Emil Constantinescu

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Emil Constantinescu
Emil Constantinescu.jpg
3rd President of Romania
In office
29 November 1996 – 20 December 2000
Prime MinisterVictor Ciorbea
Gavril Dejeu (Acting)
Radu Vasile
Alexandru Athanasiu (Acting)
Mugur Isărescu
Preceded byIon Iliescu
Succeeded byIon Iliescu
Leader of the Romanian Democratic Convention
In office
November 1992 – 29 November 1996
Preceded byCorneliu Coposu
Personal details
Born (1939-11-19) 19 November 1939 (age 81)
Tighina, Kingdom of Romania (present day de jure Moldova, de facto Transnistrian Moldovan Republic)
Political partyNational Liberal Party (2008–present)
Other political
affiliations
Romanian Communist Party (1965–1989)
Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party (1990–1996)
Independent (1996–2000, PNȚCD membership suspended while president)
People's Action (2001–2008)
Spouse(s)Nadia Ileana Constantinescu
ChildrenDragoș
Norina Boru
ProfessionProfessor of Geology
Signature

Emil Constantinescu (Romanian pronunciation: [eˈmil konstantiˈnesku] (About this soundlisten) (born 19 November, 1939) is a Romanian professor and politician, who served as the President of Romania, from 1996 to 2000.

After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Constantinescu became a founding member and vice president of the Civic Alliance. He was the acting chairman of the Democratic Romanian Anti-Totalitarian Forum, the first associative structure of the opposition in Romania, which was later transformed into a centre-right political and electoral alliance known as the Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR).[1]

Biography[edit]

Early life and education[edit]

Professional career[edit]

Political career and presidency[edit]

In 1992 the CDR, of which the PNȚCD was a member, nominated him as its candidate for President of Romania. He lost the election to then incumbent Ion Iliescu after the second round. In 1996, he competed once again for the presidency as the CDR's candidate and managed to defeat Iliescu in the second round, securing a victory by a margin of roughly 10%. CDR's success in the 1996 general elections marked the first peaceful transition of power in post-1989 Romania. On the day he took office, he suspended his membership in the PNȚCD, as the Constitution precludes a president holding formal membership of a political party during his tenure.

Nonetheless, throughout his four-year term, Constantinescu struggled with the slow implementation of the processes of modernization and privatization, which were bogged down by excessive bureaucracy. After another Mineriad which took place in 1999 and ended with the arrest of Miron Cozma, the remainder of his term suffered a political crisis between the majority parties that, at the time, formed the governing coalition. The country was further damaged by a drought in 2000. At the end of his term, he decided not to run for re-election.

After the presidency[edit]

Emil Constantinescu and Bill Clinton in Bucharest during the American President's 1997 visit to the Romanian capital.

Constantinescu's presidency along with CDR's governing were marred by an economic recession. Despite this, his presidency is now credited with putting an end to the Mineriads, a reform of the banking system, as well as with the attraction of the first major foreign investments in Romania. With dashed expectations of an immediate improvement in daily life, Romanians exhibited strong disillusionment with the major parties and politicians, with the Greater Romania Party gaining the second place in the 2000 elections.[2]

A disenchanted Emil Constantinescu, who lost popularity and had failed to fulfill his reformist agenda announced on 17 July 2000 that he would not run for a second term.[3] He temporarily withdrew from political life at the end of his term in November 2000. Constantinescu's direction in foreign affairs continued however after the comeback of Ion Iliescu in 2000. Eventually, Romania joined NATO in 2004.

The former President returned to the political scene in 2002 as head of the People's Action (Acţiunea Populară) party, which subsequently merged within the National Liberal Party in 2008.[4]

Constantinescu has occasionally criticized the policies of the 2004–2009 president, Traian Băsescu, accusing him of authoritarian tendencies,[5] and supported Crin Antonescu in the first round of the 2009 presidential elections.[6]

Nowadays, he still remains heavily involved in politics through working for many NGOs, both in Romania and internationally. Emil Constantinescu is the current president of the Association of Citizenship Education, of the Romanian Foundation for Democracy[7] and also the founding president of the Institute for Regional Cooperation and Conflict Prevention (INCOR).[8]

A frequent speaker at the Oslo Freedom Forum, in 2010 he presented the OFF with a presidential medal.[9] He is also a member of the international advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.[10]

Honours and awards[edit]

National honours[edit]

Foreign honours[edit]

Electoral history[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Affiliation First round Second round
Votes Percentage Position Votes Percentage Position
1992 CDR 3,717,006
31.1%
 2nd  4,641,207
38.6%
 2nd 
1996 CDR 3,569,941
28.2%
 2nd  7,057,906
54.4%
 1st 

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rafto.no. "Doina Cornea".
  2. ^ (in Romanian) La zece ani
  3. ^ (in Romanian) Declarație Emil Constantinescu (iulie 2000)
  4. ^ (in Romanian) Acțiunea Populară acceptă fuziunea cu PNL (HotNews.ro, March 12, 2008)
  5. ^ (in Romanian) Emil Constantinescu: Discursurile lui Băsescu sunt asemănătoare celor ale foştilor lideri totalitarişti
  6. ^ (in Romanian) Emil, apel către intelectuali: Asumaţi-vă eşecul moral şi lepădaţi-vă de răul absolut care este Băsescu!
  7. ^ Fundația Română pentru Democrație
  8. ^ "Emil Constantinescu". East West Institute. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  9. ^ Oslo Freedom Forum
  10. ^ Emil Constantinescu | Speakers | Oslo Freedom Forum
  11. ^ "Iliescu si Constantinescu au primit Emblema de Onoare a Armatei" (in Romanian). Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  12. ^ Aufstellung aller durch den Bundespräsidenten verliehenen Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich ab 1952 (PDF)
  13. ^ "Dostluk İlişkilerine Katkının Altın Sembolü: Devlet ve Cumhuriyet Nişanları (Turkish) – The Gold Symbol Contribution of Friendly Relations : State and Republic Orders". Haberler.com. February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Modtagere af danske dekorationer". kongehuset.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  15. ^ "State Honours". Slovak-Republic.org. Slovak-Republic.org. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  16. ^ "Odluka o odlikovanju Njegove Ekscelencije dr. Emila Constantinescua". Narodne novine (in Croatian). 16 June 2000. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
  17. ^ "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas". Presidência da República Portuguesa. Retrieved 10 April 2016. Resultado da busca de "Emil Constantinescu".

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ion Alexandrescu, Stan Stoica, România după 1989. Mică enciclopedie, Editura Meronia, București, 2005
  • Tom Gallagher, Furtul unei națiuni. România de la communism încoace, Editura Humanitas, București, 2004
  • Dan Pavel, Iulia Huia, "Nu putem reuși decît împreună." O istorie analitică a Convenției Democratice, 1989–2000, Editura Polirom, Iași, 2003