Elizabeth Johnson (theologian)

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For other people named Elizabeth Johnson, see Elizabeth Johnson (disambiguation).
Elizabeth A. Johnson, C.S.J.
ElizabethJohnson 11.jpg
Johnson at Fordham University
Born (1941-12-06) December 6, 1941 (age 73)
Nationality United States
Education B.S. Brentwood College
M.A. Manhattan College; Ph.D. Catholic University of America
Occupation Sister (Sisters of St. Joseph)
Professor of Theology

Elizabeth A. Johnson (born December 6, 1941[1]) is a Roman Catholic feminist theologian.[2] She is a Distinguished Professor of Theology at Fordham University, a Jesuit institution in New York City. She is a member of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Brentwood. Johnson has served as president of the Catholic Theological Society of America and is "one of its most well known members."[3] The New York Times has described Johnson as, "a highly respected theologian whose books are widely used in theology classes."[4] Johnson became the center of a controversy surrounding a popular book she published, Quest for the Living God, which was hailed for expounding on "new ways to think and speak about God within the framework of traditional Catholic beliefs and motifs." It became popular in churches and was adopted as a text for many university religion courses, but was suddenly condemned by the Catholic bishops' conservative Committee on Doctrine three years after its publication and popular acceptance. The public criticism by the bishops caused a spike in the books sales, frayed already strained relations between the church hierarchy and Catholic theologians, and threatened to reduce the bishops' "credibility in the pews."[5] The New York Times notes that Johnson has been a "target" of criticism from "traditionalist" Catholic groups because of her encouragement for giving women greater authority in the church and her willingness to speak at meetings of Catholics who disagree with the Catholic church on issues like same-sex marriage.[4]

Life[edit]

Johnson grew up in Brooklyn, New York, the oldest of seven children in an "Irish Catholic family."[6][7] As a young adult she joined the religious order of the Sisters of Saint Joseph whose motherhouse is in Brentwood, Long island, NY.[8] She received a B.S. from Brentwood College in 1964, an M.A. from Manhattan College in 1964.

1981, she became the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in theology at the Catholic University of America (CUA). CUA is a pontifical university of the Catholic Church and is the only university in the U.S. founded and sponsored by America's bishops. Johnson recalls that her experience there was "rich, respectful, and collegial," but was also "lacking in female presence." During her studies there in the 1970s Johnson observes, "I never had a woman professor, I never read one woman author. There were none to be had. It was a totally male education."[7] CUA attempted to remedy this when Johnson herself was hired into a tenure-track position in Christology, a specialization that focuses on the concept of Jesus as the Messiah.[clarify][7] She became one of the first female theologians allowed to receive a doctorate by the church authorities, as a result of the "liberalization decrees that capped the Second Vatican Council."[9] Feminism had begun impacting the thinking and dialog of female Catholic theologians, and pioneering feminist theologians Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza and Sandra M. Schneiders influenced Johnson on feminist topics, including using feminine metaphors and language for God. Inspired by their example, Johnson and other women graduate students formed a group, "Women in Theology."[7]

She has served as head of the Catholic Theological Society of America[10] and the American Theological Society.

While at CUA she felt profoundly affected by events in El Salvador when women who had been working on behalf of the Catholic Church were killed. Maura Clarke, M.M., an American Roman Catholic Maryknoll Sister, who served as a missionary in Nicaragua and El Salvador was murdered, along with fellow missionaries Jean Donovan and Sisters Ita Ford, M.M., and Dorothy Kazel, O.S.U., in El Salvador, by members of a death squad Salvadoran Civil War. Johnson mourned the women, but took inspiration from their example and decided to carry out their mission in her field of theology.[1][11][12][not in citation given (See discussion.)]

Johnson notes that leaders of her religious community encouraged her to enter the field of theology and pushed her to continue in spite of obstacles. "When I applied for tenure at Catholic University, I received the full positive vote of the faculty. But the outcome was in doubt because some bishops were not happy with an article I had written," she says. Though she contemplated leaving rather than facing the "arduous process of interrogation," General Superior Sister John Raymond McGann advised her not to give up, and Johnson did receive tenure.[13]

Johnson had taught science and religion at the elementary and high school level, then taught theology at St. Joseph's College (New York) and at CUA before moving to Fordham in 1991.[1] At Fordham, she was named Distinguished Professor in 1997 and "Teacher of the Year" in 1998.[14]

Views[edit]

  • In 1990, she criticized a draft of the 1992 Catechism of the Catholic Church for its use of Scripture "in a fundamentalist way, with little regard for insights about the New Testament forged in the last half-century of Catholic biblical renewal," quoting the evangelists as if they all held identical views, and ascribing to them concepts only developed after centuries of theological dispute. She praised the draft for placing Jesus rather than the church at the center of its discussions of worship and ethics, but objected to its "truncated view of the humanity of Jesus Christ" who "walks around like God dressed up in human clothes."[15]
  • Johnson believes that the scriptures must be interpreted with an understanding of the cultural and historic setting in which they were written.[16] "All-male images of God are hierarchical images rooted in the unequal relation between women and men," she writes. "Once women no longer relate to men as patriarchal fathers, lords, and kings in society, these images become religiously inadequate. Instead of evoking the reality of God, they block it."[7]
  • She expounds on her belief that people will have different perceptions of God depending on their own circumstances. Quest for the Living God: Mapping Frontiers in the Theology of God, shares different understandings of God through experiences of those who are impoverished, oppressed, Holocaust victims, Hispanics, women as well as men, and people of a variety of religions.[17]
  • Johnson promotes the value of inter-religious dialogue.[user-generated source][18]
  • Jill Raitt, of Fontbonne University, on catholicbooksreview.org says Johnson understands the "urgency of attending to all God's offspring, including the planet and its beautiful burden of living creatures of the sea, the skies, the earth."[user-generated source][18]
  • Much of Johnson's scholarship is built on the foundation of the Second Vatican Council, which urged members of the Catholic Church to overcome "every type of discrimination, whether social or cultural, whether based on sex, race, color, social condition, language or religion."[4]
  • In 2014 Johnson expressed what she perceives as the misguided priorities of the Catholic Church when she addressed the LCWR while it was being investigated by the Vatican: "When the moral authority of the hierarchy is hemorrhaging due to financial scandals and many bishops who … cover up sexual abuse of children, a cover up that continues in some quarters to this day, and thousands are drifting away from the church … the waste of time on this investigation is unconscionable."[19]

Works[edit]

The main areas of focus for Johnson's writing are the mystery of God, Jesus Christ, Mary, saints, science and religion, human suffering, ethics and issues related to women. In addition to her books, her works include over 100 essays in scholarly and popular journals as well as chapters in anthologies.[20]

Her feminist theological method is a "thorough deconstruction of male images of God", a search for alternative Christian sources, and "reconstruction of the theological symbol".[2](pp137, 140, 142–143, 146, 154)

One of Johnson's best-known work is She Who Is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse (1991), for which she became the fourth recipient of the University of Louisville and Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary Grawemeyer Award in 1993.[21] In it she argues that God, as a spirit, has no gender.[14] It was the first extended attempt to integrate feminist categories such as experience and emancipation into classical Catholic theology. Library Journal notes the book is "grounded in classical Christian thought," but contemporary, and encompasses women's experience. The book covers the history of Christian language about God and argues for gender-neutral or gender balanced language in discussions of God. While reflects an "inclusive and creative Christian spiritual doctrine."[14]

Johnson edited The Church Women Want (2002), which received the Gender Award from the Catholic Press Association.

Her Quest for the Living God (2007) quickly became popular not only among the laity, but also has been used as a text in university courses. In his review of the book, Joseph Cunneen in American Catholic said, "This is one of the most important and provocative books on theology to have appeared in the U.S. since Vatican II."[citation needed] The book also found an audience among some non-Catholics, including Episcopalian Bishop Mark Sisk who gave copies to his New York clergy; he selected it as his "innovative choice" for 2009 because it included "a valuable reflection and overview of modern theological trends."[22]

In Ask the Beasts: Darwin and the God of Love Johnson examines God's relationship with the earth's non-human inhabitants. The inspiration for the book came in 2009 from the 150th anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species; Johnson received a research grant to leave for the 2011-2012 academic year to write it. In addition to including a close reading of Darwin's work, the book reflects on the Nicene Creed. The Nicene Creed, according to Johnson, "is really a narrative of God's evolutionary relationship to the world. God makes the universe, comes into the world, goes down into death, rises again. And, with the spirit, God continues to give life to creation and ready it for the life of world to come."[23]

Controversy surrounding USCCB critique of Quest for a Living God[edit]

In March 2011 the USCCB Committee on Doctrine issued a doctrinal evaluation of Quest for a Living God that stated that this book is predicated "at the level of method" on "a false presupposition, an error that undermines the very nature of the study and so skews many of its arguments, rendering many of its conclusions theologically unacceptable."[24](p1) The evaluation equates Johnson's modern theism to an Age of "Enlightenment deist notion of God that contains some elements, though now misrepresented, of a traditional Catholic understanding of God."[24](p3) "The false presupposition" in Quest for a Living God, according to the doctrinal evaluation, "is the conviction that all names for God are metaphors."[24](pp6, 10) The panentheism in Quest for a Living God "lacks any characteristic that would constitute a real difference between it and pantheism."[24](pp5, 11, 16–17) Johnson, according to the doctrinal evaluation "employs standards from outside the faith to criticize and to revise in a radical fashion the conception of God revealed in Scripture and taught by the Magisterium."[24](p20) The doctrinal evaluation concluded "that the doctrine of God presented in Quest for the Living God does not accord with authentic Catholic teaching on essential points"[24](p21) The doctrinal evaluation of Quest for a Living God is not a formal ban.[5][17]

In a letter about the doctrinal evaluation, Cardinal Donald Wuerl wrote that Johnson did not request an imprimatur, "a recommended practice" in 1983 Code of Canon Law canon 827 §3 through which "clarifications concerning the text can be made prior to its publication."[25] Father James Martin, in America, noted that the doctrinal evaluation of Quest for a Living God was detailed and described an imprimatur as "the church's official approval of a book, granted by a bishop after a lengthy process of review by theologians."[26] Wuerl added, in March 2011, that the Committee on Doctrine "would welcome an opportunity to discuss Sister Elizabeth’s writings with her.”[26] The procedures used in doctrinal evaluations were .[27]

At that time, although Johnson did not request an imprimatur, Johnson complained that the doctrinal evaluation was issued without consulting with her, and she objected that the doctrinal evaluation is a "misrepresentation" which "in several key instances...radically misinterprets what I think, and what I in fact wrote."[28]

The timing, tone and substance of the criticism impacted not only Johnson, but brought into the spotlight the simmering tensions between the Catholic hierarchy and America's theologians. Johnson has been viewed as a leader of feminist scholars who dissect how cultural biases among biblical writers may have affected women's approved roles in Christian religious tradition. Catholic theologians have engaged in such issues as standard academic subjects, understanding ancient texts in their historic and cultural contexts. But the publicized critique by the USCCB of Johnson's book signaled a chill on this line of inquiry. The New York Times noted: "Many on the left and the right agree on one point: The bishops, who have already shut off discussion about ordaining women, are signaling that other long-debated questions about gender in the church — the choice of pronouns in prayers, the study of the male and female aspects of God — are substantially off-limits as well."[4] In particular, the bishops had protested Johnson's discussion of female images for God without giving what they viewed as sufficient attention to the primacy of masculine imagery for God.

In June 2011, Johnson sent a rebuttal of the doctrinal evaluation to Committee on Doctrine.[29]

In October 2011, several Catholic theologians expressed annoyance at the critical report not only because it was issued three years after the book was published, but also because it appeared to violate the bishops' own guidelines. Those guidelines, which had been embraced and promoted in an effort to soothe the simmering conflicts between the Catholic hierarchy and theologians, called for discussion and engagement with theologians rather than public pronouncements. Theologians were also concerned that the Rev. Thomas Weinandy, executive secretary of the committee and a conservative theologian, took an antagonistic approach, even referring to theologians in a speech as "curse and affliction upon the church."[clarify][5] Susan Ross, the president of the 1,400-member Catholic Theological Society of America, characterized Weinandy's tenure with the bishops' conference as "antagonistic" and the committee's approach on doctrine while he was there as "adversarial."[30]

Several theologians, including Fordham President Joseph M. McShane and Boston College theologian Stephen J. Pope, rallied around Johnson,[17] and Terrence W. Tilley, chair of Fordham's theology department and the board of the Catholic Theological Society of America".[4] The bishops, according to Tilley, have "reject[ed] 50 years of contemporary theology." While Johnson, Tilley said, "has been attempting to push Catholic thinking along new paths. And the bishops have now made it clear — this is something they stand against."[4]

The Committee on Doctrine reviewed Johnson's rebuttal and issued a response in October 2011 which reaffirmed its doctrinal evaluation.[25][31]:{{{1}}}

In October 2011, Wuerl announced that he had, in 2011, offered to meet Johnson but she did not respond to his invitations.[32]

In 2013, Pope Francis reaffirmed the canonical investigation of the LCWR and its members were ordered to review their statutes and reassess their plans and programs, while recognizing positive aspects in their work.[33]

In 2014, the LCWR presented its Outstanding Leadership Award to Johnson. Johnson maintained her opinions, that it appeared to her that the members of the USCCB had never read her book, and that "no one, not myself or the theological community, the media or the general public knows what doctrinal issue is at stake."[19]

Publications[edit]

  • Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology (1990)
  • She Who Is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse (1992)
  • Woman, Earth, and Creator Spirit (1993)
  • Who Do You Say that I Am? : Introducing Contemporary Christology (1997)
  • Friends of God and Prophets: A Feminist Theological Reading of the Communion of Saints (1998)
  • The Church Women Want: Catholic Women in Dialogue (2002)
  • Truly Our Sister: A Theology of Mary in the Communion of Saints (2003)
  • Quest for the living God: mapping frontiers in the theology of God (2007)
  • Ask the Beasts: Darwin and the God of Love (2014)

Honorary degrees[edit]

  • Doctor of Letters, honoris causa, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1994
  • Doctor of Theology, honoris causa, Maryknoll School of Theology, New York, 1995
  • Doctor of Theology, honoris causa, Catholic Theological Union, Chicago, Illinois, 1996
  • Doctor of Sacred Theology, honoris causa, Siena College, Loudonville, New York, 1998
  • Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York, 1999
  • Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, St. Joseph's College, Brooklyn, New York, 2001
  • Doctor of Pedagogy, honoris causa, Manhattan College, Riverdale, New York, 2002
  • Doctor of Theology, honoris causa, Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, California, 2003
  • Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, College of New Rochelle, New York, 2004[11]
  • Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, Villanova University, Pennsylvania, 2005
  • Doctor of Human Letters, honoris causa, Saint Joseph College, West Hartford, Connecticut, 2006
  • Doctor of the University, honoris causa, Saint Paul University, Ottawa, Ontario, 2008
  • Doctor of Sacred Letters, honoris causa, University of St. Michael's College, Toronto, Ontario, 2010
  • Doctor of Educational Leadership, honoris causa, Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, Winona, Minnesota, 2011

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Daley, Michael J. (2003). "Worth a life—a Vatican II story". In Madges, William; Daley, Michael J. Vatican II: forty personal stories. Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications. p. 200. ISBN 9781585952380. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  2. ^ a b Open Source Initiative keyhole.svg This article incorporates text from an open source work, under the CC-BY: Rakoczy, Susan (2008). "The theological vision of Elizabeth A Johnson" (PDF). Scriptura (Stellenbosch, ZA: Stellenbosch University) (98): 137–155. doi:10.7833/98-0-701. ISSN 0254-1807. Archived from the original on 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2015-08-23. 
  3. ^ Fox, Thomas C. (2011-05-13). "Bishops' committee reaches out to Catholic scholars". ncronline.org. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2011-05-16. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Vitello, Paul (2011-04-12) [Published in print 2011-04-11]. "After bishops attack book, gauging bounds of debate". nytimes.com. New York. Archived from the original on 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2011-04-13. 
  5. ^ a b c Gibson, David (2011-10-28). "'Quest for the Living God,' book by Sister Elizabeth Johnson blasted by Catholic bishops". huffingtonpost.com. Religion News Service. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. 
  6. ^ "[About] Elizabeth A. Johnson". crossroadpublishing.com. The Crossroad Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2015-05-15. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Manson, Jamie L. (2014-03-06). "Feminism in faith: Sister Elizabeth Johnson's challenge to the Vatican". buzzfeed.com. New York, NY: BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. 
  8. ^ "Elizabeth A. Johnson, C.S.J.". fordham.edu. New York: Fordham University. Archived from the original on 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  9. ^ Clines, Francis X. (1995-02-23). "Still married to Christ, and never happier; as fewer women become nuns, sisters say the calling's rewards have expanded". nytimes.com. New York. Archived from the original on 2015-08-24. 
  10. ^ Steinfels, Peter (1995-06-20). "50 years of Catholic talk: new faces and new ideas". nytimes.com. New York. Archived from the original on 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  11. ^ a b "CNR News & Events". cnr.edu. New Rochelle, NY: College of New Rochelle. Spring 2004. Archived from the original on 2004-06-14. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  12. ^ Hinsdale, Mary Ann (2006). Women shaping theology. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. p. 143. ISBN 9780809143108.  citing personal communication from Johnson.
  13. ^ Johnson, Elizabeth A. (2014-08-15). Remarks for Leadership Award Dinner (Speech). Leadership Conference of Women Religious. Nashville, TN.  Full text quoted in Gibson, David (2014-08-17). "'Let a female speculate': full text of Sister Elizabeth Johnson's LCWR talk". religionnews.com. Washington, DC: Religion News LLC.  Reprinted in "'Let a female speculate': full text of Sister Elizabeth Johnson's LCWR talk". angelqueen.org. 2014-08-17. Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. 
  14. ^ a b c Steichen, Donna (2003-07-28). "Goddess project, the". catholicculture.org. Manassas, VA: Trinity Communications. Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2015-04-20.  Adapted from Steichen, Donna (Winter 2000). "Address to 1999 WFF conference – men, women, and the prodigal father". Voices (St. Louis, MO: Women for Faith & Family) 15 (1). Archived from the original on 2001-07-26. 
  15. ^ Steinfels, Peter (1990-03-08). "Proposed Catholic catechism stirs dispute among scholars". nytimes.com. New York. Archived from the original on 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  16. ^ Johnson, Elizabeth (Nov 1999). "Circle of friends: a closer look at the communion of saints". U.S. Catholic (Chicago, Il: Claretian Fathers) 64 (11): 12–18. ISSN 0041-7548. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2015-05-15. 
  17. ^ a b c Goodstein, Laurie (2012-07-26) [2011-03-30 before corrections]. "Bishops criticize nun's book". nytimes.com. New York. Archived from the original on 2012-07-27. 
  18. ^ a b Raitt, Jill. "[Review of] Elizabeth A. Johnson, Quest for the Living God: mapping frontiers in the theology of God". catholicbooksreview.org. [s.n.]: [s.n.]. Archived from the original on 2008-10-22. [user-generated source]
  19. ^ a b Hall, Heidi (2014-08-17) [syndicated 2014-08-16]. "Sister Elizabeth Johnson blasts Catholic bishops for 'unconscionable' investigation of American nuns". huffingtonpost.com. Religion News Service. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. 
  20. ^ "Theology author Sister Elizabeth Johnson, CSJ, to speak at Manhattan College on Oct. 7". manhattan.edu. Riverdale, NY: Manhattan College. 2014-09-12. Archived from the original on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2015-04-15. 
  21. ^ "1993 – Elizabeth A. Johnson". grawemeyer.org. Louisville, KY: University of Louisville and Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. 1993-04-27. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. 
  22. ^ Good, Deirdre; Redmont, Jane (2011-04-25). "Elizabeth Johnson, reliable guide". episcopalcafe.com. Beckley, WV: Episcopal Café. Archived from the original on 2015-08-24. 
  23. ^ Manson, Jamie (2014-02-13). "With book on God and Darwin, Elizabeth Johnson gets her voice back". ncronline.org. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2014-07-04. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f USCCB Committee on Doctrine (2011-03-24). Statement on Quest for the living God: mapping frontiers in the theology of God, by Sister Elizabeth A. Johnson (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2015-08-27. 
  25. ^ a b "Bishops' doctrine committee faults book by Fordham professor". usccb.org (press release). Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 2011-03-30. Archived from the original on 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2015-03-29. 
  26. ^ a b Martin, James (2011-03-31). "The case of Sister Elizabeth Johnson". americamagazine.org. New York: America Media. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. I haven't read Quest, so I can't comment on the notification at all. 
  27. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (2012-08-17). "US bishops quietly adopt protocols for theological investigations". ncronline.org. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  28. ^ Johnson, Elizabeth A (2011-03-30). "Regarding the Statement of the Committee on Doctrine of the United States Catholic Bishops Conference on the book Quest for the living God: mapping frontiers in theology of God - Response by Dr. Elizabeth Johnson C.S.J., March 30, 2011". fordham.edu. Fordham University. Archived from the original on 2011-04-10. Retrieved 2011-04-03.  Reprinted in "Johnson: Bishops' condemnation came without discussion". ncronline.org. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter. 2011-03-31. Archived from the original on 2011-04-03. Retrieved 2015-03-29. 
  29. ^ Johnson, Elizabeth A. (2011-06-01). To speak rightly of the living God: observations by Dr. Elizabeth A. Johnson, CSJ on the Statement of the Committee on Doctrine of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops about her book Quest for the living God: mapping frontiers in the theology of God.  Reprinted with her cover letter in Fox, Thomas C. (2011-06-06). "Johnson letter to U.S. bishops' Doctrine Committee". ncronline.org. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2011-06-11.  Also reprinted without her cover letter in Gaillardetz, Richard R., ed. (2012). When the magisterium intervenes: the magisterium and theologians in today's church: includes a case study on the doctrinal investigation of Elizabeth Johnson. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814680551. 
  30. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (2013-01-30). "US bishops to replace staffer behind theological investigations". ncronline.org. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2013-02-02. 
  31. ^ USCCB Committee on Doctrine (2011-10-11). Response to Observations By Sr. Elizabeth A. Johnson, C.S.J., regarding the Committee On Doctrine’s statement about the book Quest for The Living God (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2015-08-27. 
  32. ^ "Doctrine Committee Chair, Cardinal Wuerl, highlights multiple offers to meet with Fordham Professor Sister Elizabeth Johnson" (Press release). Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 2011-10-28. Archived from the original on 2011-10-31. Retrieved 2015-03-29. 
  33. ^ "US Catholic nuns criticised in Vatican report on LCWR". bbc.com. BBC News. 2013-04-15. Archived from the original on 2014-09-15. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]