Emil Jannings

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Emil Jannings
Emil Jannings - no watermark.jpg
Jannings circa 1926
Theodor Friedrich Emil Janenz

(1884-07-23)23 July 1884
Rorschach, Switzerland
Died2 January 1950(1950-01-02) (aged 65)
Years active1914–1945
Spouse(s)Lucy Höfling[1] (divorced 1919)
(m. 1919; div. 1921)

(m. 1921; div. 1921)

(m. 1923)

Emil Jannings (born Theodor Friedrich Emil Janenz, 23 July 1884 – 2 January 1950) was a Swiss-born German actor, popular in the 1920s in Hollywood. He was the first recipient of the Academy Award for Best Actor for his roles in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. As of 2023, Jannings is the only German ever to have won the category.

Jannings is best known for his collaborations with F. W. Murnau and Josef von Sternberg, including the 1930 film The Blue Angel (Der blaue Engel), with Marlene Dietrich. The Blue Angel was meant as a vehicle for Jannings to score a place for himself in the new medium of sound film, but Dietrich stole the show. Jannings later starred in a number of Nazi propaganda films, which made him unemployable as an actor after the defeat of Nazi Germany.

Childhood and youth[edit]

Jannings was born in Rorschach, Switzerland, the son of Emil Janenz, an American businessman from St. Louis, and his wife Margarethe (née Schwabe), originally from Germany.[2][3] Jannings held German citizenship; while he was still young the family moved to Leipzig in the German Empire and further to Görlitz after the early death of his father.

Jannings ran away from school and went to sea. When he returned to Görlitz, his mother finally allowed him to begin a traineeship at the town state theatre, where he started his stage career. From 1901 onwards he worked with several theatre companies in Bremen, Nuremberg, Leipzig, Königsberg, and Glogau before joining the Deutsches Theater ensemble under director Max Reinhardt in Berlin.[4] Permanently employed since 1915, Jannings met with playwright Karl Vollmöller, fellow actor Ernst Lubitsch, and photographer Frieda Riess. After World War I all were at the heart of Weimar Culture in 1920s Berlin. Jannings made his breakthrough in 1918 with his role as Judge Adam in Kleist's Broken Jug at the Schauspielhaus.


Jannings as Kreon in Hasenclever's Antigone, Großes Schauspielhaus, 1920

Jannings was a theater actor who went into films, though he remained dissatisfied with the limited expressive possibilities in the silent era. Having signed a contract with the UFA production company, he starred in Die Augen der Mumie Ma (The Eyes of the Mummy, 1918) and Madame DuBarry (1919), both with Pola Negri in the main female part. He also performed in the 1922 film version of Othello and in F. W. Murnau's 1924 film The Last Laugh (Der Letzte Mann), as a proud but aged hotel doorman who is demoted to a restroom attendant. Jannings worked with Murnau on two other films; playing the title character in Tartuffe (Herr Tartüff, 1925), and as Mephistopheles in Faust (1926).


His increasing popularity enabled Jannings to sign an agreement with Paramount Pictures and eventually follow his acting colleagues Lubitsch and Negri to Hollywood. He started his career in 1927 with The Way of All Flesh directed by Victor Fleming (now lost) and in the following year performed in Josef von Sternberg's The Last Command. In 1929, Jannings won the first Best Actor Oscar for his work in both films. He and Sternberg also cooperated in Street of Sin (1928), though they actually differed about Jannings' acting in front of the camera.

His Hollywood career came to an end with the advent of talkies as his thick German accent was difficult to understand. His dialogue was initially dubbed by another actor in the part-talkie The Patriot (1928) directed by Ernst Lubitsch, although Jannings' own voice was restored after he objected. Returning to Europe, he starred opposite Marlene Dietrich in the 1930 film The Blue Angel, which was filmed simultaneously in English with its German version Der blaue Engel.

According to Susan Orlean, author of Rin Tin Tin: The Life and The Legend, Jannings was not actually the winner of the first best actor vote, but the runner-up. While researching her book, Orlean thought she discovered that it was in fact Rin Tin Tin, the German Shepherd dog, one of the biggest movie stars of his time, who won the vote. The Academy, however, worried about not being taken seriously if they gave the first Oscar to a dog, chose to award the Oscar to the human runner-up.[5]

In 1960, Jannings was posthumously honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1630 Vine Street for his contribution to motion pictures.[6]

Nazi Germany[edit]

Jannings with Joseph Goebbels on Wolfgangsee, 1938

After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, Jannings continued his career in the service of Nazi cinema. In Nazi Germany, he starred in several films which were intended to promote Nazism, particularly the Führerprinzip by presenting unyielding historical characters, such as Der alte und der junge König (The Old and the Young King 1934), Der Herrscher (The Ruler 1937) directed by Veit Harlan, Robert Koch (1939), Ohm Krüger (Uncle Kruger, 1941) and Die Entlassung (Bismarck's Dismissal, 1942).[7] He also performed in his famed role in The Broken Jug directed by Gustav Ucicky. Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels named Jannings an "Artist of the State" (Staatsschauspieler)[8]

The shooting of his last film Wo ist Herr Belling? was aborted when troops of the Allied Powers entered Germany in Spring 1945. Jannings reportedly carried his Oscar statuette with him as proof of his former association with Hollywood. However, his active role in Nazi propaganda meant that he was subject to denazification, effectively ending his career.

In the same period Dietrich became a US citizen and an influential anti-Nazi activist, spending much of the war entertaining troops on the front lines and broadcasting on behalf of the OSS. Dietrich particularly loathed Jannings for his Nazi ties, and would later refer to her former co-star as a "ham".[9]


Emil Jannings' grave at St Wolfgang im Salzkammergut

Jannings retired to Strobl near Salzburg, Austria, and became an Austrian citizen in 1947.[4] He died in 1950, aged 65, from liver cancer.[10] He is buried in the St. Wolfgang cemetery. His Best Actor Oscar is now on display at the Berlin Filmmuseum.


Jannings was married four times. His first three marriages ended in divorce, his last with his death. His last three marriages were to German stage and film actresses, Hanna Ralph, Lucie Höflich, and Gussy Holl.[7] He had a daughter, Ruth-Maria (born 1920), from his first marriage to Lucy Höfling.[11][12]

Cultural depictions[edit]


Year Title Role Notes
1914 Arme Eva
Im Schützengraben
Passionels Tagebuch
1916 Aus Mangel an Beweisen Dr. Langer
Die Bettlerin von St. Marien Baron Gelsburg
Frau Eva
Im Angesicht des Toten Paul Werner
Life Is a Dream Verführer (the seducer) a.k.a. Das Leben ein Traum (German original title)
A Night of Horror Banker a.k.a. Nächte des Grauens (German original title)
Stein unter Steinen
1917 Das fidele Gefängnis [de] Quabbe, the jailer The Merry Jail (Europe: English title)
When Four Do the Same Segetoff a.k.a. Wenn vier dasselbe tun (German original title)
Hoheit Radieschen
The Marriage of Luise Rohrbach Wilhelm Rohrbach a.k.a. Die Ehe der Luise Rohrbach (German original title)
Der Zehnte Pavillon der Zitadelle
Das Geschäft S. H. Haßler
The Ring of Giuditta Foscari a.k.a. Der Ring der Giuditta Foscari (German original title)
The Sea Battle a.k.a. Die Seeschlacht (German original title)
1918 The Seeds of Life James Fraenkel, stock exchange broker (Börsenmakler)
John Smith, American engineer (amerikanischer Ingenieur)
a.k.a. Keimendes Leben (German original title)
The Eyes of the Mummy Radu, an Arab Die Augen der Mumie Ma (German original title)
Fuhrmann Henschel
Nach zwanzig Jahren Horst Lundin 'Korn'
1919 Rose Bernd Arthur Streckmann
Madame DuBarry Louis XV a.k.a. Passion
Vendetta Tomasso
The Daughter of Mehemed Vaco Juan Riberda, Fabrikbesitzer a.k.a. Die Tochter des Mehemed (German original title)
The Man of Action Jan Miller a.k.a. Der Mann der Tat (German original title)
1920 Colombine Carlo a.k.a. Die Braut des Apachen (German original title)
Anna Boleyn Henry VIII a.k.a. Deception
The Skull of Pharaoh's Daughter Osorcon, Pharao of Egypt a.k.a. Der Schädel der Pharaonentochter (German original title)
Algol Robert Herne
The Big Light Lorenz Ferleitner a.k.a. Das große Licht (German original title)
Kohlhiesel's Daughters Peter Xaver a.k.a. Kohlhiesels Töchter (German original title)
1921 The Rats Bruno a.k.a. Die Ratten (German original title)
The Oath of Peter Hergatz a.k.a. Der Schwur des Peter Hergatz (German original title)
Danton Georges Danton a.k.a. All for a Woman
The Bull of Olivera General François Guillaume a.k.a. Der Stier von Olivera (German original title)
The Brothers Karamazov Dimitri Karamasoff a.k.a. Die Brüder Karamasoff (German original title)
1922 Peter the Great Peter the Great a.k.a. Peter der Große (German original title)
Othello Othello
The Loves of Pharaoh Pharao Amenes a.k.a. Das Weib des Pharao (German original title)
The Countess of Paris Ombrade a.k.a. Die Gräfin von Paris (German original title)
1923 All for Money S. I. Rupp (USA); a.k.a. Alles für Geld (German original title)
Tragedy of Love Ombrade a.k.a. Tragödie der Liebe (German original title)
1924 The Last Laugh Hotel Porter (USA); a.k.a. Der letzte Mann (German original title)
Husbands or Lovers Husband
Waxworks Harun al-Rashid
Quo Vadis Nero Extant
1925 Variety Boss Huller a.k.a. Jealousy (USA)
Love is Blind Emil Jannings
1926 Tartuffe Tartuffe
Faust – A German Folktale Mephisto Extant
1927 The Way of All Flesh August Schilling Academy Award for Best Actor; Lost film
1928 Sins of the Fathers Wilhelm Spengler excerpts and clips are preserved of this film. Unconfirmed about the total film
The Patriot Czar Paul I Lost film
Street of Sin Basher Bill Lost film
The Last Command Gen. Dolgorucki / Grand Duke Sergius Alexander Academy Award for Best Actor; Extant
1929 Betrayal Poldi Moser
1930 Darling of the Gods Albert Winkelmann a.k.a. Liebling der Götter (German original title)
The Blue Angel Prof. Immanuel Rath US title; a.k.a. Der blaue Engel
1932 Storms of Passion Gustav Bumke German original title; a.k.a. Stürme der Leidenschaft a.k.a. Tempest
1933 Die Abenteuer des Königs Pausole King Pausole a.k.a. The Adventures of King Pausole (English title)
The Merry Monarch
1934 Der Schwarze Walfisch Peter Petersen German original title; a.k.a. The Black Whale (International: English title)
1935 The Old and the Young King Frederick William I of Prussia a.k.a. The Making of a King (USA); Der alte und der junge König (German original title)
1936 The Dreamer Direktor Prof. Niemeyer a.k.a. Traumulus (German original title)
1937 The Broken Jug Adam, Dorfrichter a.k.a. Der zerbrochene Krug (German original title)
The Ruler Matthias Clausen a.k.a. Der Herrscher (German original title)
1939 Robert Koch Robert Koch
Der Trichter. (Nr. III) scenes deleted
1941 Ohm Krüger Paul Kruger a.k.a. Uncle Kruger (International: English title)
1942 Die Entlassung Otto von Bismarck a.k.a. Bismarck's Dismissal (UK)
1943 Altes Herz wird wieder jung [de] Fabrikdirektor Hoffmann
1945 Wo ist Herr Belling? [de] Firmenchef Eberhard Belling a.k.a. Where Is Mr. Belling? (English title)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Winkel, Roel Vande; Welch, D. (7 February 2007). Cinema and the Swastika: The International Expansion of Third Reich Cinema. ISBN 9780230289321.
  2. ^ Roman Rocek: Die neun Leben des Alexander Lernet-Holenia. Eine Biographie. Böhlau, Wien u.a. 1997; ISBN 3-205-98713-6. S. 186
  3. ^ Frank Noack: "Jannings. Der erste deutsche Weltstar". Collection Rolf Heyne, München 2012
  4. ^ a b c "Herr Emil Jannings A Great Film Actor". Obituaries. The Times. No. 51580. London. 4 January 1950. col E, p. 7.
  5. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (3 January 2012). "Susan Orlean: Throw Rin Tin Tin A Bone & Give Back The Pooch's Best Actor Oscar". Deadline Hollywood.
  6. ^ "Walk of Fame Stars-Emil Jannings". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce/Walk of Fame. 25 October 2019.
  7. ^ a b Emil Jannings at IMDb
  8. ^ Welch, David (2001). Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933-1945. I.B.Tauris. p. 117. ISBN 9781860645204.
  9. ^ Marlene (1984)
  10. ^ Chroniknet.de, Obituary for Emil Jannings (2 January 1950), chroniknet.de]; accessed 26 October 2014.
  11. ^ Deutelbaum, Marshall (1952). "Image" on the art and evolution of the film: Photographs and articles from the magazine of the International Museum of Photography. ISBN 9780486237770.
  12. ^ "Billboard". 14 January 1950.

Further reading[edit]

  • Frank Noack: Jannings. Belleville, München 2009 ISBN 978-3-933510-50-1
  • Carl Zuckmayer: Geheimreport. Hrsg. von Gunther Nickel und Johanna Schrön. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-89244-599-0; pp. 136–45
  • Emil Jannings: Theater, Film – Das Leben und ich. Autobiographie. Berchtesgaden: Verlag Zimmer & Herzog, 1951. (posthumous)
  • Herbert Ihering: Emil Jannings: Baumeister seines Lebens und seiner Filme. Heidelberg 1941

External links[edit]