Embraer ERJ 145 family

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ERJ145 family
ERJ135 / ERJ140 / ERJ145
Embraer EMB-145LR (ERJ-145LR), American Eagle AN0969536.jpg
An American Eagle ERJ-145
Role Twin-engine Regional airliner
National origin Brazil
Manufacturer Embraer
First flight August 11, 1995
Introduction April 6, 1997
Status In service
Primary users CommutAir
ExpressJet Airlines
Envoy Air
Trans States Airlines
Piedmont Airlines
Produced 1992–present
2003–2016 (China)
Number built 890 as of January 2012[1]
Developed from Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia
Variants R-99 and P-99
Embraer Legacy 600

The Embraer ERJ145 family[a] is a series of twin-engine regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company. Aircraft in the series include the ERJ135 (37 passengers), ERJ140 (44 passengers), and ERJ145 (50 passengers), as well as the Legacy business jet and the R-99 family of military aircraft. Each jet in the series is powered by two turbofan engines. The family's primary competition comes from the Bombardier CRJ regional jets.

Development[edit]

The ERJ145 was designed for a perceived new market for regional jet aircraft, where the increased speed, comfort and passenger appeal would outweigh the inherent fuel economy of the turboprop aircraft which were in service and in development.[2] In order to reduce development cost, Embraer used the older, turboprop EMB 120 Brasilia as the basis for the aircraft, using the same fuselage cross-section and the same nose.[2]

Early design[edit]

The ERJ145 was launched at the Paris Airshow in 1989 where it was marketed as a stretched and turbofan-powered modification of the EMB 120 Brasilia. Key components of this design included:

  • Straight wing (with winglets)
  • Rear Fuselage-mounted engines
  • Range of 2500 km (1550 miles).
  • 75% parts commonality with the EMB 120.

Interim design[edit]

Flight deck of an ERJ135
Three abreast cabin
Embraer ERJ145 of BMI
Winglet detail on an ERJ 145XR

By 1990, Embraer engineers found that results from wind-tunnel testing were less than satisfactory, and began considering a significantly different design from the EMB 120. The proposed modified design included a slightly (22.3°) swept wing with winglets, as well as engines mounted in underwing nacelles. This second design showed markedly better aerodynamic performance, but the combination of swept wings and wing-mounted engines required an unusually high (and therefore heavy) undercarriage.[3]

Production design[edit]

The design evolved until late 1991, at which time it was frozen. Though the aircraft went through many alterations before it was finalized, it did retain a few of the original influences of the EMB 120 such as the three abreast seating (2+1) configuration which was a similar configuration used for the Embraer/FMA CBA 123 Vector design which never reached production. The key features of the production design included:

The first design was intended to retain as much commonality as possible with the EMB 120. However, the aircraft has sold well thus overcoming the initial setbacks. Embraer delivered 892 units of all variants through 2006, and predicted that another 102 units would be delivered in the 2007–2016 time period.[4]

Derivatives[edit]

Embraer has introduced two shortened versions of the ERJ145. All three aircraft share the same crew type rating, allowing pilots to fly any of the three aircraft without the need for further training.

The ERJ140 is 1.42 metres (4.7 ft) shorter, seating 44 passengers, and has 96% parts commonality with the ERJ145. The only significant changes are a shorter fuselage, a slightly derated engine and an increased range. The ERJ140 was designed with fewer seats in order to meet the needs of some major United States airlines, which have an agreement with the pilots' union to limit the number of 50-seat aircraft that can be flown by their affiliates. At launch, Embraer estimated the cost of an ERJ140 to be approximately US $15.2 million. The estimated cost of development of the ERJ140 was US $45 million.

The ERJ135 is 3.54 metres (11.6 ft) shorter, seating 37 passengers, and has 95% parts commonality with the ERJ145. The first ERJ135 entered service in 1999.

Production in China[edit]

In 2003, Embraer entered a partnership with the Harbin Aircraft Industry Group of Harbin, China. The resulting joint-venture company Harbin Embraer Aircraft Industry began producing the ERJ145 for the Chinese market by assembling complete knock down kits prepared by other worldwide Embraer operations. After 13 years, its last delivery was in March 2016; more than 40 ERJ145 and 5 Embraer Legacy 650 were assembled.[5]

Design[edit]

Engine[edit]

The EMB145 family of aircraft generally come equipped with two Rolls-Royce AE 3007 series turbofan engines. The engines have a bypass ratio of 5:1. The engines are controlled by two FADECs (Full Authority Digital Engine Controls). The FADECs control virtually all aspects of the engine and send engine data to be displayed on the EICAS for the pilot.

Avionics[edit]

The Embraer ERJ145 family of aircraft typically coms equipped with the Honeywell Primus 1000 avionics suite. The suite normally consists of five CRT display units (DUs) or screens. From left to right, the system consists of a Primary Flight Display (PFD), Multi-Function Display (MFD), Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS), Multi-Function Display (MFD) (Co-pilot) and Primary Flight Display (PFD) (Co-pilot). The DUs are normally CRTs but can be upgraded to lighter LCD displays. These upgraded DUs also have added functionality.

Operations[edit]

Embraer ERJ-145 operated for United Express by ExpressJet Airlines at Querétaro, Mexico

The first flight of the ERJ145 occurred on August 11, 1995, with the first delivery in December 1996 to ExpressJet Airlines (then the regional division of Continental Airlines flying as Continental Express). ExpressJet is the largest operator of the ERJ145, with 270 of the nearly-1,000 ERJ145s in service. The second largest operator is Envoy Air, with 206 ERJ145 aircraft. Trans States operates 47 ERJ145s through alliances with United Express and Envoy Air. Chautauqua Airlines also operates 38 ERJ145s through an alliance with Delta Connection.

In May 2017, the ERJ135 was leased $33,000 to $43,000 per month ($396,000 to $516,000 per year) and the ERJ145 $38,000 to $55,000 per month ($456,000 to $660,000 per year).[6]

In March 2007 ExpressJet entered into a short-term agreement to operate some regional routes for JetBlue Airways using its ERJ145 aircraft.

The ERJ140 was introduced in September 1999, first flew on June 27, 2000 and entered commercial service in July 2001. Envoy Air, the regional jet subsidiary of American Airlines flying as American Eagle, operates the majority of the ERJ140s built, including the first to be delivered (N800AE).

As of early 2005, 74 ERJ 140s had been delivered.

This version is marketed as ERJ140, but on the company's internal documents and on Federal Aviation Administration certification, the version is designated EMB 135KL.

Variants[edit]

Civilian models[edit]

City Airline Embraer ERJ135.
Embraer ERJ145 of the Brazilian Federal Police.
Embraer ERJ-145LU; Campeche, Mexico
  • ERJ135ER – Extended range, although this is the Baseline 135 model. Simple shrink of the ERJ145, seating thirteen fewer passengers, for a total of 37 passengers.
  • ERJ135LR – Long Range – increased fuel capacity and upgraded engines.
  • ERJ140ER – Simple shrink of the ERJ145, seating six fewer passengers for a total of 44 passengers.
  • ERJ140LR – Long Range (increased fuel capacity (5,187 kg) and upgraded engines.
  • ERJ145STD – The baseline original, seating for a total of 50 passengers.
  • ERJ145EU – Model optimized for the European market. Same fuel capacity as 145STD (4,174 kg) but an increased MTOW[7] 19,990 kg
  • ERJ145ER – Extended Range, although this is the Baseline 145 model.
  • ERJ145EP – Same fuel capacity as 145ER (4,174 kg) but an increased MTOW 20,990 kg.
  • ERJ145LR – Long Range – increased fuel capacity (5,187 kg) and upgraded engines.
  • ERJ145LU – Same fuel capacity as 145LR (5,187 kg) but an increased MTOW 21,990 kg.
  • ERJ145MK – Same fuel capacity (4,174 kg), landing weight (MLW) and MTOW as in the 145STD, but a changed MZFW[8] (17,700 kg).
  • ERJ145XR – Extra-long Range (numerous aerodynamic improvements, including winglets, strakes, etc. for lower cruise-configuration drag; a ventral fuel tank (aft location) in addition to the two main larger capacity wing tanks (same tanks as in the LR models); increased weight capacity; higher top speed and up-rated engines.
  • Legacy 600 (EMB135BJ) – Business jet variant based on the ERJ135.
  • Legacy 650 (EMB135BJ) – Business jet variant based on the ERJ135.
  • Harbin Embraer ERJ145 – joint venture with Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation

The physical engines are the same (Rolls-Royce AE 3007), however, the FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine/Electronic Control) logic is what differs between the various models in regards to total thrust capability.

The extended range version, the ERJ 145ER, has Rolls Royce AE 3007A engines rated at 31.3 kN(7,036 lb) thrust, with the option of more powerful AE 3007A1 engines. A, A1, A1P models are mechanically identical but differ in thrust due to variations in FADEC software. The A1E engine, however, has not only new software, but significantly upgraded mechanical components.

The long-range ERJ 145LR aircraft is equipped with Rolls Royce AE 3007A1 engines which provide 15% more power. The engines are flat rated at 33.1 kN (7,440 lb) thrust to provide improved climb characteristics and improved cruise performance in high ambient temperatures.

The extra-long-range ERJ 145XR aircraft is equipped with Rolls-Royce AE 3007A1E engines. The high performance engines provide lower specific fuel consumption (SFC) and improved performance in hot and high conditions. The engines also yield a higher altitude for one-engine-inoperable conditions."[9] CommutAir and ExpressJet are the only two operators of the ERJ 145XR. February 2011 Embraer presented its new EMB-145 AEW&C for India.

Luxair Embraer ERJ 135LR

Despite the multiple variants, pilots need only one type rating to fly any variant of the ERJ aircraft. Companies like American Eagle and ExpressJet Airlines utilize this benefit with their mixed fleet of ERJ135ER/LR and ERJ145EP/LR/XR. Shared type ratings allows operators to utilize a single pilot pool for any ERJ aircraft.

Military models[edit]

Operators[edit]

Civilian operators[edit]

The main civilian operators, with ten units or more, as of May 2017 are:

American Eagle operated by Envoy Air Embraer ERJ145 at the gate at Joplin Regional Airport in 2014..
Rotana Jet Embraer 145
bmi ERJ 145EP at Bristol Filton Airport.

Military operators[edit]

Belgian Air Force ERJ 135LR in 2010.
An EMB-145 of Continental Express while landing on the runway 06 at Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport.
Angola
Belgium
  • Belgian Air Component (operates two ERJ135 and two ERJ145 since 2001 in passenger transport and VIP roles)
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Greece
India
Mexico
Panama
Thailand

Notable accidents[edit]

  • On February 11, 1998 a Continental Express ERJ-145ER registered N14931 crashed on takeoff at Jefferson County Airport in Beaumont, Texas during a training flight. The NTSB reported that after the incorrect application of rudder during a V1 cut maneuver, the left wing stalled. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. [1]
  • On December 28, 1998, a Rio-Sul flight crew, approaching Curitiba, Brazil's Afonso Pena Airport, descended beyond the normal rates and landed at a speed significantly higher than the normal landing speed. The aircraft tail section cracked and was dragged along the runway.[11] The aircraft involved, an ERJ 145ER registered as PT-SPE, was damaged beyond economical repair.
  • On September 29, 2006, an ExcelAire Embraer Legacy EMB 135BJ, Civil Registration N600XL[12], collided with Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907, a Boeing 737-800, while flying over the northern state of Mato Grosso en route to Manaus from São José dos Campos. The Legacy made an emergency landing at Cachimbo Airport near Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil, with significant damage and with its 5 passengers and 2 crew members uninjured. The Gol 737 crashed in the Amazon forest east of Peixoto de Azevedo, killing all 148 passengers and 6 crew members.[13]
  • On 7 December 2009, an ERJ135 operated by South African Airlink (registration:ZS-SJW) on a scheduled flight SA-8625 from Cape Town, overshot the runway when trying to land in wet weather at George Airport; no fatalities were reported. It was determined that the aircraft touched down in the area of the fourth landing marker. According to the air traffic controller (ATC) on duty at the time, the landing appeared normal, however the aircraft did not vacate the runway but instead veered to the right and slid past the ILS localizer. The aircraft collided with eleven approach lights and burst through the aerodrome's perimeter fence; it came to rest in a nose-down attitude on a public road. A preliminary investigation showed that the landing gear tyres did display some evidence of aquaplaning. The plane was damaged beyond economical repair.
  • On August 25, 2010, an ERJ145 operated by Passaredo, crash-landed on approach to Vitória da Conquista. The plane touched-down short of the runway and the crew lost control, resulting in the aircraft sustaining severe damage before coming to a stop away from the runway. Two of the 27 people on board were injured. The airline said the plane was unable to lower landing gear, although observers said the landing gear was lowered while the aircraft was landing.[14]
  • On September 4, 2011, a United Express Embraer 145 slid off the runway upon landing at Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. All 44 passengers aboard were uninjured. The plane sustained substantial damage to its gear and wing on the right-hand side; it was damaged beyond economic repair.

Specifications[edit]

Line drawings of ERJ135 & 145
Variant ERJ135[15][16] ERJ140[17][18] ERJ145 LR[19][20]/ XR[21][22]
Crew 3 (2 pilots + flight attendant)
Seating 37 44 50
Length 26.33 m (86 ft 5 in) 28.45 m (93 ft 4 in) 29.87 m (98 ft 0 in)
Wing span 20.04 m (65 ft 9 in)
Height 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in)
MTOW ER: 19,000 kg (41,887 lb)
LR: 20,000 kg (44,092 lb)
ER: 20,100 kg (44,312 lb)
LR: 21,100 kg (46,517 lb)
LR: 22,000 kg (48,501 lb)
XR: 24,100 kg (53,131 lb)
BOW ER: 11,402 kg / 25,137 lb
LR: 11,501 kg / 25,355 lb
ER: 11,816 kg / 26,049 lb
LR: 11,808 kg / 26,032 lb
LR: 12,114 kg / 26,706 lb
XR: 12,591 kg / 27,758 lb
Max payload ER: 4,198 kg (9,255 lb)
LR: 4,499 kg (9,918 lb)
ER: 5,284 kg (11,649 lb)
LR: 5,292 kg (11,666 lb)
LR: 5,786 kg (12,755 lb)
XR: 5,909 kg (13,027 lb)
Fuel capacity ER: 5,146l / 1,359gal, LR: 6,396l / 1,690gal, XR: 7,438l / 1,965gal
Engines (2x) ER: AE 3007-A3 / LR: -A1/3 AE 3007-A1/3 LR: AE 3007-A1 / XR: -A1E
Takeoff Thrust A3: 33.71 kN / 7580 lbf; A1, A1/3 : 33.71 kN / 7580 lbf; A1E: 39.67 kN / 8917 lbf[23]
Maximum cruise Mach 0.78 (450 kn; 833 km/h) / 145XR: Mach 0.8 (461 kn; 854 km/h)
Service ceiling 37,000 ft / 11,278m
Range ER: 1,300 nmi (2,400 km)
LR: 1,750 nmi (3,240 km)
ER: 1,250 nmi (2,320 km)
LR: 1,650 nmi (3,060 km)
LR: 1,550 nmi (2,870 km)
XR: 2,000 nmi (3,700 km)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ ERJ or Embraer Regional Jet is a marketing name. The type is officially the Embraer EMB 135 and EMB 145.
  1. ^ "Embraer Delivers 105 Commercial and 99 Executive Jets in 2011" (PDF) (Press release). São José dos Campos: Embraer. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Resende, O.C. The evolution of the aerodynamic design tools and transport aircraft wings at Embraer, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. vol.26 no.4 Rio de Janeiro Oct./Dec. 2004 Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  3. ^ ERJ 145 information at Airliners.net. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
  4. ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 October 2007 issue, p. 66
  5. ^ Trautvetter, Chad (6 June 2016). "Embraer To Close Legacy 650 Assembly Facility in China". AINonline. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  6. ^ Collateral Verifications LLC (May 2017). "myairlease FleetStatus". 
  7. ^ MTOW – Maximum TakeOff Weight
  8. ^ MZFW – Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
  9. ^ Aerospace-Technology.com ERJ145[unreliable source?]
  10. ^ "Embraer Signs Contracts with the Royal Thai Army and the Royal Thai Navy" (Press release). São José dos Campos: Embraer. 5 November 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  11. ^ Flight recorder video of Rio-Sul incident YouTube. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  12. ^ "FAA Registry". Federal Aviation Administration. 
  13. ^ Harro Ranter (29 September 2006). "ASN Aircraft accident Embraer EMB-135BJ Legacy 600 N600XL Novo Progresso-Cachimbo Air Base, PA (SBCC)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  14. ^ "Accident: Passaredo E145 at Vitoria da Conquista on Aug 25th 2010, landed short of runway". The Aviation Herald. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  15. ^ "E135 Weights" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  16. ^ "E135 Performance" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  17. ^ "E140 Weight" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  18. ^ "E140 Performance" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  19. ^ "E145 LR Weight" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  20. ^ "E145 LR Performance" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  21. ^ "E145 XR Weight" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  22. ^ "E145 XR Performance" (PDF). Embraer. June 2013. 
  23. ^ "Rolls-Royce AE3007" (PDF). type certificate data sheet. EASA. 5 May 2015. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]