthrop Family in America. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society.
- Mead, Spencer P. (1911). Ye Historie of Ye Town of Greenwich. New York: Knickerbocker Press.
- Miller, Robert B., ed. (1907). Lyon Memorial. Detroit: William Graham Press.
- Raymer, Robert George (1963). John Winthrop Governor of the Company of Massachusetts Bay in New England. New York: Vantage Press.
- Seton, Anya (1958). The Winthrop Woman.
- Whitmore, William H. (1864). Notes on the Winthrop Family. Albany, NY: J. Munsell.
- Winthrop, R. C. (1891). Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. second series. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. VI. Missing or empty
- Wolf, Missy (2012). Insubordinate Spirit: A True Story of Life and Loss in Earliest America 1610-1665. Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press.