Elwood Richard Quesada
|Elwood Richard Quesada
April 13, 1904|
|Died||February 9, 1993
|Buried at||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Years of service||1924 - 1951|
|Unit||Joint Chiefs of Staff|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
- 1 Early years
- 2 Early military career
- 3 Rank and promotions
- 4 Tactical airpower pioneer
- 5 Postwar difficulties
- 6 Civilian and family life
- 7 Recognitions, decorations and medals
- 8 Death
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Elwood Richard Quesada was born in Washington, D.C. in 1904 to an Irish-American mother and a Spanish father. He attended Wyoming Seminary in Kingston, Pa., University of Maryland, College Park, and Georgetown University.
Early military career
In September 1924, Quesada enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps as a flying cadet and was commissioned as a reserve officer a year later. He had a wide variety of assignments as aide to senior officers, military attache and technical adviser to other air forces, and in intelligence. He was also part of the team (with Ira Eaker and Carl Spaatz) that developed and demonstrated air-to-air refueling in 1929 on the Question Mark. All five crew members were awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for their participation in the mission.
Rank and promotions
Lieutenant General Quesada was promoted and held commands as follows:
- First Lieutenant 1932
- Captain 1935
- Major 1941—33rd Pursuit Group
- Lieutenant Colonel 1942—Philadelphia Region, I Fighter Command
- Brigadier General 1942—1st Air Defense Wing; XII Fighter Command; IX Fighter Command; IX Tactical Air Command
- Major General 1944—Ninth Air Force
- Lieutenant General 1947 -- Tactical Air Command
Tactical airpower pioneer
As a junior officer, Quesada became interested in the concept of close air support of ground forces, which was thoroughly developed by the 9th AF during his time as commander in North Africa and Europe.
Quesada was instrumental in developing many of the principles of tactical air-ground warfare for the Ninth Air Force during the European campaign. Innovations attributed to him included adapting a microwave early warning radar (MEW) for real-time direction of fighter bombers that were already in-flight, as well as placing pilots as forward air controllers inside tanks equipped with VHF aircraft radios on the front lines. This latter technique allowed for direct ground communication with overhead fighter-bombers by personnel who understood what pilots needed to identify ground targets. Besides reducing friendly fire incidents, such tactics allowed attacking ground troops to use close air support with greater precision and speed, allowing for air cover to take the place of artillery support in a rapid armored advance. These improved tactics enormously expanded the contributions of tactical airpower to the Allied defeat of Germany on the Western Front.
In 1946, Quesada was appointed as the first commander of the Tactical Air Command (TAC) and later promoted to lieutenant general in the newly independent U.S. Air Force. However, Quesada quickly became disillusioned as he saw how TAC was being ignored while funding and promotions were largely going to the Strategic Air Command.
In December 1948, Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg stripped TAC of its planes and pilots and reduced its status to that of a planning headquarters under the newly formed Continental Air Command. Strategic airpower advocates such as General Curtis LeMay gained a lock on the budget for the Air Force in the post-World War II years, and the Air Force's tactical air warfare ability suffered.
Quesada thus asked for reassignment and was given a dead-end job by Vandenberg as head of a committee to find ways to combine the Air Force Reserves and Air National Guard. Quesada was removed from this job after only two months, as his blunt and impatient nature only served to stir up controversy in this near-impossible task. This episode led to his request for early retirement from the Air Force, at the age of 47 in 1951.
Civilian and family life
On October 12, 1946, Quesada married Kate Davis Putnam, a war widow (her first husband was Capt. Henry Ware Putnam, who died in an air raid over Tokyo on May 25, 1945). She was a granddaughter of newspaper mogul Joseph Pulitzer, and inherited part of his holdings. Mrs. Quesada had two daughters from her previous marriage; the Quesadas had two sons of their own: Thomas Ricardo Quesada and Peter Wickham Quesada.
He served as an executive for Lockheed Aircraft Corporation from 1953-55. In 1957, he became President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Special Adviser for Aviation, leading to his appointment as first administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) from 1959-61.
As FAA chairman, Quesada was instrumental, along with American Airlines president C.R. Smith, in passing a mandatory retirement age of 60 for commercial airline pilots. Smith had lobbied for this rule on the grounds that young pilots with experience serving in WWII and the Korean War would be cheap and easy to train for the new jetliners. Quesada agreed, but went even further to suggest that civilian pilots be barred entirely from jetliner cockpits. The age 60 rule went into effect in 1960 and remained in effect until 2007, although Quesada's proposal to limit jetliners to ex-military personnel was ignored along with an additional suggestion of his that jetliner training be limited to pilots under 55.
C.R. Smith rewarded Quesada handsomely for his help; after the latter stepped down as FAA chairman in 1961, he was granted a seat on American Airlines' board of directors.
Quesada became involved in professional sports when he became owner of the expansion Washington Senators in 1961. Quesada sold his stake in the team two years later. He later became President and Chief Executive Officer of the L'Enfant Plaza Corporation, a private corporation that successfully partnered with the Federal government to develop L'Enfant Plaza. He later became a member of the Temporary Commission on Pennsylvania Avenue, a precursor of the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation, which helped redevelop Pennsylvania Avenue NW between the White House and the United States Capitol.
Recognitions, decorations and medals
American decorations and medals
Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster; Distinguished Flying Cross; Purple Heart; Air Medal with two silver oak leaf clusters; American Defense Service Medal; European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal and seven bronze battle stars; World War II Victory Medal; National Defense Service Medal
Foreign orders and medals
Order of the Bath (Degree of Companion); Commander of the British Empire; French Legion of Honor; French Croix de Guerre with Palm; Luxembourg Croix de Guerre; Order of Adolphe of Nassau; Polish Pilot Badge; Commandeur de l'Ordre de la Couronne with Palm; Croix d'Officier de l'Order de la Couronne with Palm.
His wife Kate Davis Putnam Quesada died March 5, 2003, and was interred with him at Arlington National Cemetery.
- "Private Housing Urged for Pennsylvania Avenue." New York Times. October 7, 1969.
- Pfaff, D. W. No Ordinary Joe (p. 149-166)
- Bethanne Kelly Patrick. "Gen. Elwood 'Pete' Quesada — Aviation Pioneer Epitomized 20th Century's Fascination with Flight". Military.com. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
- Hughes, T. H. Overlord - General Pete Quesada and the Triumph of Tactical Air Power in World War II, 1995
- Pfaff, D.W . No Ordinary Joe: A Life of Joseph Pulitzer III, 2005
- Pfaff, D. W. Joseph Pulitzer II and the Post-Dispatch, 1991
- Arlington National Cemetery Website - Elwood Richard Quesada
- The New York Times - Deaths: QUESADA, KATE DAVIS March 12, 2003
|Federal Aviation Administrator