Emil Kapaun

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Emil Kapaun
Emil Kapaun.jpg
Captain Chaplain Emil Joseph Kapaun.
Birth nameEmil Joseph Kapaun
Born(1916-04-20)April 20, 1916
Pilsen, Kansas, United States
DiedMay 23, 1951(1951-05-23) (aged 35)
Pyoktong, North Korea
Resting place
AllegianceUnited States of America
Service/branchSeal of the US Department of the Army.svg United States Army
Years of service1944–1946,[1]
1948–1951[1]
RankUS-O3 insignia.svg Captain
Unit3rd Battalion
8th Cavalry[2]
Battles/warsWorld War II

Korean War  (DOW)

AwardsMedal of Honor
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star Medal with "V" Device
Purple Heart
Combat Infantryman Badge[4]

Emil Joseph Kapaun
Then 2nd Lt. Emil Kapaun, U.S. Army chaplain, circa 1943. (U.S. Army photo) 130404-A-DU775-700.jpg
Fr. Emil Joseph Kapaun, circa 1943.
Priest and Chaplain
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Major shrineSaint John Nepomucene Catholic Church, Pilsen, Kansas, United States
FeastMay 23
AttributesChaplain cross
Combat boots
Mass vestments
Rosary
PatronageMilitary chaplains

Emil Joseph Kapaun (April 20, 1916 – May 23, 1951) was a Roman Catholic priest and United States Army captain who served as a United States Army chaplain during World War II and the Korean War. Kapaun was a chaplain in the Burma Theater of World War II, then served again as a chaplain with the U.S. Army in Korea, where he was captured. He died in a prisoner of war camp.

In 1993, Pope John Paul II declared him a Servant of God, the first stage on the path to canonization.

In 2013, Kapaun posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his actions in Korea. He is the ninth American military chaplain Medal of Honor recipient.

The Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA) announced Kapaun's body was accounted for on March 2, 2021.[5]

Early life[edit]

Emil Joseph Kapaun was born on April 20, 1916, and grew up on a farm 3 miles (4.8 km) southwest of Pilsen, Kansas, on rural 260th Street of Marion County.[3][6] His parents, Enos and Elizabeth (Hajek) Kapaun, were immigrants from Austria-Hungary.[7] He graduated from Pilsen High School in May 1930.[8] Kapaun also graduated from Conception Abbey seminary college (College of New Engleberg; Conception Seminary College) in Conception, Missouri, in June 1936 and Kenrick Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1940.

Priesthood[edit]

On June 9, 1940, Kapaun was ordained a Catholic priest of the Diocese of Wichita at what is now Newman University in Wichita, Kansas.[6] He celebrated his first Mass at St. John Nepomucene Catholic Church in Pilsen, Kansas. In January 1943, Kapaun was appointed auxiliary chaplain at the Herington Army Airfield near Herington, Kansas.[6] In December 1943, Kapaun was appointed pastor.

U.S. Army service[edit]

World War II[edit]

Kapaun entered the U.S. Army Chaplain School at Ft. Devens, Massachusetts in August 1944, and after graduating in October began his military chaplaincy at Camp Wheeler, Georgia. He and one other chaplain ministered to approximately 19,000 servicemen and women.[8] He was sent to India and served in the Burma Theater from April 1945 to May 1946.[6] He ministered to U.S. soldiers and local missions, sometimes traversing nearly 2,000 miles (3,200 km) a month by jeep or airplane.[9] He was promoted to captain in January 1946.[6] He was released from active duty in July 1946. Under the G.I. Bill, he earned a Master of Arts degree in Education at Catholic University of America in February 1948.[10][11] In September 1948, he returned to active duty in the U.S. Army and resumed his chaplaincy at Fort Bliss near El Paso, Texas. In December 1949, Kapaun left his parents and Pilsen for the last time, bound for Japan.[6]

Occupation of Japan[edit]

In January 1950, Kapaun became a chaplain in the 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, often performing battle drills near Mount Fuji, Japan.[9] On July 15, 1950, the 1st Cavalry Division and Kapaun embarked and left Tokyo Bay sailing for Korea, less than a month after North Korea had invaded South Korea.[8]

Father Emil Kapaun celebrating Mass using the hood of a jeep as his altar, October 7, 1950

Korean War[edit]

1st Cavalry Division[edit]

The 1st Cavalry Division made the first amphibious landing in the Korean War on July 18, 1950. The Division was soon moved up to help slow the North Korean Korean People's Army (KPA)'s advance until more reinforcements could arrive. The Division engaged in several skirmishes with the KPA but had to retreat each time. Kapaun and his assistant learned of a wounded soldier stranded by enemy machine gun and small arms fire during one of these retreats. Knowing that no litter bearers were available, the two braved the enemy fire and saved the man's life, for which Kapaun was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with a "V" device for valor.

The KPA continued to push the U.S. forces back into a perimeter around the port city of Pusan. Kapaun continued to make the rounds to encourage and pray with the troops of the 8th Regiment.[12] His main complaint was lack of sleep for several weeks at a time.[8] Finally, in mid-September and after the landing at Inchon, Kapaun and the rest of the United Nations Command forces broke out of the perimeter and pursued the KPA northward. On October 9, the division crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea, capturing the capital of Pyongyang and advancing to within 50 miles (80 km) of the Chinese border.

Throughout the months of fighting, Kapaun gained a reputation for bravely serving the troops, rescuing the wounded and dead, and ministering to the living by performing baptisms, hearing confessions, offering Holy Communion and celebrating Mass on an improvised altar set up on the front end of a Jeep. Several times his Mass kit Jeep and trailer were destroyed by enemy fire. In letters home, he shared that he was thoroughly convinced that others' prayers helped him survive.

POW[edit]

The United Nations forces progressed northward but were met by a surprise intervention by the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA). The first engagement with this new enemy took place at the Battle of Unsan near Unsan, North Korea, on November 1–2, 1950.[13][14] Nearly 20,000 PVA soldiers attacked Kapaun's 8th Cavalry Regiment. Despite pleas for him to escape, he stayed behind with the 800 men of the 3rd Battalion as the rest of the regiment retreated. During the battle, he braved enemy fire and rescued nearly 40 men, for which he was later awarded the Medal of Honor. The Chinese continued to overwhelm the American troops. He and other members of the 3rd Battalion taken prisoner was marched 87 miles (140 km) to a temporary prison camp at Sombakol near the permanent camp (Prison Camp 5) at Pyoktong, North Korea, where they were later held.[15] Kapaun was able to persuade some prisoners, who had ignored orders from officers, to carry the wounded.[15][16]

Life in the prison camp was challenging, with sometimes up to 2 dozen men dying a day from malnutrition, disease, lice, and extreme cold. Kapaun refused to give in to despair and spent himself entirely for his men. He dug latrines, mediated disputes, gave away his food and raised morale among the prisoners.[17][18] He was noted among his fellow POWs as one who would steal food for the men to eat. He also stood up to communist indoctrination, smuggled dysentery drugs to the doctor, Sidney Esensten, and led the men in prayer.[19]

Death and burial[edit]

Kapaun developed a blood clot in one of his legs besides having dysentery and pneumonia.[20] Weakened as the months passed, he managed to lead Easter sunrise service on Sunday, March 25, 1951.[21]

He was so weak that the prison guards took him to a place in the Pyoktong camp they called the "hospital," where he died of malnutrition and pneumonia on May 23, 1951. Kapaun was buried in a mass grave near the Yalu River.[8]

He was one of twelve chaplains to die in Korea. Four U.S. Army chaplains were taken prisoner in 1950, all of whom died while in captivity.[22]

He was posthumously awarded the Legion of Merit by the U.S. Army for exceptionally meritorious conduct as a prisoner of war, as well as the Purple Heart.

As part of the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement, Kapaun’s remains were among the 1,868 who were returned to U.S. custody in Operation Glory, but they were not able to be identified. His remains were buried at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific (NMCP) in Honolulu, Hawaii, around 1956. His remains were disinterred and identified as part of Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency’s Korean War Disinterment Project, a seven-phase plan begun in 2018, to disinter all remaining Korean War Unknowns from the NMCP.[23][24]

On March 4, 2021, U.S. Senator Jerry Moran and the Catholic Diocese of Wichita confirmed that the remains of Father Emil Kapaun had been identified.[25]

Awards and decorations[edit]

Bluebird-colored ribbon with five white stars in the form of an "M".
Width-44 crimson ribbon with a pair of width-2 white stripes on the edges
V
Width-44 scarlet ribbon with width-4 ultramarine blue stripe at center, surrounded by width-1 white stripes. Width-1 white stripes are at the edges.
Width-44 purple ribbon with width-4 white stripes on the borders
Bronze star
Width-44 yellow ribbon with central width-4 Old Glory blue-white-scarlet stripe. At distance 6 from the edges are width-6 white-scarlet-white stripes.

Width=44 scarlet ribbon with a central width-4 golden yellow stripe, flanked by pairs of width-1 scarlet, white, Old Glory blue, and white stripes
Bronze star
Bronze star

Kapaun's Distinguished Service Cross was upgraded by the U.S. Army to the Medal of Honor on April 11, 2013. He was awarded the Legion of Merit for his actions as a POW. Kapaun was awarded the following U.S and foreign military awards:[26][27][28]

Bronze Star Medal[edit]

Kapaun was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with "V" Device on September 2, 1950, for his actions on August 2, 1950:[33]

HEADQUARTERS 1ST CAVALRY DIVISION
2 SEPTEMBER 1950

AWARD OF THE BRONZE STAR MEDAL – By direction of the President under the provisions of Executive Order 9419, and pursuant to the authority contained in AR-600-45, the Bronze Star Medal with "V" Device for heroic achievement in connection with military operations against an enemy of the United States is awarded the following named officer:

CHAPLAIN (CAPTAIN) EMIL J. KAPAUN 0558217, CHAPLAIN CORPS, UNITED STATES ARMY, a member of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Regiment, displayed heroism in action against the enemy near Kumchung, Korea on August 2, 1950. Chaplain KAPAUN received information that there was a wounded man in an exposed position on the left flank of the first battalion that could not be removed as there were no litter bearers available. Chaplain KAPAUN, together with another officer, immediately proceeded to the front lines, where he contacted the Battalion Commander in order to obtain the approximate location of the wounded man. With total disregard for personal safety, Chaplain KAPAUN and his companion went after the wounded man. The entire route to the wounded soldier was under intense enemy machinegun and small arms fire. However, Chaplain KAPAUN successfully evacuated the soldier, thereby saving the soldier. This heroic action on the part of Chaplain KAPAUN reflects great credit on himself and the military.

BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL GAY

Medal of Honor[edit]

Medal of Honor

On August 18, 1951, he was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary action on November 1–2, 1950.[34] However, his fellow soldiers and POWs felt that Kapaun deserved the Medal of Honor. In 2001, U.S. Representative Todd Tiahrt began a campaign to award the Medal of Honor to Kapaun.[35] Before leaving office on September 16, 2009, Secretary of the Army Pete Geren sent Tiahrt a letter, agreeing that Kapaun was worthy of the honor. Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, also agreed.

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (Senate Bill 1867, Section 586) contained an authorization and a request to the President to upgrade Kapaun's Distinguished Service Cross to the Medal of Honor for acts of bravery during the Battle of Unsan on November 1–2, 1950, and while a prisoner of war until his death on May 23, 1951.[36] President Obama presented the medal awarded on behalf of Kapaun to Kapaun's nephew at the White House on April 11, 2013.[37][38]

His Medal of Honor citation reads:[39]

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, March 3, 1863, has awarded in the name of Congress the MEDAL OF HONOR to

CHAPLAIN (CAPTAIN) EMIL. J, KAPAUN
UNITED STATES ARMY

for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Chaplain Emil J. KAPAUN distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy at Unsan, Korea, from November 1–2, 1950. On November 1, as Chinese Communist Forces viciously attacked friendly elements, Chaplain KAPAUN calmly walked through withering enemy fire in order to provide comfort and medical aid to his comrades and rescue friendly wounded from no-man's land. Though the Americans successfully repelled the assault, they found themselves surrounded by the enemy. Facing annihilation, the able-bodied men were ordered to evacuate. However, Chaplain KAPAUN, fully aware of his certain capture, elected to stay behind with the wounded. After the enemy succeeded in breaking through the defense in the early morning hours of November 2, Chaplain KAPAUN continually made rounds, as hand-to-hand combat ensued. As Chinese Communist Forces approached the American position, Chaplain KAPAUN noticed an injured Chinese officer among the wounded and convinced him to negotiate the safe surrender of the American Forces. Shortly after his capture, Chaplain KAPAUN, with complete disregard for his personal safety and unwavering resolve, bravely pushed aside an enemy soldier preparing to execute Sergeant First Class Herbert A. Miller. Not only did Chaplain KAPAUN'S gallantry save the life of Sergeant Miller, but also his unparalleled courage and leadership inspired all those present, including those who might have otherwise fled in panic, to remain and fight the enemy until captured. Chaplain KAPAUN'S extraordinary heroism and selflessness, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, the 1st Cavalry Division, and the United States Army.

Barack Obama

Cause of beatification and canonization[edit]

The following is a general narrative from the many reports of Kapaun's ordeal as a prisoner of war given by many repatriated American soldiers after their release from prison camps. He was most remembered for his great humility, bravery, constancy, love, kindness, and solicitude for his fellow prisoners. "He was their hero... their admired and beloved "padre." He kept up the POWs' morale, and most of all, helped a lot of men to become good Catholics."[8]

Reports received noted that Kapaun's feet had become badly frozen, but he continued to administer to the sick and wounded. He continuously went out under heavy mortar and shelling to rescue wounded and dying soldiers, risking capture or death.[8]

Many accounts have been given of the many creature comforts he provided his comrades of the 8th Cavalry Regiment during imprisonment. They were both spiritual and physical. He provided endless hours of prayer and what nourishment he could find to all he could to keep them from starving to death.[8]

A detailed account of Kapaun's life is recounted in Arthur Tonne's Chaplain Kapaun: Patriot Priest of the Korean Conflict:

In a very definite sense, we are all beneficiaries from the life of Fr. Kapaun. He has left us a stirring example of devotion to duty. He has passed on to us a spirit of tolerance and understanding. He has given us a share of dauntless bravery – of body and soul. He has transmitted to every one of us a new appreciation of America and a keener, more realistic understanding of our country's greatest enemy – godlessness, now stalking the world in the form of communism. He has bequeathed a picture of Christ-like life. What Fr. Kapaun willed to us cannot be contained in memorials, however costly or beautiful. It is a treasure for the human soul – the spirit of one who loved and served God and man – even unto death.

When Kapaun was assigned to the 8th Cavalry Regiment, which was surrounded and overrun by the Chinese army in North Korea in October and November 1950, he stayed behind with the wounded when the Army retreated. He allowed his capture, then risked death by preventing Chinese executions of wounded Americans too injured to walk.[40] Following his death, as Kapaun's actions became known, Catholic faithful began to offer devotional prayers to him; these prayers came from U.S. service members, laymen and women across the United States, as well as those in East and Southeast Asia.[21]

In 1993, Kapaun was named a Servant of God by Pope John Paul II, the Vatican's first step toward possible canonization.[6]

On November 9, 2015, the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita in Wichita, Kansas, Carl A. Kemme, presented the positio, a 1,066-page-long report on his life, ministry, virtues, holiness, and other aspects, that must be compiled by the sponsoring diocese, approved by the bishop, and sent to the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in the Roman Curia at the Vatican, Angelo Cardinal Amato, for review. If the Congregation and the Pope approve this report, he will be given the title Servant of God. If they determine that he lived a life of virtue, he can also be called Venerable. If the Pope then grants a declaration of martyrdom or approves a miracle posthumously attributed to Kapaun, he can be beatified.[41]

A team of six historians gathered on June 21, 2016, and voiced their approval of the cause.[42]

Possible 2006 miracle[edit]

In 2006, Avery Gerleman, who had an auto-immune disorder, entered into an 87-day coma due after multiple organs were damaged. Her parents and others prayed for Kapaun's intercession, and she recovered. Later scans of her damaged lungs and kidneys showed no signs of scarring.[43] Avery went on to become physically active, become a licensed practical nurse at Wichita Area Technical College, and plans on becoming a registered nurse.[44]

Possible 2008 miracle[edit]

On June 29, 2008, the opening ceremony which officially opens the cause for sainthood for Kapaun was made on Father Kapaun Day, held at St. John Nepomucene Catholic Church in Pilsen, Kansas.[45]

On June 26, 2009, Dr. Andrea Ambrosi, the Roman Postulator for Kapaun's cause for canonization, arrived in Wichita to interview doctors about alleged miraculous events.

Among these is the claim of 20-year-old Chase Kear, who survived a severe head injury last year, in part, he and his family claim, because they petitioned Fr. Emil Kapaun to intercede for them.[13][46] Kear, a member of the Hutchinson Community College track team, fell on his head during pole vaulting practice in October 2008, but, it is said, was miraculously healed despite being near death.[46] The Rev. John Hotze, the judicial vicar for the Diocese of Wichita, and trained in canon law, will assist in investigating Kear's case.[6]

Hotze has spent eight years investigating the proposed sainthood of Kapaun. The Catholic Church has considered canonizing Kapaun ever since soldiers were liberated from Korean prisoner-of-war camps in 1953 and told of Kapaun's heroism and faith.[47] The Wichita Diocese has continued to receive reports of miracles involving Kapaun. He is being considered for possible designation as a martyr.[21][46]

Possible 2011 miracle[edit]

On May 7, 2011, Nick Dellasega collapsed at a Get Busy Living 5K race in Pittsburg, Kansas (honoring the memory of Dylan Meier). Due to a series of coincidences, Dellasega survived, even though he had seemingly died on the scene. His childhood friend, EMT Micah Ehling, is quoted by The Wichita Eagle as saying, "I know what a face looks like when the soul leaves the body. And that's what Nick looked like".[48] Some bystanders attribute Dellasega's survival to the devotion of his cousin, Jonah Dellasega, who fell to his knees at the scene and prayed for Kapaun's intercession. In a strange coincidence not reported by The Eagle, Dylan Meier, in whose memory the 5K was being held, was slated to teach English in Korea at the time of his death.[49]

Skeptics point out that Kapaun's spirit could not possibly have orchestrated the bizarre coincidences that saved Nick's life because some of them were set in motion long before Nick collapsed, including a visit by Nick's uncle, Mark, a medical doctor from Greenville, North Carolina.[48] Divine providence, however, can be viewed as having set in motion all of the events. The Eagle reported, "The coincidences are strange enough and the prayer notable enough that a Catholic Church investigator has reported Nick's story to the Vatican, which happens to have a representative in Wichita again, sizing up Father Emil Kapaun for sainthood."[48]

Memorials[edit]

Knights of Columbus[edit]

  • Chaplain Emil J. Kapaun Knights of Columbus Council #3423 Pilsen, KS
  • Knights of Columbus Council 3744[53]
  • Knights of Columbus Council 11987[54][55][56]
  • Chaplain Emil J. Kapaun Knights of Columbus Council #14218 Fort Riley, KS
  • Emil Kapaun Knights of Columbus Fourth Degree Assembly #2721; Katy, Texas.
  • FR. EMIL J. KAPAUN ASSEMBLY #3260 VAIL, ARIZONA [Knights of Columbus]

Kapaun's Men[edit]

In 2015 several men came together to form Kapaun's Men, [57] a movement that seeks to continue Father Kapaun's legacy of encouraging men to accompany one another in faith. The group has produced a documentary life of Father Kapaun, several video series, and hosts a weekly podcast called The Foxhole.[58]

TV portrayal[edit]

He was played by James Whitmore in the Crossroads TV episode "The Good Thief", which aired on November 25, 1955.[21][59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Latham Jr., LTC William C. (2012). "Father Emil Kapaun" (PDF). Army. Association of the United States Army. 62 (11): 38–43. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  2. ^ Roy Wenzl (July 29, 2011). "Father Emil Kapaun: Through Death March, Father Kapaun perseveres and inspires". Wichita Eagle. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Nasaw, Daniel (April 16, 2012). "Recognition finally for a warrior priest's heroics". BBC News.
  4. ^ Besides Chaplain Kapaun, there was a CIB awarded to Chaplain Holland Hope and other Chaplains in Korea, and a CIB awarded to Chaplain Claude D Newby (his book about Vietnam, 3/4/2003, states in got a CIB), Vietnam. [1] The Wichita Eagle, April 11, 2013, "The Medal of Honor for Emil J Kapaun", More Information. Retrieved Jan. 22, 2013.
  5. ^ "Chaplain Accounted for from Korean War (Kapaun, E.)".
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Wenzl, Roy (December 6, 2009). "The Miracle of Father Kapaun". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
  7. ^ "Biography for Chaplain (Capt.) Emil Kapaun".
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h "Father emil joseph kapaun". Knights of Columbus. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CBI Saint, Father Emil J. Kapaun
  10. ^ "Father Kapaun's life as a priest". kansas.com. The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  11. ^ "Alumni relations". Catholic University of America. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) 1st Cavalry Division Historical Overview
  13. ^ a b Wenzl, Roy (December 6, 2009). "Part 1: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun: In Korea, Kapaun saves dozens during Chinese attack". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
  14. ^ Wenzl, Roy (December 7, 2009). "Part 2: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun: Through Death March, Father Kapaun perseveres and inspires". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
  15. ^ a b Wenzl, Roy (December 8, 2009). "Part 3: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun: In icy POW camps, Kapaun shares faith, provisions". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
  16. ^ VFW magazine, "Korean War", "Courage Beyond Belief", p. 31
  17. ^ Wenzl, Roy (December 9, 2009). "Part 4: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun: As hundreds die, Kapaun rallies the POWs". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
  18. ^ Father Kapaun Guild (July 10, 2020). "The Story of Father Emil J Kapaun" (PDF). Father Kapaun Guild. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  19. ^ Wenzl, Roy (December 10, 2009). "Part 5: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun: Leads camp prisoners in quiet acts of defiance". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
  20. ^ Wenzl, Roy (December 11, 2009). "Part 6: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun forgives guards, welcomes death". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
  21. ^ a b c d Freedman, Samuel G. (May 30, 2014). "Spiritual and Secular Mix in Case for Sainthood". New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 28, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)"Under Fire: Army Chaplains in Korea, 1950", by Mark Johnson, Branch Historian, US Army Chaplain Corps. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2014
  23. ^ Ruane, Michael E. (March 5, 2021). "Korean War hero priest's remains identified, Pentagon says". The Washington Post.
  24. ^ "Chaplain Accounted For From Korean War (Kapaun, E.)". Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. March 5, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  25. ^ "Remains of Medal of Honor recipient Fr. Emil Kapaun identified". KWCH-DT. March 4, 2021.
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) 1st Cavalry Division ([2]), Korean War Recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross, "One additional award of the DSC was rescinded when the recipient was awarded the Medal of Honor on 11 April 2013, Chaplain (Captain) Emil J Kapaun." Retrieved Jan. 26, 2014.
  27. ^ "Biography for Chaplain (Capt.) Emil Kapaun". News Archive. United States Army. March 8, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013. Gives only a partial list of his awards.
  28. ^ [3] Archived 2014-07-11 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Congressman Mike Pompeo (KS) Site, Emil J Kapaun receives Medal of Honor, Other Awards:.... Purple Heart, CIB,... Retrieved Jan. 22, 2014
  29. ^ a b "Emil Joseph Kapaun". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  30. ^ FM 7-21.13 The Soldier's Guide: The Complete Guide to U.S. Army Traditions, Training, Duties, and Responsibilities. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. 2007. pp. 2–46. ISBN 9781602391642. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
    Jennifer H. Svan (October 15, 2009). "Beloved chaplain recommended for Medal of Honor". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  31. ^ [4] Archived 2014-07-11 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Congressman Mike Pompeo (KS) Site. Fr. Emil Kapaun Receives Medal of Honor. Other Awards... CIB. He is one of the known Chaplains to receive the CIB (for example, Holland Hope, Korea, and Claude Newby, Vietnam). Retrieved Jan 22, 2014
  32. ^ [5] 1st Cavalry Division Association ([6]), 1st Cavalry Division, Lineage and Honors, Decorations, ROK Presidential Unit Citation, DA GO 35, 1951 (16 August–26 September 1950 [7]). Retrieved Jan.26, 1950
  33. ^ [8] The Story of Chaplain Kapaun by Arthur Tonne, Chapter Sixteen, Military Awards. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2014.
  34. ^ [9] The Story of Chaplain Kapaun by Arthur Tonne, Chapter Sixteen, Military Awards. Retrieved Jan. 22, 2014
  35. ^ Roy Wenzl (October 2, 2009). "Army: Kapaun worthy of Medal of Honor". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
    John Milburn (October 13, 2009). "Army says Kansas Army chaplain Rev. Kapaun worthy of Medal of Honor for service in Korean War". Star Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  36. ^ "SEC. 586. AUTHORIZATION AND REQUEST FOR AWARD OF MEDAL OF HONOR TO EMIL KAPAUN FOR ACTS OF VALOR DURING THE KOREAN WAR". National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2012 (Senate Bill 1867). Library of Congress. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
  37. ^ [10] The White House Blog, President Obama Awards Medal of Honor to Father Emil Kapaun. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2014
  38. ^ Meghann Myers (April 11, 2013). "'Quiet hero' Kapaun receives posthumous Medal of Honor". Army Times. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
    Barbara Goldberg; Ellen Wulfhorst; G Crosse (April 12, 2013). "Medal of Honor for Korean War chaplain who aided fellow POWs". Reuters. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  39. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipient Chaplain (Capt.) Emil J. Kapaun". United States Army. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  40. ^ Wenzl, Roy (June 30, 2009). "Vatican finds evidence of miracle in Kansas case". The Wichita Eagle. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  41. ^ "Wichita bishop brings formal report on war-hero priest to Vatican". November 9, 2015. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  42. ^ "Servant of God Father Emil Kapaun, Military Chaplain, Is Step Closer to Beatification". National Catholic Register. July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  43. ^ Wenzl, Roy (June 27, 2011). "No medical explanation for Wichita girl's recovery, doctors told Vatican". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  44. ^ Wenzl, Roy (December 4, 2016). "Young girl's astonishing recovery being investigated as Kapaun miracle". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  45. ^ "Father Kapaun". Frkapaun.org. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  46. ^ a b c "Vatican sends investigator for Kapaun sainthood". TheKansan.com. Associated Press. June 22, 2009. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011.
  47. ^ Wenzl, Roy (December 12, 2009). "Part 7: The Miracle of Father Kapaun. Father Emil Kapaun: POWs call him 'a hero and a saint'". The Wichita Eagle. Kansas.com.
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Further reading[edit]

  • The Miracle of Father Kapaun: Priest, Soldier, and Korean War Hero; Wenzl and Heying; Ignatius Press; 200 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1586177799.
  • A Saint Among Us: Remembering Father Emil J. Kapaun; Father Kapaun Guild; 168 pages; 2005; ISBN 978-0976846604.
  • A Shepherd in Combat Boots: Chaplain Emil Kapaun of the 1st Cavalry Division; William Maher; Burd Street Press; 199 pages; 1997; ISBN 978-1572493056.
  • The story of Chaplain Kapaun: Patriot Priest of the Korean conflict; Arthur Tonne; Didde Publishers; 255 pages; 1954; ISBN 978-0974068107. Online transcription

External links[edit]