Embraer E-Jet family
|An Embraer 170 in new livery of launch customer LOT Polish Airlines landing at Amsterdam Airport (2012).|
|First flight||February 19, 2002|
|Introduction||March 17, 2004 with LOT Polish Airlines|
|Primary users||Republic Airlines
|Number built||998 (December 31, 2013)|
|Variants||Embraer Lineage 1000|
|Developed into||Embraer E-Jet E2 family|
The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-body medium-range twin-engine jet airliners produced by Brazilian aerospace conglomerate Embraer. Launched at the Paris Air Show in 1999, and entering production in 2002, the aircraft series has been a commercial success. The aircraft is used by both mainline and regional airlines around the world. As of 31 December 2012[update], there is a backlog of 185 firm orders for the E-Jets, 580 options and 908 units delivered.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Orders and deliveries
- 6 Accidents and incidents
- 7 Specifications
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Design and development
The Embraer E-Jets line is composed of two main commercial families and a business jet variant. The smaller E-170 and E-175 make up the base model aircraft. The E-190 and E-195 are stretched versions, with different engines and larger wing, horizontal stabilizer and landing gear structures. The 170 and 175 share 95% commonality, as do the 190 and 195. The two families share near 89% commonality, with identical fuselage cross-sections and avionics, featuring the Honeywell Primus Epic Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) suite. The E-jets also have winglets to improve the efficiency.
All E-Jets use four-abreast seating (2+2) and have a "double-bubble" design, which Embraer developed for its commercial passenger jets, that provides stand-up headroom. The E-190/195 series of aircraft have similar capacities to the initial versions of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Boeing 737, which have always been considered mainline airliners. The E-Jets has jet engines which produce less noise, which allows them to operate in airports such as London City Airport which have strict noise restrictions.
Embraer first disclosed that it was studying a new 70-seat aircraft, which it called the EMB 170, in 1997, concurrently with announcing the development of its ERJ 135. The EMB 170 was to feature a new wing and larger-diameter fuselage mated to the nose and cockpit of the ERJ 145. In February 1999 Embraer announced it had abandoned the derivative approach in favour of an all-new design.
The E-jet family was formally launched at the Paris Air Show in June 1999. Launch customers for the aircraft were the French airline Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne with ten orders and five options for the E-170; and the Swiss airline Crossair with an order for 30 E-170s and 30 E-190s. Production of parts to build the prototype and test airframes began in July 2000. Full production began in 2002, at a new factory built by Embraer at its São José dos Campos base. After several delays in the certification process, the E-170 received type certification from the aviation authorities of Brazil, Europe and the United States in February 2004.
E-Jets Second Generation
In November 2011, Embraer announced that it would develop revamped versions of the E-Jets family with improved engines, rather than an all-new aircraft. The new variants are to be powered by new more efficient engines with larger diameter fans, and include slightly taller landing gear, and possibly a new aluminum or carbon fiber-based wing. The new E-Jet variants are to be better-positioned to compete with the Bombardier CSeries. Air Lease Corp has tentatively named the revamped E-Jet the E-198, and has advised Embraer to stretch the E-190 by one row (seating 118 in a one-class configuration) and the E-195 by two to three rows (seating 130 to 134). Later on, Embraer named it "second generation". The new variants are to enter service in 2018.
GE, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce were all possible engine suppliers. Pratt & Whitney's geared turbofan engine was selected in January 2013 for the new E-Jets versions. The Honeywell Primus Epic 2 was selected as the avionics package.
The first E-170s were delivered in the second week of March 2004 to LOT Polish Airlines, followed by US Airways subsidiary MidAtlantic Airways and Alitalia (launch customer Crossair had in the meantime ceased to exist after its takeover of Swissair; and fellow launch customer Régional Compagnie Aérienne deferred its order, not receiving its first E-jet—an E-190LR—until 2006.) LOT operated the first commercial flight of an E-jet on 17 March 2004, from Warsaw to Vienna. The largest single order for any type of E-Jets has come from JetBlue for 100 E-190s, and options for 100 more.
The 400th E-jet was delivered in 2008, to Republic Airlines in the U.S. On 6 November of that year, JetBlue set the record for the longest flight of the E-190 family when one of its aircraft made a non-stop flight from Anchorage, Alaska (Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport) to Buffalo, New York (Buffalo Niagara International Airport), a total of 2,694 nmi (4,989 km). This was an empty aircraft on a non-revenue flight. The aircraft eventually returned to JFK after a two-month-long charter service with Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin. In September 2009 the 600th E-jet built was delivered to LOT Polish Airlines.
On 13 September 2013 a ceremony was held at the Embraer factory in São José dos Campos to mark the delivery of the 1,000th E-jet family aircraft, an E-175, to Republic Airlines. The E-175 was delivered in an American Eagle Airlines colour scheme with a special "1,000th E-Jet" decal above the cabin windows.
E-170 and 175
The E-170/E-175 models in the 80-seat range are the smaller in the E-Jet family. They are powered with General Electric CF34-8E engines of 14,200 pounds (62.28 kN) thrust each. The E-170 and E-175 directly compete with the Bombardier CRJ-700 and Bombardier CRJ-900, respectively, and loosely compete with the turboprop Bombardier Q400. They also seek to replace the market segment occupied by earlier competing designs such as the BAe 146 and Fokker 70.
The Embraer 170 was the first version produced. The prototype 170-001, registration PP-XJE, was rolled out on 29 October 2001, with first flight 119 days later on 19 February 2002. The aircraft was displayed to the public in May 2002 at the Regional Airline Association convention. After a positive response from the airline community, Embraer launched the E-175. First flight of the stretched E-175 was on June 2003. The launch U.S. customer For the EMB 170 was US Airways, after FAA certification, the aircraft entered into revenue service on April 4, 2004 operated by the MidAtlantic division of US Airways, Inc. The first E-175 was delivered to Air Canada and entered service in July 2005. The 170-001 prototype performed its last flight on April 11, 2012. Its destiny was disassembly in the US for spare parts.
E-190 and 195
The E-190/195 models are a larger stretch of the E-170/175 models fitted with a new, larger wing, larger horizontal stabilizer and a new engine, the GE CF34-10E, rated at 18,500 lb (82.30 kN). These aircraft compete with the Bombardier CRJ-1000. In addition, being in the 110-seat range, they compete with smaller mainline jets including the Boeing 717-200 and 737-500/-600, the Airbus A318, and some of the upcoming Bombardier CSeries.
The first flight of the E-190 was on March 12, 2004 (PP-XMA), with the first flight of the E-195 (PP-XMJ) on December 7 of the same year. The launch customer of the E-190 was New York-based low-cost carrier JetBlue with 100 orders and 100 options. British low-cost carrier Flybe launched the E-195 with 14 orders and 12 options.
As the 190/195 models are of mainline aircraft size, many airlines will operate them as such, fitting them with a business class section and operating them themselves, instead of having them flown by a regional airline partner. For example, Air Canada operates 45 E-190 aircraft fitted with 9 business-class and 88 economy-class seats (currently modifying from 84 seats) as part of its primary fleet.
Embraer Lineage 1000
On 2 May 2006, Embraer announced plans for the business jet variant of the E-190. This would have the same structure as the E-190, but with an extended range of up to 4,200 nm, and luxury seating for up to 19. It was certified by the USA Federal Aviation Administration on 7 January 2009. The first two production aircraft were delivered in December 2008.
Embraer considered producing an aircraft which was known as the E-195X, a stretched version of the E-195. It would have seated approximately 130 passengers. The E-195X was apparently a response to an American Airlines request for an aircraft to replace its McDonnell Douglas MD-80s. Embraer abandoned plans for the 195X in May 2010, following concerns that its range would be too short.
- Embraer 170 (or EMB 170-100)—As of July 2011[update] 180 Embraer 170 aircraft (all variants) are in airline service, with 8 orders. Major operators include: Republic Airlines (48), Shuttle America (28), Saudia (15), EgyptAir Express (12) and LOT Polish Airlines (10), About 15 airlines operate the type in smaller numbers.
- Embraer 175 (or EMB 170-200)—As of July 2011[update], 136 Embraer 175 aircraft are in airline service, with 53 further orders. Major operators include Air Canada (15), Flybe (9), Kenya Airways (8), Alitalia CityLiner (6) and LOT Polish Airlines (12). Major firm orders include 54 aircraft for Republic Airlines, and 36 aircraft for Compass Airlines a subsidiary of the privately held Trans States Holdings. Flybe, the British airline, ordered 35 Embraer 175 with options for an extra 60 and "purchase rights" for 40 more at the 2010 Farnborough airshow.
- Embraer 190 (or EMB 190-100)—As of July 2011[update], 349 Embraer 190 aircraft (all variants) are in airline service, with 170 orders. Operators include Air Astana with two aircraft in operation and 6 more in order, Air Canada with 45 aircraft (with options for 60 more), JetBlue Airways with 47 aircraft (104 firm orders), Copa Airlines with 26, KLM Cityhopper (22), Aeroméxico Connect (19), Virgin Australia (18), Azul Brazilian Airlines (10), TRIP Linhas Aéreas (10), Lufthansa CityLine (9), Bulgaria Air (4), and Nas Air (Saudi Arabia) (4). Other orders include 32 aircraft for US Airways and 20 for Austral Líneas Aéreas (Argentina).
- Embraer 195 (or EMB 190-200)—As of July 2011[update], 75 Embraer 195 aircraft (all variants) are in service and 30 firm orders. Major operators are Azul Brazilian Airlines (29), Flybe (14), Lufthansa CityLine (19), Air Europa (11) and Air Dolomiti (5). Azul Brazilian Airlines have ordered an additional 41 aircraft of this type.
Orders and deliveries
List of Embraer's E-Jet family deliveries and orders:
|Model||Photo||Firm Orders||Options||Deliveries||Firm Order Backlog|
Source: Embraer Meets Aircraft Delivery Guidance for 2013, with 90 Commercial and 119 Executive Jets.
Accidents and incidents
- On 24 August 2010, Henan Airlines Flight 8387, an Embraer E-190 that departed from Harbin, People's Republic of China, crash landed about 1 km short of the runway at Yichun Lindu Airport, resulting in 42 deaths.
- 16 September 2011: TAME Flight 148, Embraer E-190 registration HC-CEZ, flying from Loja with 97 passengers and 6 crew on board, slipped off the runway at Mariscal Sucre International Airport.[importance?]
- 27 February 2012: Shuttle America Flight 5124, an Embraer E-170, flying from Atlanta with 67 passengers and 4 crew on board, made an emergency landing without nose gear extended at Newark Airport.
- 29 June 2012: Tianjin Airlines Flight 7554, an Embraer E-190, flying from Hotan Airport to Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport experienced an attempted hijacking in the western Chinese province of Xinjiang that was thwarted by passengers and crew members.
- 29 November 2013: LAM Mozambique Airlines Flight 470, an Embraer 190, crashed in Namibia, killing all 33 aboard (27 passengers, 6 crew members). The co-pilot reportedly left the cockpit to use the toilet. He was then locked out by the captain, who dramatically reduced the aircraft’s altitude and ignored various automated warnings ahead of the high-speed impact.
|Flight Deck Crew||2 pilots|
|Passenger capacity||80 (1-class, 29 in/30 in pitch)
78 (1-class, 30 in/31 in)
70 (1-class, 32 in)
70 (2-class, 36 in/32 in)
|88 (1-class, 30 in pitch)
86 (1-class, 31 in)
78 (1-class, 32 in)
78 (2-class, standard)
|114 (1-class, 29 in/30 in pitch)
106 (1-class, 31 in)
98 (1-class, 32 in)
94 (2-class, standard)
|122 (1-class, 30 in/31 in pitch)
118 (1-class, 31 in)
108 (1-class, 32 in)
106 (2-class, standard)
(98 ft 1 in)
|31.68 m (103 ft 11 in)||36.24 m (118 ft 11 in)||38.65 m
(126 ft 10 in)
|Wingspan||26.00 m (85 ft 4 in)||28.72 m (94 ft 3 in)|
(32 ft 4 in)
(34 ft 7 in)
|Empty Weight||21,140 kg (46,610 lb)||21,810 kg (48,080 lb)||28,080 kg (61,910 lb)||28,970 kg (63,870 lb)|
|Maximum takeoff weight||35,990 kg (79,340 lb) (STD)
37,200 kg (82,000 lb) (LR)
38,600 kg (85,100 lb) (AR)
|37,500 kg (82,700 lb) (STD)
38,790 kg (85,520 lb) (LR)
40,370 kg (89,000 lb) (AR)
|47,790 kg (105,360 lb) (STD)
50,300 kg (110,900 lb) (LR)
51,800 kg (114,200 lb) (AR)
|48,790 kg (107,560 lb) (STD)
50,790 kg (111,970 lb) (LR)
52,290 kg (115,280 lb) (AR)
|Max payload weight||9,100 kg (20,100 lb) (STD&LR)
9,840 kg (21,690 lb) (AR)
|10,080 kg (22,220 lb) (STD&LR)
10,360 kg (22,840 lb) (AR)
|13,080 kg (28,840 lb)||13,650 kg (30,090 lb)|
|Takeoff Run at MTOW||1,644 m (5,394 ft)||2,244 m (7,362 ft)||2,056 m (6,745 ft)||2,179 m (7,149 ft)|
|Powerplants||2× GE CF34-8E turbofans
61.4 kN (13,800 lbf) thrust each
63.2 kN (14,200 lbf) APR thrust each
|2× GE CF34-10E turbofans
82.3 kN (18,500 lbf) thrust each
89 kN (20,000 lbf) APR thrust each
|Maximum speed||890 km/h (481 kn, Mach 0.82)|
|Range||STD: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
LR: 3,889 km (2,100 nmi)
AR: 3,892 km (2,102 nmi)
|STD: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
LR: 3,889 km (2,100 nmi)
AR: 3,706 km (2,001 nmi)
|STD: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
LR: 4,260 km (2,300 nmi)
AR: 4,448 km (2,402 nmi)
|STD: 2,593 km (1,400 nmi)
LR: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
AR: 4,077 km (2,201 nmi)
|Maximum fuel load||9,335 kg (20,580 lb)||12,971 kg (28,596 lb)|
|Service ceiling||12,500 m (41,000 ft)|
|Fuselage and cabin cross-section|
|Outer width||3.01 m (9 ft 11 in)|
|Cabin width||2.74 m (9 ft 0 in)|
|Outer height||3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)|
|Cabin height||2.00 m (6 ft 7 in)|
Sources: Embraer E-jet
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Airbus A318
- Antonov An-148
- Boeing 717
- Boeing 737-600
- Bombardier CRJ700 series
- Bombardier CSeries
- Comac ARJ21
- Fokker 70/100
- Mitsubishi MRJ 70/MRJ 90
- Sukhoi Superjet 100
- Tupolev Tu-334
- Related lists
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