Elwell Stephen Otis
Elwell S. Otis
|2nd American Military Governor of the Philippines|
August 28, 1898 – May 5, 1900
|Preceded by||Wesley Merritt|
|Succeeded by||Arthur MacArthur, Jr|
|Member of the Schurman Commission|
March 4, 1899 – March 16, 1900
|Preceded by||Newly created|
|Succeeded by||Bernard Moses (Taft Commission)|
|Born||March 25, 1838|
Frederick, Maryland, U.S.
|Died||October 21, 1909 (aged 71)|
Rochester, New York, U.S.
|Branch/service||United States Army Union Army|
|Years of service||1862–1902|
|Unit||140th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment|
|Commands||20th Infantry Regiment|
Eighth Army Corps
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
Elwell Stephen Otis (March 25, 1838 – October 21, 1909) was a United States Army general who served in the American Civil War, Indian Wars, the Philippines late in the Spanish–American War and during the Philippine–American War.
Otis was born in Frederick, Maryland on March 25, 1838. He attended the University of Rochester, where he was a member of the (now defunct) Iota Chapter of St. Anthony Hall aka the Fraternity of Delta Psi. He graduated from Harvard Law School in 1860 and was practising law during the first year of the Civil War.
During the American Civil War, Otis was appointed captain in the 140th New York Regiment. He fought at the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. On December 23, 1863 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel of his regiment. At the Battle of Spotsylvania the regiment's colonel was killed and Otis assumed command. He fought in all the battles of the Overland Campaign. During the Siege of Petersburg, he assumed command of the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division in V Corps leading it into action at the Battle of Peebles' Farm. During this battle he was severely wounded effectively ended his field career during the Civil War. He was promoted to brevet brigadier general of volunteers for actions at Peebles' Farm. Otis eventually recovered and was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 22nd U.S. Infantry in 1867.
Otis continued serving in the army during the Indian Wars as part of the 22nd U.S. including campaigning in Montana in the aftermath of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. On February 8, 1880 he was appointed colonel of the 20th U.S. Infantry. On November 28, 1893, he was appointed brigadier general in the regular army. He later commanded the Department of the Columbia and the Department of Colorado.
On May 4, 1898, he was appointed major general of volunteers and was sent to the Philippines with reinforcements for General Wesley Merritt. Otis assumed command of the Eighth Army Corps, replacing Merritt, who had become the military governor of the Philippines. Merritt served as military governor only briefly before he returned to the United States. On August 28, 1898 Otis was appointed Military Governor for the Philippines.
He also continued in command of Eighth Corps during the Philippine–American War. He conducted the U.S. Army during the Battle of Manila in 1899 and during the first phase of the insurrection before fighting turned primarily to guerrilla warfare.
Otis's response when Emilio Aguinaldo tried to stop the war by sending an emissary to General Otis to appeal for an end to the fighting in the Second Battle of Manila was, "fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end."
Otis also oversaw many of the first atrocities of the Philippine–American War by American soldiers:
The conduct of the Washington Volunteers has been the subject of special investigations for some time. They deny wanton burning or cruelties. And still there are strong indications that they practised these infractions to some extent.
He was relieved of command in 1900 and replaced by Arthur MacArthur Jr., the father of Douglas MacArthur. He returned to the United States and commanded the Department of the Lakes. He was appointed major general in the regular army in 1906.
Otis was a skilled general and able administrator. However, he was generally disliked by his subordinates and peers and received harsh treatment in the press. He was known as "Granny" by his troops because of his age and graying hair.:27–29 On the other hand, Rudolph Rau writes of Otis' work in the Philippines that "He delegated no authority, was pompous and fuzzy, and inspired few". He died in Rochester, New York on October 21, 1909 from painful angina.
Elwell S. Otis married twice. His first wife was Louise Selden. They married in 1870, and had two daughters:
- Laura Lu Otis born 1872 in North Dakota. Married Harry K. Elston.
- Mary L. Otis born 1875 in New York. Married Ralph Isham.
- Louise B. Otis born February 21, 1882 in Kansas and died December 27, 1963 in Santa Barbara, California. She married George Wagner.
Louisa "Lulu" Otis, the widow of Elwell Otis died in Santa Barbara, California on June 8, 1934.
For many years on June 15, Rochester, New York celebrated Otis Day. This is no longer the case.
Portrayal in the media
- Portrayed by E.A. Rocha in the Filipino film, Heneral Luna (2015), and its sequel, Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral (2018).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elwell Stephen Otis.|
- Elwell Stephen Otis, Arlington National Cemetery.
- Miller, Stuart Creighton (1982). Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03081-9. p. 63
- Secretary Root's Record:"Marked Severities" in Philippine Warfare – Wikisource at en.wikisource.org
- Linn, Brian McAllister (2000). The Philippine War: 1899–1902. University Press of Kansas.
- Rudolph Rau. General of the Night.
- United States Census, 1880 and 1900, and The Historical record of Wyoming Valley: A compilation of matters of local history from the columns of the Wilkes-Barre record, Volume 8 p. 348 available online
- Kramer, David (15 June 2015). "Remembering General Elwell Otis on his Day, June 15th: Rochester's imperial war hero". Democrat & Chronicle. Gannett. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
"Otis Day at Rochester". Boston Evening Transcript. 15 June 1900. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
Official Program, Otis Day Souvenir: Rochester, N.Y., June 15th, 1900. Rochester Chamber of Commerce. 1900.
Donovan A. Shilling (2012). They Put Rochester On The Map. Pancoast Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-9838496-1-2.
- Elwell Stephen Otis (1878). "The Indian Question" (PDF). Sheldon and Company. Retrieved May 7, 2006. Full book online
| Commandant of the Command and General Staff College
November 1881 – June 1885
Thomas Howard Ruger
| Military Governor of the Philippines
August 28, 1898 – May 5, 1900
Arthur MacArthur, Jr
| Member of the Schurman Commission
March 4, 1899 – March 16, 1900