Elvis Presley filmography

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King Creole (1958), Presley's personal favorite among his many films[1]

Elvis Presley was an American singer whose first acting role was in the 1956's Love Me Tender. Presley went on to appear in a total of 33 feature films (31 scripted roles, plus two concert performance documentaries).

Despite a strong, promising start with Jailhouse Rock and King Creole coming after Love Me Tender, Presley's films, following his return from a military obligation, were made cheaply and quickly to keep costs low and profits high. Although critically panned throughout the 1960s, Presley's films were mostly well received by his fans. Hal B. Wallis, who produced nine of Presley's films, described them as, "the only sure thing in Hollywood."[2]

The singer would star alongside a number of well-established actors, including Walter Matthau, Charles Bronson, Carolyn Jones, Angela Lansbury, Barbara Stanwyck, Jack Albertson, Gig Young, and Mary Tyler Moore. There were others who would later become famous, like an eleven-year-old Kurt Russell, making his screen debut in It Happened at the World's Fair (1963).

Presley left Hollywood after playing a doctor in the drama Change of Habit and returned to performing live in 1969. Following the success of his sold-out tours and Las Vegas shows, he allowed cameras to film him in concert and backstage in the early 1970s. One of these films, Elvis on Tour, won the 1973 Golden Globe award for best documentary.

In Hollywood[edit]

Screen tests[edit]

Presley first became interested in acting in his youth; despite later declarations that he had no acting experience, fellow Humes High School students recalled that he was often cast as the lead in the Shakespeare plays they studied in English class. He admired actors such as James Dean and Marlon Brando, and reportedly paid close attention to their performing styles long before he ever set foot on a movie set.[3] On March 26, 27, and 28, 1956, just days after the release of his first album, he did a screen test for Paramount Pictures. His first screen test, a scene from the William Inge play The Girls of Summer, resulted in drama coach Charlotte Clary declaring to her class of students, "Now that is a natural born actor".[4] Another test was an audition for a supporting role in The Rainmaker, starring Burt Lancaster. Screenwriter Allen Weiss compared his acting to that of "the lead in a high school play." Then, to his recording of "Blue Suede Shoes", Presley gave a lip-synced performance, complete with gyrations. In Weiss's description, "The transformation was incredible...electricity bounced off the walls. ... [It was] like an earthquake".[5] In a radio interview two weeks later, Presley excitedly declared that he would be making his motion picture debut in The Rainmaker.[6] The part ultimately went to Earl Holliman.[7]

1956–1958[edit]

Presley in a publicity photo for Jailhouse Rock

On April 25, Presley signed a seven-year contract with Paramount and producer Hal Wallis that also allowed him to work with other studios.[8] Wallis, who had produced classics such as Casablanca, Little Caesar and The Maltese Falcon, had promised Presley that he would look for dramatic roles to let the singer take his acting career seriously.[9] Wallis considered Presley for a role in The Rat Race, a film about a "naive, innocent boy" who was struggling to make it as a musician in Manhattan, but he decided against it after another studio executive said, "Elvis Presley just doesn't look like that".[10] The film was eventually made in 1960 with Tony Curtis in the lead role. Another possible idea that Wallis mulled over was to pair Presley with Jerry Lewis. Lewis had just separated from his comedy partner Dean Martin after a successful run of seventeen movies together, but again the idea was shelved.[10]

Eventually Wallis loaned Presley out to Twentieth Century-Fox and, in November, he made his big-screen debut with the musical western Love Me Tender. The original title—The Reno Brothers—was changed to capitalize on the advanced sales of the song "Love Me Tender". Presley was not too upset about the addition of the title song, he quite liked it, but when several more songs were added he blasted them as "garbage" and "silly songs".[11] The film was generally panned by the critics, although a number of them viewed it in a positive light. The Los Angeles Times wrote: "Elvis can act. S'help me the boy's real good, even when he isn't singing".[12] Despite mostly negative reviews, the film did well at the box office,[13] generating $540,000 in its first week alone.[14]

Although Presley was angered by the addition of songs to his film, the fans loved them. The success of both the single and EP set the tone for every Presley picture that was to follow, and the commercial success led to the release of three more Presley film vehicles over the next twenty months; Loving You, Jailhouse Rock, and King Creole. Jailhouse Rock and King Creole (1958), called for relatively dramatic performances. The erotic dance sequence to the former's title song is often cited as his greatest moment on screen.[15] It was choreographed by Alex Romero after watching Presley himself.[16] Howard Thompson of the New York Times began his review of the latter movie, "As the lad himself might say, cut my legs off and call me Shorty! Elvis Presley can act."[17]

1960s[edit]

His first film after his return from the Army, G.I. Blues (1960), directed by Norman Taurog, set the tone for Presley's Hollywood output in the 1960s. Presley fans loved the mix of songs, romance and humor, and, perhaps surprisingly considering his experiences during the 1950s, critics were also warming to the new formulaic approach and clean-cut characters.[18] Presley was not so thrilled, and thought many of the songs in G.I. Blues made no sense to the plot. He was concerned about the number of songs in it; unlike his earlier films, which consisted of fewer songs usually resulting in only an EP release, G.I. Blues had enough to release a full LP in its own right. As described by critic Al Clark, it was the "first in a series of nine bland Presley vehicles directed by Taurog, and the film which engendered a career formula of tepid, routine comedy-musicals."[19] Presley at first insisted on pursuing more serious roles, but when two films in a more dramatic vein — Flaming Star (1960) and Wild in the Country (1961) — were less commercially successful, he reverted to the formula that has been called "Elvis movies" and a genre unto themselves.[20] The majority of Presley's movies aimed for little more than reliable returns on modest investments and the promotion of their accompanying soundtrack albums.[21] To maintain box office success, he would later even shift "into beefcake formula comedy mode for a few years."[22] For most of the 1960s, during which he made 27 movies, there were few exceptions,[23] such as the non-musical western, Charro! Presley was given few real opportunities to do much actual acting in these films, which he referred to derisively as "travelogues."

Presley's movies were generally poorly received—one critic dismissed them as a "pantheon of bad taste."[24] As a typical comment put it, the scripts "were all the same."[25] It was further noted that the songs seemed to be "written on order by men (including Ben Weisman, who wrote and composed no fewer than fifty-seven distinct selections specifically for Presley) who never really understood Elvis or rock and roll."[26] Indeed, for Blue Hawaii, "fourteen songs were cut in just three days."[27] Julie Parrish, who appeared in Paradise, Hawaiian Style, says that Presley hated many of the songs chosen for his films; he "couldn't stop laughing while he was recording" one of them.[28] In Sight and Sound (1959) Peter John Dyer wrote that in his movies "Elvis Presley, aggressively bisexual in appeal, knowingly erotic, [was] acting like a crucified houri and singing with a kind of machine-made surrealism."[29] Hal Wallis also had a reputation for such prestige productions as Becket (1964), starring Richard Burton and Peter O'Toole, and he received 16 Academy Award nominations for his movies. But Wallis's goals were clearly very different for his most reliably profitable star: "A Presley picture is the only sure thing in Hollywood," he said.[30] Presley later branded Wallis "a double-dealing son-of-a-bitch," realizing there had never been any intention to let him develop into a serious actor.[31] Critics maintained that "No major star suffered through more bad movies than Elvis Presley."[32] According to Priscilla Presley, in the late 1960s, "He blamed his fading popularity on his humdrum movies" and "... loathed their stock plots and short shooting schedules." She also notes: "He could have demanded better, more substantial scripts, but he didn't."[33] Wallis defended his actions decades later, telling critics, "Elvis was a great entertainer, a great personality...and that is what we bought when we bought him. The idea of tailoring Elvis for dramatic roles is something that we never attempted because we did not sign Elvis as a second Jimmy Dean. We signed him as a number one Elvis Presley."[34]

For all that, Presley's films were indeed commercially successful, and he "became a film genre of his own."[35] On December 1, 1968, The New York Times wrote: "Three times a year Elvis Presley ... [makes] multi-million dollar feature-length films, with holiday titles like Blue Hawaii, Fun in Acapulco, Viva Las Vegas, Tickle Me, Easy Come, Easy Go, Live a Little, Love a Little, and The Trouble with Girls. For each film, Elvis receives a million dollars in wages and 50 per cent of the profits ... [E]very film yields an LP sound-track record which may sell as many as two-million copies."

A Letter from MGM President Joe Pasternak and Elvis Presley to David Winters thanking him for his choreography on Girl Happy.
David Winters' Choreography and dancers have contributed significantly to the success of a number of Presley's films

David Winters of "West Side Story" fame (Baby John on stage and A-rab in the film) worked with Presley as a choreographer on four of his movies Viva Las Vegas, Tickle Me, Easy Come, Easy Go, and Girl Happy.[36] Ann-Margret, who co-starred in Viva Las Vegas with Presley, introduced him to Winters, and recommended Winters as the film's choreographer, Winters's first feature film choreography job. Ann-Margret was Winters's dance student at the time. The dynamic combination of Presley, Ann-Margret and Winters's choreography helped make Viva Las Vegas Presley's most successful film at the box office, returning more than $5 million to MGM, more than double the average gross on most other Presley movies of that decade. Winters also convinced the studios to let him use his own dancers in Presley's movies, most of whom were also Winters's dance students, including Teri Garr, who later received an Academy Award nomination for Tootsie. Garr, who was brought in by Winters to dance in Viva Las Vegas, appeared in eight other Presley films.[37][38][39][40]

The silver screen gave many of his fans around the world their only opportunity to see him, given the almost complete absence of international appearances by the singer. (The only concerts Presley ever gave outside of the United States were in three Canadian cities in 1957.)[41] Still, as film critic and historian David Thomson asked, "Is there a greater contrast between energy and routine than that between Elvis Presley the phenomenon, live and on record, and Presley the automaton on film?"[42]

Change of Habit (1969) was Presley's final non-concert movie. His films had, by then, ceased to be profitable, for by the late 1960s the Hippie movement had developed, and musical acts like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan, Jefferson Airplane, Sly and the Family Stone, Grateful Dead, The Doors, and Janis Joplin were dominating the airwaves.[43] Therefore, Presley shifted his career back to recording and touring after these pictures. The highlights of this period include the television specials '68 Comeback Special and Aloha From Hawaii.

1970s[edit]

Presley's last two theatrical films were concert documentaries in the early 1970s. In 1974 he lost the opportunity to co-star with Barbra Streisand in a big-budget remake of A Star Is Born when Parker demanded 50 percent of the profits from the production along with other extravagant financial demands.[44] Joe Esposito also recalls that Presley was unsure about the project himself because he did not want to play a loser.[45] With Kris Kristofferson as the male lead, the 1976 film became a major hit, winning five Golden Globe awards and being nominated for four Oscars.

The type of Elvis film varied widely, from the drama of Jailhouse Rock (1957) and King Creole, the latter directed by Michael Curtiz and based on the Harold Robbins 1952 novel A Stone for Danny Fisher, to the light comedies Kissin' Cousins (1964) and Tickle Me (1965). A quote attributed to Presley in the documentary This is Elvis alleged that some of the films even made him physically ill.[46]

Acting credits of Elvis Presley[edit]

Television[edit]

Television credits of Elvis Presley (as himself)
Year Title Notes Ref(s)
1956 Stage Show 6 episodes at the CBS studios in New York, New York: January 28, February 4, 11, 18, March 17, 24.; Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey's show, produced by Jackie Gleason as a lead-in for his show. [47]
1956 Texaco Star Theatre April 3; aboard the USS Hancock in San Diego, California; June 5, NBC Studios in Los Angeles, California. [48]
1956 Teenage Dance Party June 16; hosted by Wink Martindale in Memphis, Tennessee. [49]
1956 Hy Gardner Calling July 1; television interview, New York City, New York [50]
1956 The Steve Allen Show July 1; New York City, New York [50]
1956–57 The Ed Sullivan Show September 1, October 28, 1956; January 6, 1957, New York City, New York [51]
1960 The Frank Sinatra Timex Show: Welcome Home Elvis Taped March 26, in Miami, Florida; aired on ABC May 12. [52]
1968 Elvis Also known as the Elvis Comeback Special, the '68 Comeback Special, and One Night With You. Rehearsals and taping began at NBC in Los Angeles during June; air date December 3. [53]
1973 Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite Concert at Honolulu's Neal S. Blaisdell Center broadcast world-wide live January 14. Proceeds went to the Kui Lee Cancer Fund. [54]
1977 Elvis in Concert The last concert tour before Elvis died; broadcast on television after his death. [55]

Feature films[edit]

Feature film credits of Elvis Presley
Year Title Role Director Producer Studio/Distributor Other cast members Notes Ref(s)
1956 Love Me Tender Clint Reno Robert D. Webb David Weisbart 20th Century Fox Richard Egan, Debra Paget Conceived as The Reno Brothers, prior to casting Elvis, and renamed after the song became a hit. Financially broke even two weeks after its release. [56]
1957 Loving You Jimmy Tompkins (Deke Rivers) Hal Kanter Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Lizabeth Scott, Wendell Corey, Dolores Hart Working title Lonesome Cowboy. Gladys and Vernon Presley appear in an audience scene when Elvis sings "Got a Lot o' Livin' to Do". [57]
1957 Jailhouse Rock Vince Everett Richard Thorpe Pandro S. Berman Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Judy Tyler, Mickey Shaughnessy Choreographed (uncredited) by Alex Romero. [58]
1958 King Creole Danny Fisher Michael Curtiz Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Carolyn Jones, Walter Matthau, Dean Jagger, Dolores Hart Adaptation of the Harold Robbins novel A Stone for Danny Fisher [59]
1960 G.I. Blues Tulsa McLean Norman Taurog Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Juliet Prowse Initially titled Christmas in Berlin, with Michael Curtiz the first choice for director. [60]
1960 Flaming Star Pacer Burton Don Siegel David Weisbart 20th Century Fox Barbara Eden, Steve Forrest, Dolores del Rio, John McIntire Adaptation of the Clair Huffaker novel Flaming Lance. Marlon Brando was first choice in the starring role; Elvis wanted Michael Curtiz to direct. [61]
1961 Wild in the Country Glenn Tyler Philip Dunne Jerry Wald 20th Century Fox Hope Lange, Tuesday Weld, Millie Perkins Clifford Odets adaptation of the J. R. Salamanca novel The Lost Country. [62]
1961 Blue Hawaii Chad Gates Norman Taurog Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Joan Blackman, Angela Lansbury Golden Laurel Award, 4th Place, (musicals); Writers Guild of America Award nomination, Hal Kanter (screenplay). The Coco Palms Resort, where the final movie scenes were filmed, was destroyed by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. [63]
1962 Follow That Dream Toby Kwimper Gordon Douglas David Weisbart United Artists Arthur O'Connell, Anne Helm60; Adaptation of Richard P. Powell novel Pioneer, Go Home!. [64]
1962 Kid Galahad Walter Gulick / Kid Galahad Phil Karlson David Weisbart United Artists Charles Bronson, Gig Young, Lola Albright, Joan Blackman Adaptation of the Francis Wallace novel of the same name. [65]
1962 Girls! Girls! Girls! Ross Carpenter Norman Taurog Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Stella Stevens, Jeremy Slate, Laurel Goodwin Hollywood Foreign Press Association nomination for Best Musical [66]
1963 It Happened at the World's Fair Mike Edwards Norman Taurog Ted Richmond Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Joan O'Brien, Gary Lockwood, Vicky Tiu Shot on location at the Seattle World's Fair; Kurt Russell's first role. [67]
1963 Fun in Acapulco Mike Windgren Richard Thorpe Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Ursula Andress, Elsa Cardenas, Alejandro Rey Elvis studied Spanish for the soundtrack; location filming in Mexico was shelved due to security concerns. [68]
1964 Kissin' Cousins Josh Morgan / Jodie Tatum Gene Nelson Sam Katzman Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Arthur O'Connell, Glenda Farrell, Jack Albertson, Pamela Austin, Yvonne Craig Shot as a 17-day quickie in an arrangement between Colonel Parker and Katzman. [69]
1964 Viva Las Vegas Lucky Jackson George Sidney George Sidney, Jack Cummings Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Ann-Margret, Cesare Danova, William Demarest Ann-Margret was so well-liked by the cast and crew that Colonel Parker was convinced the director was showing her favoritism over Elvis. [70]
1964 Roustabout Charlie Rogers John Rich Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Barbara Stanwyck, Leif Erickson, Joan Freeman Ann-Margret was considered for the love interest, but rejected ostensibly for budgetary reasons. [71]
1965 Girl Happy Rusty Wells Boris Sagal Joe Pasternak Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Shelley Fabares, Harold J. Stone, Mary Ann Mobley, Nita Talbot Golden Laurel Award, 4th Place, (musicals) [72]
1965 Tickle Me Lonnie Beale / Panhandle Kid Norman Taurog Ben Schwalb Allied Artists Pictures Julie Adams, Jocelyn Lane, Jack Mullaney Presley's only film for Allied Artists; its release saved the studio from bankruptcy. [73]
1965 Harum Scarum Johnny Tyronne Gene Nelson Sam Katzman Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Mary Ann Mobley, Fran Jeffries Colonel Parker wanted to add a talking camel. [74]
1966 Frankie and Johnny Johnny Frederick de Cordova Edward Small United Artists Donna Douglas, Harry Morgan, Sue Ane Langdon, Nancy Kovack Based on the song of the same name, which is based on a 19th century murder. [75]
1966 Paradise, Hawaiian Style Rick Richards Michael D. Moore Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures James Shigeta, Julie Parrish, Donna Butterworth, Suzanna Leigh Leslie Parrish was a life-long Elvis fan. She was rejected by Wallis in her first audition, but won her part during a second try. [76]
1966 Spinout Mike McCoy Norman Taurog Joe Pasternak Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Shelley Fabares, Carl Betz, Diane McBain, Deborah Walley The storyline was targeted to the Viva Las Vegas audiences. [77]
1967 Easy Come, Easy Go Lt. (j.g.) Ted Jackson John Rich Hal B. Wallis Paramount Pictures Dodie Marshall, Pat Priest, Pat Harrington, Jr., Elsa Lanchester Conceived as a Jan and Dean film; Elvis was signed after Jan Berry's debilitating car crash. [78]
1967 Double Trouble Guy Lambert Norman Taurog Irwin Winkler, Judd Bernard Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Annette Day, John Williams, Norman Rossington Day had no experience or training as an actress, and never made another film. [79]
1967 Clambake Scott Heyward Arthur H. Nadel Arthur Gardner, Arnold Laven, Jules Levy United Artists Shelley Fabares, Will Hutchins, Gary Merrill, Bill Bixby Elvis was becoming disenchanted with his film career, citing this one as the worst of the lot. Filming was delayed 3 weeks after he suffered an injury at home. [80]
1968 Stay Away, Joe Joe Lightcloud Peter Tewksbury Douglas Laurence Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Burgess Meredith, Joan Blondell, Katy Jurado Adaptation of Dan Cushman novel of the same name. [81]
1968 Speedway Steve Grayson Norman Taurog Douglas Laurence Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Nancy Sinatra, Bill Bixby, Gale Gordon, William Schallert Petula Clark turned down the role that eventually went to Nancy Sinatra. [82]
1968 Live a Little, Love a Little Greg Nolan Norman Taurog Douglas Laurence Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Michele Carey, Rudy Vallee, Don Porter, Dick Sargent Adaptation of the Dan Greenburg novel Kiss My Firm but Pliant Lips. Vernon Presley has a cameo. [83]
1969 Charro! Jess Wade Charles Marquis Warren Charles Marquis Warren National General Pictures Ina Balin, Victor French Working title Come Sundown, Come Hell. [84]
1969 The Trouble with Girls Walter Hale Peter Tewksbury Lester Welch Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Marlyn Mason, Sheree North, Vincent Price, Dabney Coleman Adaptation of the Day Keene-Dwight Babcock novel Chautauqua. [85]
1969 Change of Habit Dr. John Carpenter William A. Graham Joe Connelly Universal Studios Mary Tyler Moore, Barbara McNair, Edward Asner Prior to casting Elvis, the film was conceived with only Mary Tyler Moore as the lead star. [86]
1970 Elvis: That's the Way It Is Himself Denis Sanders Dale Hutchinson Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer The Imperials, The Sweet Inspirations Concert documentary [87]
1972 Elvis on Tour Himself Robert Abel, Pierre Adidge Robert Abel Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer J.D. Sumner & The Stamps Concert documentary; 1973 Golden Globe winner for Best Documentary film. [87]

Top grossing films at the box office[edit]

Based on the Box Office Report database, the top grossing Elvis Presley films based on the yearly Top 20 box office rankings were:

  1. Viva Las Vegas (May, 1964, MGM), no. 11 on the list of the top grossing movies of the year in the U.S., $39,176,206
  2. Jailhouse Rock (October, 1957, MGM), no. 12, $32,747,986
  3. Blue Hawaii (November, 1961, Paramount), no. 13, $37,092,316
  4. G.I. Blues (August, 1960, Paramount), no. 15, $34,279,078
  5. Loving You (July, 1957, Paramount), tied for no. 15, $31,068,602
  6. Girls! Girls! Girls! (November, 1962, Paramount), no. 19, $28,067,327
  7. Love Me Tender (November, 1956, Twentieth Century Fox), no. 20, $36,432,558
  8. Girl Happy (1965, MGM), no. 25, $23,199,261
  9. Kissin' Cousins (1964, MGM), no. 26, $21,291,416
  10. Roustabout (1964, Paramount), no. 28, $22,812,232
  • Please note that these figures have been adjusted for inflation.

Box-office rating[edit]

For a number of years, exhibitors voted Elvis Presley one of the most popular stars at the box office.[88]

  • 1957: 4th (US) (NB Pat Boone was number 3)
  • 1958: 13th (US), 10th (UK)
  • 1960: 21st (US)
  • 1961: 10th (US)
  • 1962: 5th (US), 2nd (UK)[89]
  • 1963: 7th (US), 3rd (UK)[90]
  • 1964: 6th (US)
  • 1965: 6th (US), 2nd (UK)[91]
  • 1966: 10th (US), 10th (UK)[92]
  • 1967: 16th (US)[93]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Elvis on Tour (1972) won the 1973 Golden Globe award for Best Documentary film. Academy Award-winning director Martin Scorsese was the montage supervisor for the film. Andrew W. Solt was a researcher on the film.

Elvis Presley won a 1966 Golden Laurel Award for best male performance in a musical film for Tickle Me (1965).[94] This was the only acting award that he received during his film career.

For Viva Las Vegas (1964), he received a 3rd place prize 1965 Laurel Award for best male performance in a musical film. Viva Las Vegas also was runner-up in the category of the best musical of 1964 in the 1965 Laurel Awards.

Girls! Girls! Girls! was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical at the 1963 ceremony. Elvis Presley received a 2nd place Laurel Award for the best male performance in a musical for his acting role in this film.

Screenwriters Gene Nelson and Gerald Drayson Adams were nominated by the Writers' Guild of America for the best written musical for their screenplay for Kissin' Cousins (1964).

Anthony Lawrence and Allan Weiss were nominated for the award for Best Written American Musical by the Writers' Guild of America for writing the script for the 1964 film Roustabout (1964).

The G.I. Blues soundtrack album was nominated for two Grammy Awards in 1960 in the categories Best Sound Track Album or Recording of Original Cast from a Motion Picture or Television and Best Vocal Performance Album, Male. Edmund Beloin and Henry Garson were both nominated in 1961 by the Writers' Guild of America for G.I. Blues in the category of Best Written American Musical.

The Blue Hawaii soundtrack was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1961 in the category of Best Sound Track Album or Recording of Original Cast from a Motion Picture or Television. Hal Kanter was nominated by the Writers' Guild of America in 1962 in the category Best Written American Musical for the Blue Hawaii screenplay.

In 2004, Jailhouse Rock (1957) was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant."

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bronson 1985, p. 1959.
  2. ^ "Quotes About Elvis". Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Victor 2008, p. 2.
  4. ^ Brown; Broeske, Peter; Pat (1998). Down at the End of Lonely Street: Life and Death of Elvis Presley. Arrow Books Ltd. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0-7493-2319-6. 
  5. ^ Guralnick and Jorgensen 1999, p. 67.
  6. ^ Guralnick and Jorgensen 1999, p. 68.
  7. ^ "Although Elvis thought he might get a part in The Rainmaker, Hal Wallis said Elvis was merely reading from the handy script and was not auditioning for a part in that film. Notes for The Rainmaker (1957)". TCM.com. Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  8. ^ Victor 2008, p. 315.
  9. ^ Brown, Peter; Broeske, Pat (1998). Down at the End of Lonely Street: Life and Death of Elvis Presley. Arrow Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7493-2319-6. 
  10. ^ a b Brown, Peter; Broeske, Pat (1998). Down at the End of Lonely Street: Life and Death of Elvis Presley. Arrow Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7493-2319-6. 
  11. ^ Brown, Peter; Broeske, Pat (1998). Down at the End of Lonely Street: Life and Death of Elvis Presley. Arrow Books. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7493-2319-6. 
  12. ^ Hall, Roger Lee. "Early Elvis". The Truth Behind "Love Me Tender". American music preservation. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  13. ^ Harbinson, p. 62.
  14. ^ Guralnick, Peter (1998). Elvis: Day by Day. pp. 314–15. 
  15. ^ Brown and Broeske 1997, p. 124; Billy Poore, Rockabilly: A Forty-Year Journey (1998), p. 20.
  16. ^ Gordon, Robert – The Elvis Treasures (2002 Elvis Presley Enterprises), p. 24.
  17. ^ Thompson, Howard (1958-07-04). "King Creole: Actor With Guitar". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  18. ^ Doll, Susan (2009). Elvis For Dummies. p. 119. 
  19. ^ Clark 2006, p. 508.
  20. ^ Marcus 1980, p. 391
  21. ^ Falk and Falk 2005, p. 52.
  22. ^ "Elvis goes Hollywood: Fun in the sun, and not much else." CNN.com.
  23. ^ Ponce de Leon 2007, p. 133.
  24. ^ Caine 2005, p. 21.
  25. ^ Kirchberg and Hendrickx 1999, p. 67.
  26. ^ Jerry Hopkins, Elvis in Hawaii. Bess Press, 2002, p. 32.
  27. ^ Hopkins, p. 31.
  28. ^ Tom Lisanti, Fantasy Femmes of 60's Cinema: Interviews with 20 Actresses from Biker, Beach, and Elvis Movies. McFarland, 2000, pp. 19, 136.
  29. ^ Peter John Dyer, "The Teenage Rave." Sight and Sound, Winter 1959–60, p. 30.
  30. ^ Fields, Curt (2007-08-03). "A Whole Lotta Elvis Is Goin' to the Small Screen". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  31. ^ Guralnick 1999, p. 171.
  32. ^ Christopher Lyon, The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers. Vol. 3, 1987, p. 511.
  33. ^ Presley 1985, p. 188.
  34. ^ Brown;Broeske, Peter; Pat (1997). Down at the end of Lonely Street: The Life and Death of Elvis Presley. p. 122. 
  35. ^ Lisanti 2000, p. 18.
  36. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0935916/
  37. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000414/
  38. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0058725/
  39. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000268/
  40. ^ http://pro.imdb.com/name/nm0000062/
  41. ^ See "Elvis Aaron Presley 1957: The King of Rock 'n' Roll". Elvis Australia. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  42. ^ Thomson 1998, p. 602.
  43. ^ Lisanti 2000, p. 9.
  44. ^ Guralnick 1999, pp. 563–65.
  45. ^ Brown; Broeske, Peter; Pat (1998). Down at the End of Lonely Street: Life and Death of Elvis Presley. Arrow Books Ltd. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-7493-2319-6. 
  46. ^ This is Elvis (1981).
  47. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), pp. 61,--62, 65, 67; Guralnick (1994), pp. 236, 244–246, 249–252, 257
  48. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), pp. 67, 73
  49. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), p. 75
  50. ^ a b Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), p. 77
  51. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), pp. 83, 89, 95
  52. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), pp. 151, 154
  53. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), pp. 242–248, 251
  54. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), pp. 319–321
  55. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999), p. 375
  56. ^ Guralnick (1994), p. 311; Marsh (1982), p. 241; "Love Me Tender". AFI Catalog of Featured Films. AFI. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  57. ^ Guralnick, Jorgensen (1999) p. 96; Guralnick (1994), pp. 344, 370; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  58. ^ Knowles (2013), pp. 97–108; Guralnick (1994), pp. 409–410; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  59. ^ Guralnick (1994), p. 442; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  60. ^ Guralnick (1999), p. 28; Marsh (1982), p. 241; "G.I. Blues". AFI Catalog of Featured Films. AFI. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  61. ^ Neibaur (2014) p. 64; Guralnick (1999), p. 78; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  62. ^ Guralnick (1999), p. 84; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  63. ^ Klapwald, Thea (September 1996). "Gone Kahollywood". Los Angeles Times Magazine: 128. Retrieved August 14, 2015. ; Lisanti (2012), p. 60; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  64. ^ Marsh (1982), p. 241; "Follow That Dream". AFI Catalog of Featured Films. AFI. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  65. ^ Marsh (1982), p. 241; "Kid Galahad". AFI Catalog of Featured Films. AFI. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  66. ^ "Girls! Girls! Girls!". AllMovie. All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved August 14, 2015. ; Marsh (1982), p. 241
  67. ^ Neibaur (2014) pp. 120, 123; Marsh (1982), p. 241
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  88. ^ Quigley's Annual List of Box-Office Champions, 1932–1970 October 23, 2003 accessed July 9, 2012
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  94. ^ Elvis Presley-Awards.

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