Embraer Legacy 450/500 and Praetor 500/600

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Embraer Legacy 500)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
EMB-550 Legacy 500
EMB-545 Legacy 450
PT-ZHY Embraer EMB550 Legacy500 E550 (14272527752).jpg
Legacy 500 in flight, landing gear extended
Role Business jet
National origin Brazil
Manufacturer Embraer
First flight 500 : 27 November 2012
450 : 28 December 2013
Introduction 500 : 11 October 2014
Status In Service
Primary users Flexjet
Fly Across
Produced 500 : 2011-present
Number built 500 : 59 (as of 31 December 2017)[1]
450 : 29 (as of 31 December 2017)[1]
Unit cost

P600: US$21 million[2]L500 : US$ 20 million[3]
P500: US$17 million[2]
L450 : US$16.57 million[3]

The Embraer Legacy 450/500 (EMB-545/EMB-550) are Brazilian mid-size business jets launched by Embraer in April 2008, the first of their size with a flat-floor stand-up cabin and fly-by-wire. The longer 500, which typically carries 4 passengers over 3,125 nmi (5,790 km) with room for up to 12, first flew on November 27, 2012, and was certified on August 12, 2014. The shorter 450 first flew on December 28, 2013, was certified on August 11, 2015, carries 4 passengers over 2,900 nmi (5,370 km) and can accommodate up to 9. Introduced in October 2018, the Praetor 500/600 are variants of the Legacy 450 and 500, respectively, with more range.

Development[edit]

At the August 2007 NBAA convention, Embraer unveiled a cabin mock-up of two concepts positioned between the $7 million Phenom 300 and the $26 million Legacy 600, called midsize jet (MSJ) and midlight jet (MLJ), positioned on 22% of the market in units. They should share their flat floor, stand-up cabin but the MSJ should be 5 feet longer to accommodate 8 passengers over a 2,800-nm range against 2,200-nm for the smaller version.[4]

The program was introduced in April 2008, Embraer planned to invest US$750 million and to introduce the larger model in 2012 and the smaller in 2013. Honeywell HTF7500E turbofans were selected along a Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite integrated cockpit and a Parker Hannifin fly-by-wire flight control system.[5] At the May 2008 European Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition, the larger was named Legacy 500 and priced at $18.4 million and the smaller Legacy 450, priced at $15.25 million.[6][7] The variants have 95% systems commonality.[8]

An assembly line was officially opened in Melbourne, Florida on 2 June 2016, adding Embraer Legacy 450 and 500 production to the existing Phenom 100 and 300 line, along a completion center/flight-prep building. The first Legacy 450 on the line since May 16 should be delivered in mid-December. The facility will be able to assemble up to 96 Phenoms and 72 Legacys annually.[9] The first Legacy 450 produced in Florida was delivered in December 2016; the fuselage is built in Botucatu in Brazil, and the wings in Évora, Portugal.[10] The first Legacy 500 entered final assembly in January 2017 and was flown in July.[11] Embraer will eventually move most of its Legacy 450/500 production in Florida but has not set up a schedule yet.[12]

Praetor 500/600[edit]

Embraer introduced improved variants at the October 2018 NBAA convention, the Praetor 500 and 600, presented on display, with 3,250 nmi (6,019 km) and 3,900 nmi (7,223 km) of range; the 600 should be certified in the second quarter of 2019 and the 500 in the third quarter of 2019.[13] Both have 22 by 50 in (56 by 127 cm) taller and wider winglets. The $17 million Praetor 500 boosts the fuel capacity of the Legacy 450 from 12,108 to 13,058 lb (5,492 to 5,923 kg) to match the Legacy 500. The $21 million Praetor 600 is based on the Legacy 500 with two tanks on the fuselage belly for 2,928 lb (1,328 kg) more fuel for a 15,986 lb (7,251 kg) capacity, and more powerful 7,528 lbf (33.49 kN) HTF7500E engines.[2]

Praetor 600 flight testing began on 31 March and 300h were logged with three aircraft by October 2018, while the Praetor 500 flight tests began on 13 September with 80h accumulated.[14] The synthetic vision system has a flight guidance system for CAT I airports approach with SBAS, allowing decision height to be reduced from 200 to 150 ft (61 to 46 m).[15] Within US SBAS zones, the synthetic vision guidance system (SVGS) allows autopilot-flown instrument approaches down to 150 ft (46 m) height and 1,300 ft (400 m) RVR without the optional Rockwell Collins EVS and HUD.[16]

Previous Legacy 450s can be upgraded to the Praetor 500 configuration for $500,000. For the higher thrust Praetor 600, Honeywell maintenance plans increases to $294 per engine per hour. Active load alleviation deflects both ailerons upward at 2.0 Gs to prevent overstressing the wing without adding structural weight.[17] At FL410, ISA-7°C to -14°C and Mach 0.77 (442 kn; 818 km/h) cruise, the Praetor 600 burns 1,760 lb (800 kg) of fuel per hour at a weight of 40,500 lb (18,400 kg), increasing to 1,800 to 1,900 lb (820 to 860 kg) at Mach 0.794 (455 kn; 843 km/h) max cruise. [18]

Design[edit]

Cockpit with 4 large MFD and sidesticks

They are low wing, T-tail airplanes with cabin pressurization, powered by two rear mounted turbofans. The landing gear is fully retractable and designed to be operated on paved runways only. The glass cockpit includes four multi-function displays. The operation is made through a flight management system with autopilot, autothrottle and closed-loop control and monitoring of flight controls Fly-By-Wire. The aircraft are certified for Day, Night, VFR and IFR flights, and are approved for reduced vertical separation minima (RVSM) airspace and flight into known icing conditions, extended flight over water, Category II ILS, operations at high altitude airports up to 13800 ft and steep approach operations.[19]

Embraer offers an enhanced flight vision system constituted by the Rockwell Collins HGS-3500 Head-up display combined with the EVS-3000 Infrared camera, permitting a decision altitude necessitating visual references of 100 ft above touchdown at a projected price of $515,000. Federal Aviation Administration's draft AC 20-167A further proposes a descent below 100 ft if the required visual references can be observed using the EFVS, similar to Cat II and III approaches with limited instrument landing systems in many small airports.[20]

Variants[edit]

EMB-550 Legacy 500[edit]

Legacy 500 : seven windows per side

Embraer's timeline was delayed because software development for the fly-by-wire flight control system was running behind schedule.[21] Supported by 800 engineers, the first Legacy 500 prototype (PT-ZEX) was rolled out on 23 December 2011 to begin ground testing and systems evaluation, prior to the aircraft’s first flight scheduled for the third quarter of 2012.[22][23] The first engine run was completed on January 17, 2012. [24][25]

The aircraft's first flight occurred on 27 November 2012, with certification and initial deliveries expected in early 2014.[26] The first flight test crew was composed of the program Test Pilot Eduardo Camelier, Chief Test Pilot Mozart Louzada, Flight Test Director Alexandre Figueiredo and Flight Test Engineer Gustavo Paixao.[27][importance?] The maiden flight was from Embraer headquarters at São José dos Campos Airport and all prototypes were flown to the Gaviao Peixoto Airport test facility after their first flight.[citation needed]

After 1,800 hours of flight tests and 20,000 hours of laboratory tests, its type certificate was received from National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil (ANAC) on August 12, 2014, exceeding design goals.[28] First delivery occurred to a Brazilian company on October 11, 2014.[29][30] It received its Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) certification on October 21, 2014.[31] Delivery of the 50th Legacy 500 is expected in the third quarter of 2016.[32]

The Legacy 500 can be configured to carry up to 12 passengers, and can carry eight passengers over 2,948 nautical miles (5,460 km), or four passengers over 3,125 nautical miles (5,788 km).[33] The aircraft fly-by-wire control enhances safety and comfort.[34][35] Climbing to its FL 430 initial cruise altitude takes 22 min and its 27° wing sweep allow a 436 kn (807 km/h) TAS average long-range cruise, Mach 0.76 - 0.78, while a Mach 0.80 cruise lowers the range by 3%.[36]

The Legacy 500 competes with midsize jets like the $17.9 million Cessna Citation Sovereign+ and $23.4 million Cessna Citation X,[3] but also with super-midsize $24 million Gulfstream G280 and $26 million Bombardier Challenger 350 and can be compared with the halted $21 million Learjet 85 program.[37] Bombardier discounts its Challenger 300/350 to match the Legacy 500's $20 million price, $7 million cheaper, while Gulfstream stays firm on its $24.5 million G280 price, as is Embraer, but the Legacy 500 loses 25% of its base value on the pre-owned market because of the glut of used super-midsize jets.[36]

EMB-545 Legacy 450[edit]

Legacy 450 : six windows per side

The Legacy 450 first flight occurred on 28 December 2013.[38] It received its Brazilian certification on 11 August 2015, exceeding its design goals.[39][40] It was certified by the FAA shortly after on 31 August 2015.[41] Embraer announced on 22 December 2015 its first delivery to LMG, LLC, an American provider of video, audio, and lighting support headquartered in Orlando.[42]

Its fuselage is shortened by 4 feet (122 cm) and it has a flight life of 27,500 flight hours, its stall speed is 104 kn (193 km/h) and its minimum control speed is 142 kn (263 km/h).[43] It competes with the $16.25 million Cessna Citation Latitude and the $17.9 million Cessna Citation Sovereign.[3] In July 2016, its certified range was extended to 2,904 nm (5,378 km), 329 nm (609 km) more than previously,[44] and it is designed to carry 7 to 9 passengers.[45]

Operational history[edit]

Deliveries[1]
Model 2014 2015 2016 2017
Legacy 500 3 20 21 15
Legacy 450 3 12 14

Near 70% of the 50+ Legacy 500s are in the U.S., mostly owned by Fortune 1000 private firms or wealthy individuals. Toluca's Fly Across operates four Legacy 500s, as is Flexjet which plan to trade its five 450s to five 500s to become its largest operator. The Legacy 500 average mission is less than 2 hours, and while fleet operators fly them more than 700 hours per year, single aircraft operators typically fly theirs 150–200 hours per year.[36]

It burns 2,200–2,400 lb (1,000–1,090 kg) of fuel in the first hour, and then 1,700–1,800 lb (770–820 kg) at heavy weights down to 1,500–1,600 lb (680–730 kg) when lighter. Maintenance per flight hour cost US$642 to US$658 for the two Honeywell HTF7500E depending on utilization, while airframe costs US$321 plus US$4,300 per month for low-utilization. Dispatch reliability often exceeds 99% with most components mounted outside the pressure vessel for easy access if it breaks, except batteries and potable water servicing.[36]

Specifications[edit]

model Legacy 450[45] Praetor 500[46] Legacy 500[33] Praetor 600[47]
crew 2
Capacity 7-9 passengers 8-12 passengers
Baggage Capacity 150 cu.ft / 4.25 cu.m 155 cu.ft / 4.39 cu.m
Length 64 ft 7 in / 19.69 m 68 ft 1 in / 20.74 m
Height 21 ft 1 in / 6.43 m 21 ft 2 in / 6.44 m
Wingspan 66 ft 5 in / 20.25 m 70 ft 6 in / 21.50 m 66 ft 5 in / 20.25 m 70 ft 6 in / 21.50 m
wing area 432 sq ft (40.1 m2)[43] 432 sq ft (40.1 m2)[48] 44.9 m2 (483 sq ft)
basic operating weight 22,928 lb (10,400 kg)[43] 10,391 kg (22,908 lb)[15] 23,437 lb (10,631 kg)[3][a] 11,040 kg (24,340 lb)[15]
Maximum Payload 2,921 lb / 1,325 kg 2,800 lb / 1,270 kg 4,001 lb / 1,815 kg
MTOW[19] 16,000 kg (35,274 lb) 17,040 kg (37,570 lb)[15] 17,400 kg (38,360 lb) 19,440 kg (42,860 lb)[15]
fuel capacity[2] 12,108 lb / 5,492 kg 13,058 lb / 5,923 kg 15,986 lb / 7,251 kg
Cabin altitude 6,000 ft (1,800 m) 5,800 ft (1,800 m) 6,000 ft (1,800 m) 5,800 ft (1,800 m)
Cabin height × width 6 ft (183 cm) × 6 ft 10 in (208 cm)
Cabin length 24 ft (7.3 m) 26 ft 10 in (8.2 m)
Turbofan×2 Honeywell HTF7500E
Thrust (ISA + 18°C) 6,540 lbf (29.1 kN) 7,036 lbf (31.3 kN) 7,528 lbf (33.5 kN)
max speed Mach 0.83
high cruise speed 462 kn (856 km/h) 466 kt / 863 km/h
Range† 2,900 nm / 5,371 km 3,250 nm / 6,019 km 3,125 nm / 5,788 km 3,900 nm / 7,223 km
ceiling 45,000 ft / 13,716 m
time to climb 43,000 ft. in 21 min 43,000 ft. in 22 min[28]
wing loading 82 lb/sq ft (400 kg/m2) 88 lb/sq ft (430 kg/m2) 88.7 lb/sq ft (433 kg/m2)[17]
Take-off distance[b] 3,907 ft / 1,191 m 4,263 ft / 1,299 m 4,084 ft / 1,245 m 4,800 ft / 1,463 m
Landing Distance[b] 2,090 ft / 637 m 2,091 ft / 637 m 2,122 ft / 647 m 2,270 ft / 692 m
Hourly LRC fuel burn 213 US Gal (806 l)[49] 236 US Gal (893 l)[50]
  1. ^ operators report 200–400 lb (91–181 kg) heavier BOWs than Embraer’s 23,699 lb (10,750 kg) estimate.[36]
  2. ^ a b MTOW, 4 pax, NBAA IFR reserves, 200 nm alternate, SL, ISA

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). General Aviation Manufacturers Association. p. 17. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  2. ^ a b c d Matt Thurber (October 14, 2018). "Embraer Moves Ahead with Praetor Program". AIN online.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Business Airplane Tables" (PDF). aviation week. May 2015.
  4. ^ Curt Epstein (September 26, 2007). "Embraer unveils concepts for two new midsize aircraft". Aviation International News.
  5. ^ "Embraer announces embraer MSJ and embraer MLJ executive jets" (Press release). Embraer. April 8, 2008.
  6. ^ "Embraer renames MLJ/MSJ as Legacy 450/500 – announces launch schedule". domain-b.com. 22 May 2008.
  7. ^ "Embraer's Legacy 500". Business Jet Traveler. December 2, 2011.
  8. ^ "Embraer Makes Progress On New 'Mid' Offerings". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 14 October 2013.
  9. ^ Chad Trautvetter (June 2, 2016). "Embraer Starts Legacy 450/500 Production in U.S." Aviation International News.
  10. ^ Stephen Trimble (14 December 2016). "Embraer delivers first US-assembled Legacy 450". Flight Global.
  11. ^ "Embraer flies first Legacy 500 assembled in Melbourne" (Press release). Embraer. July 13, 2017.
  12. ^ Chad Trautvetter (April 24, 2017). "Embraer To Assemble Bulk of Legacy 450/500s in Florida". Aviation International News.
  13. ^ "Embraer Introduces the Most Disruptive and Technologically Advanced Aircraft into the Midsize and Super-midsize Categories; The Praetor 500 and Praetor 600 Business Jets" (Press release). Embraer. Oct 14, 2018.
  14. ^ Kate Sarsfield (14 Oct 2018). "NBAA: Embraer takes command of midsize market with Praetor launch". Flightglobal.
  15. ^ a b c d e Mike Gerzanics (16 Oct 2018). "FLIGHT TEST: Embraer's Praetor 600 leaves a Legacy". Flightglobal.
  16. ^ Matt Thurber (November 20, 2018). "Pilot Report: Embraer Praetor 600". AIN online.
  17. ^ a b Fred George (Oct 15, 2018). "Praetor 500 and 600 Blaze New Path for Embraer". Aviation Week Network.
  18. ^ Fred George (Oct 16, 2018). "Praetor 600: Flying Nonstop from Brazil to Florida". Aviation Week Network.
  19. ^ a b "Operational evaluation report" (PDF). ANAC. February 22, 2016.[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ "Embraer's vision enhancer shows great promise". Flight Global. 16 August 2016.
  21. ^ "NBAA: Embraer faces Legacy 500 fly-by-wire delays". Flight International. October 11, 2011.
  22. ^ "Embraer Rolls Out Legacy 500 Executive Jet" (Press release). Embraer. December 26, 2011.
  23. ^ "Embraer Rolls Out First Legacy 500". Aviation International News. January 3, 2012.
  24. ^ "First Engine Run For The Legacy 500" (Press release). Embraer. February 6, 2012.
  25. ^ "Embraer completes first engine run on Legacy 500 business jet". Flight International. February 13, 2012.
  26. ^ "Embraer Legacy 500 Makes 'Flawless' First Flight". Aviation International News. November 27, 2012.
  27. ^ "Embraer Legacy 500 Makes First Flight". Flying Magazine. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  28. ^ a b "Legacy 500 Executive Jet awarded Brazilian certification" (Press release). Embraer. August 12, 2014.
  29. ^ "Embraer delivers first Legacy 500 Executive Jet" (Press release). Embraer. Oct 10, 2014.
  30. ^ "Embraer delivers Legacy 500 to launch customer". Flight International. 10 October 2014.
  31. ^ "NBAA: Embraer Legacy 500 cleared for US flights". Flight International. 22 October 2014.
  32. ^ "Embraer opens Legacy final assembly facility in Melbourne". Flight International. 8 June 2016.
  33. ^ a b "Legacy 500 Brochure" (PDF). Embraer.
  34. ^ Goyer, Robert (2 February 2015). "We Fly: Embraer Legacy 500". Flying.
  35. ^ Matt Thurber (June 29, 2015). "Pilot Report: Embraer Legacy 500". Aviation International News.
  36. ^ a b c d e Fred George (Sep 22, 2017). "Legacy 500: Super Midsize Technology Leader Fights For Market Share". Aviation Week Network.
  37. ^ "Embraer Legacy 500 Versus the World: Comparison Specs". Flying. February 3, 2015.
  38. ^ "Embraer Executive Jets debuts Legacy 450 at EBACE 2015" (Press release). Embraer. 16 May 2015.
  39. ^ "Embraer's Legacy 450 Executive Jet awarded Brazilian certification" (Press release). Embraer. 11 August 2015.
  40. ^ "Embraer Legacy 450 Wins Brazilian Approval". Aviation International News. 11 August 2015.
  41. ^ "Embraer's Legacy 450 Jet Now FAA-Certified". AVweb. 31 August 2015.
  42. ^ "Embraer Executive Jets starts Legacy 450 deliveries" (Press release). Embraer Executive Jets. December 22, 2015.
  43. ^ a b c "Embraer Legacy 450 Pilot Report" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Sep 28, 2015.
  44. ^ "Embraer's Legacy 450 certified for 2,904 nm range" (Press release). Embraer. July 12, 2016.
  45. ^ a b "Legacy 450 Brochure" (PDF). Embraer.
  46. ^ "Praetor 500 Brochure" (PDF). Embraer.
  47. ^ "Praetor 600 Brochure" (PDF). Embraer.
  48. ^ Fred George (May 1, 2014). "Pilot Report: Legacy 500". Business & Commercial Aviation.
  49. ^ "Legacy 450 performance". Embraer.
  50. ^ "Legacy 500 performance". Embraer.

External links[edit]