Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo

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Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo (December 8, 1934; Madrid, Spain—October 26, 2012; Havana, Cuba) led the guerilla force Second National Front of the Escambray Mountains during the Cuban Revolution against Fulgencio Batista and later opposed the government of Fidel Castro over its pro-Soviet leanings.[1]

Name pronunciation in English


Escambray Mountains

Gutiérrez Menoyo came from a Spanish family active in the Spanish Civil War and emigrated to Cuba following the victory of Francisco Franco′s forces with his family in 1945.[2]

In Cuba in 1957, Eloy formed and commanded the rebel group Second National Front of Escambray, which fought against president Batista′s dictatorial rule alongside Fidel Castro′s 26 July Revolutionary Movement and the 13th of March Revolutionary Student Directorate. In March 1957, he and his brother, Carlos, were part of an attack on the Presidential Palace of Fulgencio Batista; his brother, Carlos, was killed in that attack.[3] On January 3 of 1959, Eloy and his troops entered the City of Havana, Cuba and few days before Fidel Castro did and Eloy was hailed as one of the Commanders Of The Revolution.[4] Eloy's own army was absorbed into the army of Fidel Castro but Eloy was permitted to retain the rank of 'Major' which was the highest rank in Cuba at the time.[5] However, Eloy and many of his senior officers were never offered a post in the Castro Administration.[6] While being on the outside and looking in, Eloy grew dissatisfied with the Castro Administration and in September–October 1959, Eloy and some of his men from the old 1st Version of the Second National Front - which was formed in 1957 as a pro-Castro group - now form the 2nd Version of the Second National Front - which was an anti-Castro group.

However, in January 1961, events took a turn against these anti-Castro 2nd Version members and now Eloy and about 12 military and civilian supporters took to a boat and fled to the USA.[7] Eloy would settle in the City of Miami, Florida.[8] While in Florida, Eloy helped form Alpha 66.[9][10] Formed in January–February 1962, Alpha 66 was created just too late to take part in April 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion.[11]

However, after the death of John F. Kennedy in 1963, Eloy led an armed incursion into Cuba in December 1964, but was captured, jailed, and abused, on one occasion being beaten nearly to death by guards.[12] After 22 years in prison, Eloy was freed in 1986 after a petition by the Spanish Government.[13] Eloy then went into exile in Spain.[14] Eloy then returned to Miami, Florida where he formed Cambio Cubano or Cuban Change in 1992.[15]

In 2003, Eloy left the USA and returned to Cuba where he would remain for the rest of his life as a "tolerated dissident".[16]

Eloy would have at least three wives. He had a daughter in Puerto Rico with his 1st wife; his 2nd wife, Gladys, would remain in Florida with their three sons.[17] His 3rd wife was Flor Ester Torres Sanabria.[18]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Martin, Douglas (October 26, 2012). "Eloy Gutiérrez-Menoyo, Cuban Dissident, Dies at 77". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/26/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-rebel-commander-turned-dissident-dies.html
  3. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/26/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-rebel-commander-turned-dissident-dies.html
  4. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/26/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-rebel-commander-turned-dissident-dies.html
  5. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  6. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  7. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  8. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  9. ^ PAUL HAVEN, Associated Press. "Cuban dissident Eloy Gutierrez-Menoyo dies at 77". NewsTimes. Archived from the original on 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2012-10-29. 
  10. ^ "Cuban dissident Eloy Gutierrez-Menoyo dies at 77 | The Asheville Citizen-Times". citizen-times.com. Retrieved 2012-10-29. 
  11. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  12. ^ Armando Valladares, Against All Hope (New York: Knopf, 1986), pp. 194-96.
  13. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  14. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/26/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-rebel-commander-turned-dissident-dies.html
  15. ^ "Eloy Gutierrez-Menoyo, Cuban rebel commander turned dissident, dies at age 77". Fox News. Retrieved 2012-10-29. 
  16. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/27/world/americas/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-dissident-dies-at-77.html
  17. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/26/eloy-gutierrez-menoyo-cuban-rebel-commander-turned-dissident-dies.html
  18. ^ "BBC News - Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo, ex-revolutionary and dissident, dies in Cuba". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-10-29. 

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