Embraer E-Jet E2 family

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E-Jet E2 family
E175/E190/E195-E2
PR-ZEY E190-E2 (FAB-EGLF) (28498436022).jpg
The E190-E2 prototype at the 2016 Farnborough Airshow
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin Brazil
Manufacturer Embraer
First flight 23 May 2016[1]
Introduction 24 April 2018 with Widerøe[2]
Status In service
Program cost $1.7 billion[3]
Unit cost
  • E175-E2: US$46.8 million (2013)[4]
  • E190-E2: US$53.6 million (2013)[4]
  • E195-E2: US$60.4 million (2013)[4]
Developed from Embraer E-Jet family

The Embraer E-Jet E2 family are medium-range jet airliners developed by Embraer, succeeding the original E-Jet. The program was launched at the Paris Air Show in 2013. The first variant, the E190-E2 took its first flight on 23 May 2016 and was certified on February 28, 2018 before entering service with Widerøe on 24 April.

The three twinjet variants share the same four-abreast narrow-body fuselage with different lengths and three different new wings, Pratt & Whitney PW1000G turbofans in two sizes, fly-by-wire controls with new avionics, and an updated cabin.

Development[edit]

In 2010, Embraer could directly challenge the CSeries with a clean-sheet five-abreast design for 100 to 150 passengers but Airbus launched the A320neo in December, including the 124-seat A319neo, and Boeing launched the re-engined 737 MAX the following year, so Embraer kept focusing on the large regional jets and launched an extensive revamp of the E-Jet family beyond a re-engine at the November 2011 Dubai air show.[5]

The new variants would be better-positioned to compete with the Airbus A220 and would be powered by new engines with larger diameter fans that would offer improvements in specific fuel consumption, as well as slightly taller landing gear and possibly a new aluminum or carbon fiber-based wing. Embraer named this new development "the E-jets second generation".[6]

The program was launched at the Paris Air Show in 2013.[3][7]

Flight testing[edit]

The first E-Jet E2, an E190-E2, was rolled out on 25 February 2016 and made its maiden flight on 23  May in São José dos Campos. It flew for three hours and twenty minutes to Mach 0.82, climbed to 41,000 feet, retracted the landing gear and flaps, and engaged the fly-by-wire in normal mode. It flew earlier than the previously anticipated second half of 2016: the program had fewer challenges than expected and introduction could happen in the first quarter of 2018. The plane is slightly below weight and the other two E190-E2 prototypes should fly within a year.[1]

The second prototype made its maiden flight on 8  July 2016. The flight lasted 2 hr 55 min without any incidents. The first E-Jet E2 flew from Brazil to Farnborough Airshow just 45 days after its maiden flight, demonstrating maturity and confidence in the design.[8] In April 2017, as 650 hr of flight tests have been completed and the program is on schedule, Embraer wants to guarantee a 99% schedule reliability in the first year of service.[9]

Half of the flight testing was done by June 2017, and as aerodynamics are better than predicted and the E190-E2 hot and high performance is better than expected.[10] The E195-E2's MTOW is increased to 61,500 kg (135,600 lb) and its range to 2,600 nmi (4,800 km).[11] In June 2017, the four E190-E2s and the single E195-E2 - which is presented at the 2017 Paris Air Show - have made more than 900 flight-test hours, mostly by the E190-E2s.[12] In July 2017, the five aircraft have flown 1,000 flight-test hours while the E190-E2 has accomplished 55% of its test campaign.[13]

In January 2018, as 98% of the test campaign was done with 2,000 flight hours, fuel burn is 17.3% lower than for the E190 up from 16% predicted, range increased by 750 nmi (1,390 km) from hot-and-high or short runways: 1,600 or 2,200 nmi (3,000 or 4,100 km) from Mexico City or London City, and noise margin to Stage 4 is 3 EPNdB better than specification at 20 EPNdB. Basic maintenance inspections will happen every 1,000 flight hours instead of 850 and the intermediate check interval grew to 10,000 flight-hours from 8,500.[14]

The E190-E2 received its type certificate from the ANAC, FAA and EASA on February 28, 2018.[15]

Production[edit]

Inspired by automotive industry, the same production system will build the E190/195-E2 along the original E175/190/195 at a steady rate of eight aircraft per month by 2018 end, the original E-Jet family should have slowed when the E175-E2 will be assembled by 2021. For comparison, Boeing tried to phase out the 747-400 on the same hybrid assembly line as the 747-8, but complications contributed to delays. Boeing has since introduced new designs gradually,[relevant? ] with the 737NG produced on two existing lines while the 737 MAX is assembled on an exclusive third line.[16]

As Embraer transitions from its current E-jets to the upgraded E2, it expects to deliver 85-95 airliners in 2018 with a negative $150 million free cash flow, less than in 2017 with 78 deliveries in the first nine months with a cash outflow of $700 million: return to profitability will take at least three years once the program investment is reduced and the production ramp up is complete.[17]

E2s will account for 10% of Embraer airliner deliveries in 2018 before rising in 2019. Embraer think Airbus will not be able to lower the CSeries supply chain costs enough to make it profitable and view it as heavy, expensive and adapted to long, thin routes exceeding the E2 range, whose operational capabilities will win a majority of the market share as commitments should follow certification and entry into service.[18] Embraer delivered 101 airliners in 2017, down from 162 in 2008, but targets deliveriing 14 E2 monthly or even 16 or 18. Hybrid stations can work on both the E1 and E2, and the production is more automated, moving to 90% automated drilling and riveting for the E2 wing.[19]

Introduction[edit]

An E190-E2 from Widerøe, its launch operator

After type certification, the first E190-E2 will be delivered to launch operator Widerøe in April, configured with 114-seat in single-class, followed by deliveries for Air Astana and Chinese GX Airlines. Before the aircraft were delivered, Embraer announced some of the initial E-Jet E2s will need to be retrofitted due to the shorter life of the combustor in their Pratt & Whitney PW1900G engines. A business class is developed with a 2+2 staggered seat layout offering a seat pitch of up to 54in (137cm), available from mid-2019.[20]

Embraer targets a 99% dispatch reliability after 12 months and 99.5% after four years while the E1 took 10 years to achieve its targeted reliability.[19] On 4 April, 2018, Widerøe took delivery of its first E190-E2 in Sao Jose dos Campos.[21] It was introduced between Bergen and Tromso, Norway on April 24, 2018.[2] By June 2018, the first three E190-E2s delivered to Wideroe accumulated 413 flight hours and 332 cycles, an average of 6.57 cycles per day and an average stage length of 1.28 hr, with a 99.35% dispatch reliability and a 97.74% schedule reliability.[22]

Design[edit]

Embraer targets 16 to 24% lower fuel burn and 15–25% lower maintenance cost per seat.[23]

Built on the first generation E-Jet, its wing is redesigned, and it introduces new pylons, landing gear, horizontal stabilizers, cabin, cabin air system, air cycle machine, bleed air system, and a new fly-by-wire system.[24] In the E190-E2, of the 16% better fuel burn, 11% comes from the geared turbofan, 3.5% from the improved aerodynamics of the new high aspect ratio wing and 1.5% from the fly-by-wire, enabling a 250 ft.² horizontal stabilizer from 280 ft.² on the E190/195.[25] The switch to a composite wing was not yet justified economically for a similar shape, the less draggy flaps are single-slotted instead of the more complex double-slotted on the E1, and the engine pylon is shorter.[19]

GE Aviation, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce were all possible engine suppliers.[26] In January 2013, Embraer selected the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G Geared Turbofan engine as the exclusive powerplant.[27] Honeywell Primus Epic 2 was selected as the avionics package.[28]

Moog Inc was selected to supply the Primary Flight Control System.[29] The E2 features a closed loop fly-by-wire control which reduces weight, increases fuel efficiency, enhances control and increases safety by full envelope protection in all flight phases compared to the first E-Jet.[30] The fuel savings of the now closed loop fly-by-wire control come from the enhanced flight stability and the resulting increased lift (lower tail downward force) and weight savings and drag reductions related to the 26% reduction in the horizontal tail (tailplane) size.[31] The wing structure was lightened by 200 kg (440 lb) thanks to FBW ailerons, also used when braking, avoiding larger wheels and brakes.[19]

The cabin side walls were replaced to gain 1 in (2.5 cm) on each side and new overhead bins are 3 in (7.6 cm) deeper.[19] Baggage bins are enlarged by 40%.[32][33]

Over a 600 nmi (1,100 km) trip and with a US$72 fuel barrel, Embraer estimates a 97-seat E190-E2 trip cost is 7% lower for a 1% higher seat cost than a 106-seat A220-100, a 120-seat E195-E2 has a 2% higher trip cost but a 10% lower seat cost and 10% lower trip cost and 3% lower seat cost than a 129-seat A220-300; and while a 97-seat E190 had a 18% higher seat cost than a 150-seat A320 and a 23% lower trip cost, an E190-E2 has a 30% lower trip cost for a 8% higher seat cost than a 150-seat A320neo, while an E195-E2 has the same seat cost but 20% lower trip cost.[34]

Variants[edit]

E175-E2[edit]

The E175-E2 (EMB 190-500) model in the 80-seat range is the smallest in the E-Jet Second Generation family. The E175-E2 will be extended by one seat row from the E175, by 0.6m and will seat up to 90 passengers. It was scheduled for first delivery in 2020 but entry into service is delayed by one year to 2021 as it will be over the scope clause weight limit as opposed to the current E175.[35]

E190-E2[edit]

The 22,000 lbf (98 kN) PW1900G has a 73 in (190 cm) fan for a 12:1 bypass ratio. The aluminum wing span increased to 33.7 m (110 ft) for the highest wing aspect ratio of any airliner, just over 11, while the larger E195-E2 has a longer wingtip and the smaller E175-E2 has a downsized wing. It was moved forward to shift the center of gravity envelope aft to reduces the horizontal stabilizer downforce, lowering fuel burn by 1.5%. The trailing link main landing gear has wheel doors to reduce fuel consumption by 1% and is 20 in (51 cm) taller to provide enough engine ground clearance. The E2 have 75% new parts, closed-loop controls fly-by-wire instead of the open-loop type in the E1 gaining improved maintenance intervals. For E1-rated pilots, the transition to the new type need 2.5 days with no full flight simulator, having similar Honeywell Primus Epic 2 avionics.[36]

Embraer had it certified on February 28, 2018.[15] Certification needed 46,000 test hours on ground and 2,200 in flight.[36] Due to better than expected fuel burn during tests, in January 2018 Embraer increased the range to 2,880 nmi (5,330 km), and Bombardier tried to imply it in the CSeries dumping petition by Boeing as it attain a 2,900 nmi range.[37] It entered service with Widerøe on 24 April 2018.[2] The E190-E2 (EMB 190-300) is the same size as the E190, with up to 114 seats.

E195-E2[edit]

Embraer E195-E2 prototype at Paris Air Show 2017, seen from front.

The E195-E2 (EMB 190-400) will be extended by three seat rows from the E195 by 2.85 m (9.4 ft), and will accommodate up to 144 seats.

In February 2016, Embraer announced that it had decided to increase the E195-E2's wingspan by 1.4 m (4.6 ft) for greater lift, along with a MTOW increase of 2 t (4,400 lb) to extend its range by 450 nmi (830 km) at sea-level starts, and 250 nmi (460 km) in hot and high conditions.[38][39]

The variant rolled out on 7 March 2017 and Azul was confirmed as its launch operator.[40] It first flew on 29 March 2017, ahead of the previously scheduled second half of the year.[41] Embraer showcased the prototype at the Paris Air Show in June 2017 and plan to enter service in the first half of 2019.[42] It competes with the Airbus A220-300.[43]

With the lowest unit costs, the E195-E2 could open up a new market and spur strong demand, moving into mainline territory. Embraer claims E195 trip costs are 22% lower than a 154-seat A320neo and 24% below a 160-seat 737-8 - but airlines install more seats, widening seat costs further apart than the 6% and 8% quoted by Embraer.[19]

Orders[edit]

The Embraer E-Jet E2 program was officially launched during the 50th International Paris Air Show held in June 2013, with SkyWest Airlines, a North American regional airline, and ILFC, a leasing company placing the first firm orders for the aircraft.

SkyWest is the launch customer of the Embraer E175-E2, with the airline placing a firm order for 100 aircraft, with purchase rights for another 100, an order valued at US$9.36 billion at list price,[44] although airlines routinely receive deep discounts from the list price of planes.

ILFC is the launch customer for the Embraer E190-E2 and E195-E2, with the leasing company placing a firm order for 25 E190-E2 aircraft and 25 E195-E2 aircraft, with purchase rights for another 25 of each type.[45]

Its orderbook at 280 is partly at risk, with 25+25 E190/E195-E2s for Indian Air Costa which is no longer operating, and 100 E175-E2 orders from SkyWest Airlines which is not yet compliant with U.S. scope clauses. Embraer could leverage its 1,400 E1 installed base like JetBlue which needs to replace its 88 Embraer 190 fleet and could announce its choice in summer 2018.[19] However, it opted for 60 Airbus A220-300 aircraft instead.[46]

Embraer E-Jets E2 Firm Orders
Initial order Country Customer E175-E2 E190-E2 E195-E2 Orders
17 June 2013 United States SkyWest Airlines[a] 100 - - 100[44]
17 July 2013 United States ILFC - 25 25 50[47]
19 July 2014 China Tianjin Airlines - 20 - 20[48]
21 May 2015 Brazil Azul[b] - - 30 30
15 June 2015 United States Aircastle - 15 10 25[49]
16 January 2017 Norway Widerøe[c] - 3 - 3[50]
Totals 100 63 65 228[50]
  1. ^ E175-E2 launch customer
  2. ^ E195-E2 launch customer
  3. ^ E190-E2 launch operator

Specifications[edit]

E-Jet E2 brochure[51]
Variant E175-E2[52] E190-E2[53] E195-E2[54]
Flight deck crew 2 pilots
Seating, dual class 80 (8J @36 in +72Y @31 in) 96 (12J @38 in +84Y @31 in) 120 (12J @36 in +108Y @31 in)
Seating, single class 88 @31 in, 90 max @29 in 104 @31 in, 114 max @29 in 132 @31 in, 146 max @28 in
Length 32.4 m (106.3 ft) 36.24 m (118 ft 11 in.) 41.5 m (136.2 ft)
Height 9.98 m (32.7 ft) 10.95 m (35 ft 11.3 in) 10.9 m (35.8 ft)
Wingspan 31.0 m (101.7 ft) 33.72 m (110 ft 7.6 in) 35.1 m (115.2 ft)[38]
Wing area 103 m 2 (1108 ft 2 98 in 2)
Aspect ratio 11.04
MTOW 44,800 kg (98,767 lb) 56,400 kg (124,340 lb) 61,500 kg (135,584 lb)
OEW 33,000 kg (72,752 lb)
Max payload 10,600 kg (23,369 lb) 13,700 kg (30,203 lb) 16,150 kg (35,605 lb)
Max fuel 8,522 kg / 18,788 lb 13,500 kg / 29,760 lb 13,300 kg / 29,321 lb
Takeoff (MTOW, ISA, SL) 1,800 m (6,234 ft) 1,450 m (4,760 ft) 1,970 m (6,463 ft)
Landing (MLW, ISA, SL) 1,300 m (4,265 ft) 1,240 m (4,070 ft) 1,412 m (4,633 ft)
Speed Mach 0.82 (473 kn; 876 km/h) Max., Mach 0.78 (450 kn; 833 km/h) Typical,
Range (full pax) 2,060 nmi (3,820 km) 3,250 nmi (6,020 km)[55] 2,600 nmi (4,800 km)
Service ceiling 41,000 ft (12,000 m)
Engines Pratt & Whitney PW1715G Pratt & Whitney PW1919G/21G/22G/23G
Fan diameter 56 in (142 cm) 73 in (185 cm)
Thrust per Engine 15,000 lbf (67 kN) 19,000–23,000 lbf (85–102 kN)

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yeo, Ghim-Lay (24 May 2016). "Embraer completes first flight of E-Jet E2". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Norway's Widerøe completes first revenue flight of an Embraer E190-E2" (Press release). Embraer. April 24, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Haynes, Brad (17 June 2013). "Embraer launches next E-Jets to strong demand, SkyWest orders up to $9.4 billion". Paris: Reuters. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c Baldwin, Mary-Anne (11 August 2013). "The E2: Embraer's next generation of EJets". Airline Fleet Management. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Stephen Trimble (3 Nov 2017). "Embraer comes of age with the E190-E2". Flightglobal. 
  6. ^ "Embraer Selects Pratt & Whitney's PurePower Engines for Second Generation of E-Jets" (Press release). São José dos Campos: Embraer. 8 January 2013. 
  7. ^ "Embraer Launches "E2", the Second Generation of E-Jets" (Press release). Paris: Embraer. 17 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "E190 E2 Makes its International Debut at the Farnborough Airshow" (Press release). Embraer. July 10, 2016. 
  9. ^ Jon Hemmerdinger (27 Apr 2017). "Embraer predicts 99% first-year schedule reliability for E2". Flight Global. 
  10. ^ "Embraer adds range to E190/95 E2s". Leeham. June 2, 2017. 
  11. ^ Jon Hemmerdinger (2 June 2017). "Embraer boosts range figures for E195-E2s and E190-E2s". Flightglobal. 
  12. ^ "Civil Aviation Programs To Watch". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Jun 9, 2017. 
  13. ^ Aaron Karp (Jul 28, 2017). "Embraer swings to $69.5 million 2Q net profit; E2 testing progressing". Aviation Week Network. 
  14. ^ Guy Norris (Jan 19, 2018). "Embraer Targets Improved E190-E2 As Certification Nears". Aviation Week Network. 
  15. ^ a b "Embraer E190-E2 Granted Certification by ANAC, FAA and EASA" (Press release). Embraer. Feb 28, 2018. 
  16. ^ Stephen Trimble (9 Oct 2017). "Embraer primes factory for hybrid E-Jet production system". Flightglobal. 
  17. ^ Alex Derber (Oct 31, 2017). "Embraer Battles Through E2 Transition". Aviation Week Network. 
  18. ^ Jens Flottau (Nov 21, 2017). "Industry Closely Watching Airbus". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
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  27. ^ Gregory Polek (14 January 2013). "Embraer Turns True Believer in Pratt's GTF". AINonline. 
  28. ^ "Embraer Selects Honeywell to Provide Avionics for E-Jets Second Generation" (Press release). Embraer. 4 February 2013. 
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  33. ^ John Morris (8 November 2015). "Embraer Hopes For First Middle East E2 Orders". Aviation Week. 
  34. ^ James Field (April 3, 2018). "Embraer Gives Update on the E-Jet Program". Airways International. 
  35. ^ Stephen Trimble (2 December 2016). "Scope clause freeze pushes E175-E2 back to 2021". Flight Global. 
  36. ^ a b Tim Wuerfel (Mar 7, 2018). "Embraer's E2 Advances E-Jet Without Sacrificing Commonality". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  37. ^ Allison Lampert (23 Jan 2018). "Bombardier seeks to enmesh Embraer in trade spat before ruling". Reuters. 
  38. ^ a b Stephen Trimble (24 February 2016). "Embraer announces design revamp of E195-E2". Flightglobal. 
  39. ^ "EJet-E2 ranged upped by 450nm". Leeham News. 24 February 2016. 
  40. ^ Aaron Karp (Mar 9, 2017). "Embraer E195-E2 to enter service in 2019 with Azul". Air Transport World. Aviation Week. 
  41. ^ Aaron Karp (Mar 29, 2017). "Embraer E195-E2 achieves first flight ahead of schedule". Air transport World. Aviation Week. 
  42. ^ "Embraer brings E195-E2 flight test forward". Flightglobal. 7 March 2017. 
  43. ^ "Embraer challenges Bombardier's CSeries with orders for second generation E-Jets. CAPA - Centre for Aviation, 28 June 2013.
  44. ^ a b "SkyWest Inc. Orders 100 New E-Jets E2 from Embraer as a Launch Customer" (Press release). Paris: Embraer. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2018. 
  45. ^ "ILFC Signs Final Agreement For Up To 100 Embraer E-Jets E2s" (Press release). 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2018-07-12. 
  46. ^ "Airbus wins JetBlue order for its newly rebranded A220". Reuters. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  47. ^ "ILFC Signs Final Agreement For Up To 100 Embraer E-Jets E2s" (Press release). São José dos Campos: Embraer. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  48. ^ "China's HNA Group Tianjin Airlines Purchases 20 E-Jets and 20 E-Jets E2" (Press release). Brasília: Embraer. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  49. ^ "Aircastle Signs Firm Order for 25 Embraer E-Jet E2s" (Press release). Paris: Embraer. 15 June 2015. 
  50. ^ a b "Embraer Signs Order with Widerøe for up to 15 E2 Aircraft" (Press release). Embraer. 16 January 2017. 
  51. ^ "E-Jets E2 Folder" (PDF). Embraer. 13 June 2015. 
  52. ^ "E175-E2" (PDF). Embraer. June 2017. 
  53. ^ "E-Jets E2 Airport Planning Manual" (PDF). Embraer. 11 May 2018. 
  54. ^ "E195-E2". Embraer. June 2017. 
  55. ^ Scott Hamilton (June 18, 2018). "Pontifications: Why Embraer downplayed range of EJet". Leeham News. 

External links[edit]