Kim et al., 2005
Elizabethkingia is a genus of bacteria described in 2005, named after Elizabeth O. King, the discoverer of the type species. Before this genus being formed in 2005, many of the species of Elizabethkingia were classified in the Chryseobacterium genus. Elizabethkingia has been found in soil, rivers, and reservoirs worldwide.
A 2014 study revealed that Elizabethkingia is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments, with its incidence in intensive care units rising since 2004. About 5-10 cases of Elizabethkingia are reported per state in the United States every year. A recent study showed that incidence rates for Elizabethkingia increased by 432.1% for 2016-2017 over the incidence for 2009-2015. It possesses genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Combined with a lack of effective therapeutic regimens, this leads to high mortality rates. Due to the growing incidence rates, lack of treatments, and high mortality rate, intensive prevention of contamination is necessary.
Neonatal meningitis is the most common presentation of Elizabethkingia for children. Recent studies suggest that approximately 31% of children that have Elizabethkingia pass away from the infection, with an average life expectancy of 27 days from onset of symptoms. For the children who recover from Elizabethkingia, about 48% report typical development and full recovery. 30% indicated an onset of hydrocephalus post-recovery. Many other cases included various onsets post-recovery, including motor deficits, cognitive deficits, ongoing seizures, spasticity, and/or hearing loss.
One of the more significant risk factors for Elizabethkingia is whether mechanical ventilation was used with the patient. Because it can form a biofilm in moist environments, water or water-related equipment can also aid in the transfer of Elizabethkinga in hospital environments.
The genus includes four species:
- Elizabethkingia anophelis, isolated from Anopheles mosquitoes, can cause respiratory tract illness in humans, and involved in an 2016 outbreak centered in Wisconsin.
- Elizabethkingia endophytica, isolated from blemished stems of sweet corn, Zea mays
- Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, can cause outbreaks of neonatal meningitis in premature newborns and infants
- Elizabethkingia miricola, isolated from condensation water in Space Station Mir
- Kim KK, Kim MK, Lim JH, Park HY, Lee ST (2005). "Transfer of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum and Chryseobacterium miricola to Elizabethkingia gen. nov. as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica comb. nov. and Elizabethkingia miricola comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (Pt 3): 1287–93. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63541-0. PMID 15879269.
- Henry, Ronnie (January 2016). "Etymologia: Elizabethkingia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22 (1): 17–17. doi:10.3201/eid2201.ET2201. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 4698869. PMID 27057563.
- "About Elizabethkingia | Elizabethkingia | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2018-10-12. Retrieved 2019-07-26.
- Teo J, Tan SY, Liu Y, Tay M, Ding Y, Li Y, Kjelleberg S, Givskov M, Lin RT, Yang L (2014). "Comparative Genomic Analysis of Malaria Mosquito Vector-Associated Novel Pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis". Genome Biology and Evolution. 6 (5): 1158–65. doi:10.1093/gbe/evu094. PMC 4041001. PMID 24803570.
- Choi, Min Hyuk; Kim, Myungsook; Jeong, Su Jin; Choi, Jun Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon (January 2019). "Risk Factors for Elizabethkingia Acquisition and Clinical Characteristics of Patients, South Korea". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 25 (1): 42–51. doi:10.3201/eid2501.171985. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 6302585.
- Dziuban, Eric J; Franks, Jessica L; So, Marvin; Peacock, Georgina; Blaney, David D (2018-06-18). "Elizabethkingia in Children: A Comprehensive Review of Symptomatic Cases Reported From 1944 to 2017". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 67 (1): 144–149. doi:10.1093/cid/cix1052. ISSN 1058-4838.
- Kämpfer P, Matthews H, Glaeser SP, Martin K, Lodders N, Faye I (2011). "Elizabethkingia anophelis sp. nov., isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (Pt 11): 2670–5. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.026393-0. PMID 21169462.
- Wisconsin Department of Health Services: "Wisconsin 2016 Elizabethkingia anophelis outbreak", March 11, 2016
- Perrin A, Larsonneur E, Nicholson AC, Edwards DJ, Gundlach KM, Whitney AM, Gulvik CA, Bell ME, Rendueles O, Cury J, Hugon P, Clermont D, Enouf V, Loparev V, Juieng P, Monson T, Warshauer D, Elbadawi LI, Walters MS, Crist MB, Noble-Wang J, Borlaug G, Rocha EP, Criscuolo A, Touchon M, Davis JP, Holt KE, McQuiston JR, Brisse S (2017). "Evolutionary dynamics and genomic features of the Elizabethkingia anophelis 2015 to 2016 Wisconsin outbreak strain". Nat Commun. 8: 15483. doi:10.1038/ncomms15483. PMC 5458099. PMID 28537263.
- Kämpfer P, Busse HJ, McInroy JA, Glaeser SP (2015). "Elizabethkingia endophytica sp. nov., isolated from Zea mays and emended description of Elizabethkingia anophelis Kämpfer et al. 2011". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 65 (7): 2187–93. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.000236. PMID 25858248.
- King EO (1959). "Studies on a group of previously unclassified bacteria associated with meningitis in infants". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 31 (3): 241–7. doi:10.1093/ajcp/31.3.241. PMID 13637033.
- Li Y, Kawamura Y, Fujiwara N, Naka T, Liu H, Huang X, Kobayashi K, Ezaki T (2003). "Chryseobacterium miricola sp. nov., a novel species isolated from condensation water of space station Mir". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 26 (4): 523–8. doi:10.1078/072320203770865828. PMID 14666980.
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