|First prototype presentation|
|Role||Medium-sized transport aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Embraer Defense and Security|
|First flight||3 February 2015 |
|Introduction||2018 (proposed) |
|Program cost||US$5 billion as of 2014|
US$85 million in 2014
The Embraer KC-390 is a medium-size, twin-engine jet-powered military transport aircraft under development by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer, able to perform aerial refuelling and to transport cargo and troops. It is the heaviest aircraft that the company has made to date, and will be able to transport up to 21 t (23 tons) of cargo, including wheeled armoured fighting vehicles.
Design and development
In 2006, Embraer began studies on a military tactical transport design of a similar size to the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. In April 2007, Embraer reported it was studying a medium-size airlifter, with the company designation "C-390". The transport aircraft is to incorporate many of the technological solutions from the Embraer E-Jets series and feature a rear ramp for loading and unloading a wide range of cargo. The unit price was estimated to be around US$50 million in 2007, while similar models, such as the C-130J cost up to $62 million.
The former president of Embraer Defence and Security, Luiz Carlos Aguiar, said that according to their estimates, some 695 military transport aircraft in the world will need to be replaced during the next decade, and that there is a large potential market for this kind of aircraft. Powerplant options have been studied in the 75.6 to 98 kN (17,000 to 22,000 lbf) thrust range, including engines such as the Pratt & Whitney PW6000 and Rolls-Royce BR715.
In March 2008, the Brazilian Government planned to invest about R$60 million (or US$33 M) in initial development of the aircraft and the Brazilian Air Force was simultaneously finalizing the purchase contract to probably buy 22 to 30 aircraft in the first order, while Embraer is negotiating with possible partners. In May 2008, the Brazilian Congress released 800 million Reais (US$440 M) to be invested in the project and development of the aircraft. The media also claimed that this aircraft is not only going to be used by the Brazilian Air Force, but also for Brazilian Army and Brazilian Navy, with un-confirmed sales to other government agencies.
Embraer intended to use components from the Embraer E-190 to allow for a quick development, but the Brazilian Air Force (paying the bill) demanded performance at least equal to the C-130. Before 2009, Embraer decided to develop the KC-390 from scratch, having nothing in common with the E-190. In Embraer's view, the jet engine is sufficiently resilient to dust ingestion, whereas propeller tips close to the ground are susceptible to damage. Embraer also chose the V2500 engines for efficiency in ordinary conditions rather than performance in unusual conditions.
On 14 April 2009, Embraer was awarded with a $1.5 billion contract to develop and build 2 prototypes. In March 2010, Embraer drew up a development schedule, with the first prototype aircraft scheduled to be delivered in late 2014.
In July 2010, during the Farnborough Airshow, the Brazilian Air Force announced it will order 28 KC-390s and Embraer announced an increase in the cargo capacity to 21 t (21 long tons; 23 short tons). During the 2011 Paris Air Show, Embraer announced plans to launch a stretched version of the KC-390 focused on the civil cargo market in 2018, with 200–250 predicted orders over a 10-year period. Two plugs will be added fore and aft of the centre fuselage section increasing internal capacity, but also providing for a side cargo door.
Partnerships and manufacturing
In August 2010, Argentine Defence Minister Nilda Garré announced that Argentina will participate in the construction of the C-390. On 24 August 2010 the defence ministers of Chile and Brazil signed an agreement for Chile's ENAER company to join the KC-390 industry team. Colombia also signed an agreement to join the KC-390 programme. On 10 September 2010 Portugal defense minister signed an intentions letter in order to join the programme. On 14 December 2011, Embraer announced that Brazil and Portugal have signed an agreement for defense partnership contract for EEA to support engineering for the KC-390's components that will be built by Embraer's subsidiary OGMA.
In June 2012, Boeing and Embraer agreed to a co-operation deal and to share technical knowledge, in order to speed development of the aircraft; exchanging technical and market information, and possibly teaming up for commercial opportunities, as part of a broader agreement that Boeing and Embraer signed in April of the same year.
Major subcontracted assemblies include the rear fuselage section (Aero Vodochody), avionics (Rockwell Collins), fly-by-wire primary flight control system (Goodrich Corporation) and the cargo handling and aerial delivery system (Rockwell Collins). IAE is supplying the V2500-E5 turbofan, in the first military application of this engine family.
Prototypes and first flight
The first prototype rolled out from the Embraer subsidiary plant, Embraer Defense and Security, at Gavião Peixoto, São Paulo on 21 October 2014, and flew for the first time on 3 February 2015.
In July 2015 the company announced a two-year delay in the flight test program, certification is not expected until the second half of 2017 with an entry into service in 2018.
Orders and potential customer evaluations
It was reported in 2007 that the Brazilian postal service Correios was interested in buying at least 5 and eventually 20 to 25 of the aircraft, in lieu of using commercial freight service for mail transport. On 19 May 2011, it was stated that Correioslog will buy around 15 aircraft for civil use.
In September 2008, the Portuguese Air Force chief-of-staff, being interviewed for the Portuguese aviation newspaper Take Off, revealed a service interest in the airplane as a possible C-130 fleet replacement, although this interest was outlined as the PoAF being closely monitoring the C-390 development, with a possible order in the future. In February 2010, a further notice reported that Embraer proposed to the Portuguese Ministry of Defense the acquisition of KC-390s to supplant the ageing C-130s of the Portuguese Air Force. In December 2011 it was announced that the Portuguese government will sign an 87 million euro contract with Embraer for part of the production of the KC-390.
It was reported in September 2010 that Colombia intends to order 12 KC-390s. Later that month, it was also reported that Czech Republic Air Force might acquire two KC-390s. In August 2013, the Colombian Air Force announced that it would acquire a fleet of KC-390s to replace its Lockheed C-130 Hercules fleet.
In October 2010, Embraer announced the future acquisition of six KC-390s by the Argentine Air Force. It was reported that Brazil and the UAE were negotiating an agreement for military cooperation, which would involve sales of KC-390 in late October.
In April 2013, six countries had commitments for 60 KC-390s: Argentina (6), Brazil (28), Chile (6), Colombia (12), the Czech Republic (2), and Portugal (6).
In June 2013, Embraer and Boeing signed an agreement to market the KC-390 in limited international venues, building on the June 2012 MoU. Boeing will be the lead for KC-390 sales, sustainment and training opportunities in the USA, UK, and selected Middle East markets.
In January 2016, the KC-390 was named by Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as one of three contenders for a new fixed-wing search and rescue (FWSAR) aircraft for the Royal Canadian Air Force, to replace the elderly CC-115 (DHC-5A) and CC-130 Hercules, along with the Alenia Aermacchi C-27J and the Airbus Defence & Space C-295W. The evaluation process including aircraft testing will take “about six months” and a contract award is expected in "late 2016 or early 2017".
Including Brazilian order, a total of sixty units were ordered for Chile, Portugal, Czech Republic, Argentina and Colombia. Portugal, Czech Republic and Argentina are Brazilian partners in program.
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 
- Cargo compartment: Length 17.75 m X width 3.45 m X height 2.9 m
- Payload: 23.6 tons (52,029 lb)
- Length: 33.43 m (109 ft, 8 in.)
- Wingspan: 33.94 m (111 ft,4 in.)
- Height: 11.43 m (37 ft 6 in.)
- Loaded weight: 74.0 tons (163,142 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 81.0 tons (178,574 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × IAE V2500-E5 turbofan, 31,330 pounds-force (139.4 kN) () each
- Fuel capacity: 37.4 tons (74,800 lb, 33,929 kg)
- Maximum speed: Mach 0.8 (300 KCAS, 850 km/h)
- Range: 2,600 nmi (4,815 km, 2,992 mi) (with 13,335 kilograms (29,399 lb) payload)
- Range with full payload: 1,400 nmi (2,593 km, 1,611 mi)
- Ferry range: 3,250 nmi (6,019 km, 3,740 mi)
- Service ceiling: 36,000 ft (10,973 m)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- "Maior avião fabricado no Brasil, KC-390 da Embraer faz primeiro voo ". UOL, 03 February 2015.
- Embraer announces two-year delay for KC-390
- "Embraer prepara a apresentação oficial do KC-390" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Army. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Em negócio de R$ 7 bi, Embraer vende 28 cargueiros à FAB" (in Portuguese). Abril. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- FAB and Embraer Announce Plan for KC 390 Initial Acquisition (PDF) (press release), Embraer, 21 July 2010
- Inside Embraer's KC-390 Tanker/Transport. Graham Warwick's blog on AviationWeek.com, 25 February 2011.
- Norris, Guy (13 November 2006). "Embraer studies C-130-sized tactical airlifter". Flight International. Flight global.
- Warwick, Graham (19 April 2007). "Embraer reveals details of C-390 military airlifter". Flight global.
- "Industry News". Industry News. Yahoo!. 19 April 2007.
- Govindasamy, Siva. "Farnborough: Lockheed prepares for KC-390 competition." Flight Global, 21 July 2010.
- "Argentina joins manufacturing of Brazil’s KC 390 jet powered military transport". MercoPress. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Embraer perde o presidente da área de defesa e segurança" [Embraer loses the president of the defense and security] (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Governo investirá no cargueiro C-390 da Embraer" [Government will invest in Embraer’s C-390 cargo aircraft]. Defesa Brasil (in Portuguese).
- "Câmara aprova verba de R$ 800 milhões para cargueiro militar" [Chamber approves R$ 800 million budget for military cargo aircraft]. Base Militar (in Portuguese). 7 November 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- Trimble, Steven. "Redesign transforms KC-390 into all-new market threat" 8 July 2014.
- "Defesa salva de cortes plano de avião cargueiro" [Defence saves cargo aircraft plan from cuts]. Estadão (in Portuguese). O Estado de S Paulo. 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Trimble, Stephen (14 April 2009). "Brazilian Air Force signs order launching Embraer KC-390 tanker-transport". Flight global. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
- "Embraer reveals KC-390 schedule, design changes". Flight International. Flight global. 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Wall, Robert (21 July 2010). "KC-390 advances, F-X2 doesn't". Aviation Week (blog).
- "PARIS: Embraer reveals plan for KC-390 civil stretch". Flight Global, 21 June 2011. Retrieved: 12 March 2012.
- "la cooperación con países de la región, entre los cuales destacó el caso de Brasil en el que Argentina participará en la construcción del avión de transporte C-390, similar al Hércules"
- "Embraer Reveals Discussions With Chilean Aeronautics Industry For The KC-390". Embraer, 24 August 2010.
- Chuter, Andrew. "Chile May Tie Up With Brazil's KC-390". Defense News, 25 August 2010.
- Croft, John. "Colombia formalises Embraer KC-390 interest". Flight International, 1 September 2010.
- Portugal no programa do KC-390 (Portuguese)
- "Defence Ministers of Portugal and Brazil Sign Memorandum of Understanding on the KC-390". defense-aerospace.com, 10 September 2010.
- "Brazil and Portugal Sign Defense Partnership for KC-390 Program". Embraer, 14 December 2011. Retrieved: 4 May 2012.
- "Boeing and Embraer Sign Agreement to Collaborate on KC-390". Boeing, 26 June 2012. Retrieved: 26 June 2012.
- "Boeing and Embraer Sign Agreement for Broad Business Cooperation to Benefit Customers and Support Industry Growth". Embraer, 9 April 2012. Retrieved: 26 June 2012.
- "MediaRoom - News Releases/Statements". mediaroom.com. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Reed Business Information Limited. "LAAD11: Embraer signs two new suppliers for KC-390". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Embraer selects Rockwell Collins advanced avionics system for Brazilian Air Force KC-390 fleet". Rockwell Collins, 5 May 2011. Retrieved: 12 March 2012.
-  Goodrich, 27 July 2011. Retrieved: 12 March 2012.
- "Embraer selects Rockwell Collins to provide KC-390 Cargo Handling and Aerial Delivery Control System". www.rockwellcollins.com. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- Trimble, Stephen. "IAE steps into military market with KC-390 win". Flight International, 26 July 2011.
- Bianconi, César; Haynes, Brad (21 October 2014). "Embraer apresenta protótipo de cargueiro KC-390 e espera acelerar vendas" (in Portuguese). Reuters. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EMBRAER ROLLS OUT KC-390 MILITARY AIRLIFT". DefesaNet. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Dan Parsons (3 February 2015). "Embraer KC-390 takes maiden flight". Flightglobal. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- Costa confirma projeto dos Correios com cargueiro C-390. Monitor Mercantil. 28 August 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2007.
- "Brazilian postal service may order Embraer C-390 freighters". Flightglobal.com. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Correios investirão até R$ 1 bi para criar aérea com aviões da Embraer" (in Portuguese). O Globo, 19 May 2011. Retrieved: 12 March 2012.
-  Archived 21 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Reequipamento das FA: Portugal pondera comprar avião militar brasileiro". Sol. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Governo assina amanhã contrato com Embraer". Diário Económico. 13 December 2011.
- "Negociação de caças franceses prevê venda de jato da Embraer" (in Porguguese). Estadão, 7 September 2009. Retrieved: 2 May 2012.
- "Saab Delivers the Perfect Match to Brazil". Defence Talk. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "FAB anuncia intenção de comprar 28 aviões KC 390 da Embraer" (in Portuguese).. Estadão, 21 July 2010. Retrieved: 14 March 2012.
- "Czech Republic outlines need for two KC-390s". Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Colombia, tras la compra de cazas F-16". Eltiempo.com. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Argentine government manifests its intention to acquire six military transport jets from Embraer
- "UAE and Brazil to sign defence agreement". Gulf News, 23 September 2010. Retrieved: 30 May 2012.
- "Peru may buy 10 Embraer Super Tucanos - Brazil". Reuters, 14 February 2012. Retrieved: 12 March 2012.
- Reed Business Information Limited. "LAAD: Embraer expects first operational KC-390 buyer in 2014". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Embraer's Multinational KC-390 Tactical Air Transport Program". Defense Industry Daily. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Lockheed C-130J not entered in Canadian FWSAR competition". FlightGlobal. 18 January 2016.
- Protótipos se somarão aos KC-390 encomendados pela FAB, para uma frota total de 30 aviões. Poder Aereo, 22 October 2014. (Portuguese)
- Warwick, Graham. "Embraer Launches KC-390 Tanker/Transport". Aviation Week, 15 April 2009.
- Parcerias e intenções de compra. Defesanet, available at Interview with Paulo Gastão, Program Director KC-390. (Portuguese) Defesanet
- KC-390 Brochure
- FARNBOROUGH: Brazilian air force signs letter of intent for 28 KC-390s. flightglobal.com
- Inside Embraer's KC390 Tanker/Transport[dead link]
- "VBTP Guarani: A New APC for Brazil". Defense Industry Daily, 6 January 2011. Retrieved: 15 June 2012.
- "IAE Statement on KC-390 Rollout". IAE International Aero Engines. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to KC-390.|
- Cargo overview page on Embraer Defence Systems site
- "Embraer has Military Transport Aircraft Under Study", Embraer News release
- "Options Expand in Heavy Lift" (see pages 2-3). Aviation Week, 5 June 2009.
- Large cutaway diagram