Emilio Aguinaldo

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"El Presidente"
"His Excellency"
"General of the Revolution"

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1898).jpg
1st President of the Philippines
President of the First Republic
President of the Supreme Government
President of Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Dictator of Dictatorial government
President of the Revolutionary Government
In office
January 23, 1899[a] – April 1, 1901[b]
Prime Minister
Vice President Mariano Trias (1897)
Preceded by Katipunan
Andres Bonifacio
(As supreme leader of the Katipunan)
Succeeded by Office nullified
Manuel Quezon
(As president of the Commonwealth)
Personal details
Born (1869-03-23)March 23, 1869
Cavite El Viejo, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Died February 6, 1964(1964-02-06) (aged 94)
Quezon City, Philippines
Resting place Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite, Philippines
Political party Katipunan
National Socialist Party
  • Carmen Aguinaldo Melencio
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr
  • Maria Aguinaldo Poblete
  • Cristina Aguinaldo Suntay
  • Miguel Aguinaldo
Alma mater Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Profession Politician
Religion Philippine Independent Church
formerly Roman Catholicism
Awards PHL Legion of Honor - Chief Commander BAR.png
Philippine Legion of Honor
PHL Quezon Service Cross BAR.png
Quezon Service Cross
Military service
Allegiance  First Philippine Republic
Flag of the Tagalog people.svg Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Philippine revolution flag kkk1.svg Katipunan (Magdalo Faction)
Service/branch Philippine Army Seal 1897.jpgPhilippine Revolutionary Army
Years of service 1894–1901
Rank Ministro.jpg Generalissimo
Battles/wars Philippine Revolution
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo QSC PLH[c] (March 23, 1869[d] – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino revolutionary and politician who is officially recognized as the First President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1897), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901). He was captured by American forces in 1901, which brought an end to his presidency.

In 1935 Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was later freed in a general amnesty.

Early life and career[edit]

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo was born on March 23, 1869[d] in Cavite el Viejo (present-day Kawit), in Cavite (province), to Carlos Jamir Aguinaldo and Trinidad Family,[c] a Tagalog Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as his father, Carlos Aguinaldo was the community's appointed gobernadorcillo (municipal governor) in the Spanish colonial administration. He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasn't able to finish his studies due to outbreak of cholera.

Emilio became the "Cabeza de Barangay" of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite el Viejo, when he was only 17 years old to avoid conscription.

In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted. At the age of 25 Aguinaldo became Cavite Viejo's first "gobernadorcillo capitan municipal" (Municipal Governor-Captain) while on a business trip in Mindoro.

Personal life[edit]

On January 1, 1896, he married Hilaria del Rosario (1877–1921). They had five children: Carmen Aguinaldo Melencio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr, Maria Aguinaldo Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo Suntay and Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on March 6, 1921 at the age of 44. Nine years later, on July 14, 1930, Aguinaldo married Maria Agoncillo (February 15, 1879 – May 29, 1963) at Barasoain Church. She died on May 29, 1963 at the age of 82, a year before Aguinaldo himself.

Revolutionary and political career[edit]

Philippine Revolution[edit]

Main article: Philippine Revolution
The flag of the Katipunan

In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the "Katipunan", a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force.[11](p77) Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene.[12](p179) His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, was called Sanguniang Magdalo.[13]

On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite by the codename "Colon". He would later say:

"The Successful Revolution of 1896 was masonically inspired, masonically led, and masonically executed, and I venture to say that the first Philippine Republic of which I was its humble President, was an achievement we owe largely, to Masonry and the Masons."[14]

The Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila).[12](p176) However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive alleging lack of arms. Their absence contributed to the defeat of Katipunan leader Andres Bonifacio's there.[13] While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.[13]

On February 17, 1897 Aguinaldo and a group of katipuneros defeated Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Cavite. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution's hotbed, and the Aguinaldo-led katipuneros had a string of victories there.[citation needed]

Tejeros Convention and execution of Bonifacio[edit]

Main article: Tejeros Convention

Conflict between the two Katipunan factions—the Magdalo and Magdiwang—led to Bonifacio's intervention in the province of Cavite.[12](pp178–182) The Cavite rebels then made overtures about establishing a revolutionary government in place of the Katipunan.[12](p182) Though Bonifacio already considered the Katipunan to be a government, he acquiesced and presided over a convention held on March 22, 1897 in Tejeros, Cavite. There the republic of the Philippines was proclaimed, with Aguinaldo being elected president. Bonifacio was elected Director of the Interior but, after Daniel Tirona questioned his qualifications for that position, became angered and declared "I, as chairman of this assembly, and as President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, as all of you do not deny, declare this assembly dissolved, and I annul all that has been approved and resolved."[12](p178)

Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and attempted to reassert his authority, accusing the Aguinaldo faction of treason and by issuing orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction.[12](p188) At Aguinaldo's orders, Bonifacio and his brothers were arrested and, in a mock trial lasting one day, convicted of treason, and sentenced to death.[12](pp189–190) After some vacillation, Aguinaldo initially commuted the death sentence. Andrés and Procopio were executed by firing squad on May 10, 1897 at Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.[15](p249)

Biak-na-Bato and exile[edit]

On the same day as the execution of the Bonifacio brothers, the Spanish army launched an attack which forced insurgent forces under Aguinaldo into a general retreat.[15](pp249–250) On June 24, 1897 Aguinaldo arrived at Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel, Bulacan, and established a headquarters there, located in Biak-na-Bato National Park in what is now known as Aguinaldo Cave. In late October 1897, Aguinaldo convened an assembly of generals at Biak-na Bato, where it was decided to establish a constitutional republic. A constitution patterned closely after the Cuban Constitution was drawn up by Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer. The constitution provided for the creation of a Supreme Council composed of a president, a vice president, a Secretary of War, and a Secretary of the Treasury. Aguinaldo was named president.[12](p183–184)

Emilio Aguinaldo with the exiled revolutionaries in Hong Kong.

From March 1897, Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella, the Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines, had been encouraging prominent Filipinos to contact Aguinaldo for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. On August 9, Manila lawyer Pedro Paterno met with Aguinaldo at Biak-na-Bato with a proposal for peace based on reforms and amnesty. In succeeding months, Paterno conducted shuttle diplomacy, acting as an intermediary between de Rivera and Aguinaldo. On December 14–15, 1897 Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, under which Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and "$800,000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the amount) as an indemnity.[15](p252)[16][e] The documents were signed on December 14–15, 1897. On December 23, Aguinaldo and other insurgent officials departed for Hong Kong to enter voluntary exile. $400,000, representing the first installment of the indemnity, was deposited into Hong Kong banks. While in exile, Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the so-called "Hong Kong Junta" and enlarging it into the "Supreme Council of the Nation".[15](p253)

Return to the Philippines and Philippine Declaration of Independence[edit]

On April 25, the Spanish–American War began. While the war mostly focused on Cuba, the United States Navy's Asiatic Squadron was in Hong Kong, and commanded by Commodore George Dewey, it sailed for the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, in the Battle of Manila Bay, the squadron engaged and destroyed the Spanish navy's Pacific Squadron and proceeded to blockade Manila.[15](pp255–256) Several days later, Dewey agreed to transport Aguinaldo from Hong Kong to the Philippines aboard the USS McCulloch, which left Hong Kong with Aguinaldo on 16 May. arriving in Cavite on 19 May.[18] Aguinaldo promptly resumed command of revolutionary forces and besieged Manila.[15](pp256–257)

On May 24, 1898 in Cavite, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator.[19]

On June 12 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain and on June 18, he issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government.[3](p10)

On June 23, Aguinaldo issued a decree replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary government, with himself as President.[3](p35)[11]:Appendix C

First Philippine President[edit]

Emilio Aguinaldo as a Field marshal during the battle.
Emilio Aguinaldo monument at Barasoain Church

The First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan and endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic. Aguinaldo appointed two Prime Ministers of the Philippines in his tenure, Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. He had two cabinets in the year 1899. Thereafter, the military situation resulted in his ruling by decree.

Philippine–American War[edit]

Aguinaldo boarding USS Vicksburg following his capture in 1901

On August 12, 1898, American forces captured Manila during the Battle of Manila and on August 14, 1898 established the United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands, with Major General Wesley Merritt as the first American Military Governor.[17](pp110–112) On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine–American War, and precipitated the 1899 Battle of Manila between American and Filipino forces. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and Aguinaldo's government had to move from one place to another as the military situation developed.[15](pp268–270, 273–274) Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans, then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail.

On March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was captured at his headquarters in Palanan, Isabela.[20]:507–509 On April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines.[15](pp274–275) After Aguinaldo's surrender, some Filipino commanders continued the revolution. On July 30, 1901 General Miguel Malvar issued a manifesto saying, "Forward, without ever turning back... All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests!"[15](p275) General Malvar surrendered to U.S forces in Lipa, Batangas on April 16, 1902. The war was formally ended by a unilateral proclamation of general amnesty by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt on July 4, 1902.[21]


American era[edit]

President Emilio Aguinaldo and Obispo Máximo Gregorio Aglipay, with some Cabinet officials of the First Philippine Republic, December 1904.
Aguinaldo and Quezon during Flag Day, 1935.

During the American period, Aguinaldo supported groups that advocated immediate independence and helped veterans of the struggle. He organized the Asociación de los Veteranos de la Revolución (Association of Veterans of the Revolution), which worked to secure pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government.

The display of the Philippine flag was declared illegal by the Sedition Act of 1907. This law was repealed on October 30, 1919.[22] Following this, Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag, the revolution and the Declaration of Independence. As of 2015, his home still stands and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine.

Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president in the Philippine presidential election, 1935, but lost by a landslide to Manuel L. Quezon.[f] The two men formally reconciled in 1941, when President Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence.[22]

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II, Aguinaldo cooperated with the Japanese, making speeches, issuing articles and radio addresses in support of the Japanese — including a radio appeal to Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Corregidor to surrender in order to "spare the innocence of the Filipino youth."[23][24](p285) He explained his action by saying, "I was just remembering the fight I led. We were outnumbered, too, in constant retreat. I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events. To me that seemed to be what was happening on Bataan, and it seemed like a good thing to stop."[citation needed] After the combined American and Filipino troops retook the Philippines, Aguinaldo was arrested along with several others accused of collaboration with the Japanese, and jailed for some months in Bilibid prison.[25] He was released by presidential amnesty.[26](p2)

Aguinaldo was 77 when the United States Government recognized Philippine independence in the Treaty of Manila, in accordance with the Tydings–McDuffie Act of 1934.[27]

Post-American era[edit]

In 1950, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Philippine Council of State, where he served a full term. He returned to retirement soon after, dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers' "interests and welfare".

He was made an honorary Doctor of Laws, Honoris Causa, by the University of the Philippines in 1953.

In 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12.[g] Although in poor health by this time, Aguinaldo attended that year's Independence Day observances.[32]

Death and legacy[edit]

Tomb of Aguinaldo in Kawit.
The Philippine 5 peso bill depicting Aguinaldo.

Aguinaldo was rushed to Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City on October 5, 1962, under the care of Dra. Juana Blanco Fernandez, MD, where he stayed there for 469 days until he died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on February 6, 1964.[8] A year before his death, he donated his lot and mansion to the government. This property now serves as a shrine to "perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896".[5]

In 1964, his book was published entitled "Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan". A second publication was made in 1998 during the 100th year anniversary of Philippine Independence.

In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas issued a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front. The back features the declaration of the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. Printing was discontinued in 1995, when it was replaced with a ₱5.00 coin whose obverse features a portrait of Aguinaldo.

Media portrayal[edit]

  • Portrayed by Raymond Alsona in the 1992 film, Bayani.
  • Portrayed by Joel Torre in the 1997 film, Tirad Pass: The Story of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar.
  • Portrayed by Johnny Solomon in the 2008 film, Baler.
  • Portrayed by Lance Raymundo in the 2010 film, Ang Paglilitis ni Andres Bonifacio.
  • Portrayed by Jericho Ejercito and E.R. Ejercito in the 2012 film, El Presidente.
  • Portrayed by Nico Antonio in the 2013 TV series, Katipunan.
  • Portrayed by Jun Nayra in the 2014 film, Bonifacio: Ang Unang Pangulo.
  • Portrayed by Mon Confiado in the 2015 film, Heneral Luna.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ January 23, 1899 was the date of Aguinaldo's inauguration as Second President of the Second Philippine Republic. Previously, he held positions as President of a Revolutionary Government from March 22, 1897 to November 1, 1897, President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic from November 2, 1897 to December 15, 1897, Head of a Dictatorial Government from May 24, 1898 to June 22, 1898, and President of another Revolutionary Government from June 23, 1898 to January 22, 1897.[1]
  2. ^ April 1, 1901 was the date of Aguinaldo's capture by American forces.[2]
  3. ^ a b In the Philippine "Declaration of Independence" his matronymic is given as Fami.[3](p185 Appendix A)[4]
  4. ^ a b Most sources, including the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, support a March 23 birthdate.[5][6](p6)[7](p129)[8] Some sources give other dates.[9][10]
  5. ^ The Mexican dollar at the time was worth about 50 U.S. cents[17](p126)
  6. ^ Quezon took 67.99% of the popular vote; Aguinaldo 17.54%
  7. ^ On May 12, 1962, President Macapagal signed "Presidential Proclamation No. 28, Declaring 12 June as Philippine Independence Day".[28] There is no doubt that President Macapagal intended the proclamation to have that effect[29] and sources commonly assert this as fact,[30] however the operative paragraph of the proclamation declares a single day, "Tuesday, 12 June 1962, as a special public holiday throughout the Philippines ...". On August 4, 1964, Republic Act No. 4166 proclaimed the twelfth day of June as the Philippine Independence Day and renamed the Fourth of July holiday to "Philippine Republic Day".[31]


  1. ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". Presidential Museum and Library. 
  2. ^ "First Philippine President Emilio F. Aguinaldo 46th Death Anniversary". Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. February 5, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Guevara, Sulpicio, ed. (1972) [1898]. The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898–1899. English translation by Sulpicio Guevara. Manila: National Historical Commission. ISBN 9715380557. OCLC 715140. 
  4. ^ KARNOW, Stanley. "Emilio Aguinaldo". In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. Random House (1989). ISBN 978-0-394-54975-0.
  5. ^ a b "EMILIO F. AGUINALDO (1869–1964)" (PDF). nhi.gov.ph. 
  6. ^ DYAL, Donald H; CARPENTER, Brian B & THOMAS, Mark A (1996). [extract Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War] Check |url= scheme (help) (Digital library). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-28852-4. 
  7. ^ OOI, Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor (3 vols). Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576077702. OCLC 646857823. 
  8. ^ a b The year of birth on his death certificate was incorrectly typed as 1809.
    "Philippines, Civil Registration (Local), 1888-1983," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-27184-32236-46?cc=1410394&wc=9Z7H-JWG:25272501,114827101,25271303,25290201 : accessed May 2, 2014), Metropolitan Manila > Quezon City > Death certificates > 1964; citing National Census and Statistics Office, Manila.
  9. ^ "Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964)". aboutph.com. 
  10. ^ TUROT, Henri (1900). Les hommes de révolution Aguinaldo et les Philippins [Emilio Aguinaldo, first Filipino president, 1898–1901] (in French). préface par Jean Jaures; translated by Mitchell Abidor. Paris: Librairie Léopold Cerf. ISBN 978-1146599917. OCLC 838009722. 
  11. ^ a b KALAW, Maximo Manguiat (1926). The Development of Philippine Politics, 1872–1920. Manila: Oriental Commercial Co. OCLC 723615963. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Agoncillo, Teodoro Andal (1990). History of the Filipino People. Garotech Publishing. ISBN 978-9718711064. 8th edition; 651 pp; 22.2 x 14.4 x 3.4 cm 
  13. ^ a b c GUERRERO, Milagros; SCHUMACHER SJ, John (1998). DALISAY, Jose Y, ed. Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People. 5 Reform and Revolution. Project Director: Teresa Maria CUSTODIO. Manila / Pleasantville NY: Asia Publishing Company, Limited (Reader's Digest). ISBN 9622582281. OCLC 39734321. Contents: Vol 1 The Philippine Archipelago; Vol 2 The earliest Filipinos; Vol 3 The Spanish conquest; Vol 4 Life in the colony; Vol 5 Reform and revolution; Vol 6 Under stars and stripes; Vol 7 The Japanese occupation; Vol 8 Up from the ashes; Vol 9 A nation reborn; Vol 10 A timeline of Philippine history. 
  14. ^ Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, "Famous Filipino Masons", The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippines, retrieved November 11, 2013 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i ZAIDE, Sonia M (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing. ISBN 978-9716420715. 2nd edition; 478 pp; 8.4 x 5.8 x 0.7 inches 
  16. ^ AGUINALDO III y FAMILY, Don Emilio, "True Version of the Philippine Revolution", Authorama Public Domain Books, retrieved November 16, 2007  |chapter= ignored (help)
  17. ^ a b HALSTEAD, Murat (1898). "XII. The American Army in Manila. General Emilio Aguinaldo, a traitor of the Philippine Republic, during Spanish-American Regime.". The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico (Project Gutenberg). 
  18. ^ Agoncillo,, Teodor A. (1990). History of the Filipino people ([8th ed.]. ed.). Quezon City: Garotech. p. 157. ISBN 978-9718711064. 
  19. ^ TITHERINGTON, Richard Handfield (1900). A history of the Spanish–American war of 1898. D. Appleton and Company.  (republished by openlibrary.org)(pp357–358)
  20. ^ Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
  21. ^ "GENERAL AMNESTY FOR THE FILIPINOS; Proclamation Issued by the President" (PDF), The New York Times, July 4, 1902, retrieved February 5, 2008 
  22. ^ a b Quezon, Manuel L. III (April 2, 2002). "History of the Philippines Flag". Flags of the World. Retrieved June 6, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". philippine-revolution.110mb.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. 
  24. ^ SCHRODER, William (2004). Cousins of Color. Twenty First Century Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-1-904433-13-2. [unreliable source?]
  25. ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo", Encyclopædia BritannicaOnline, retrieved April 25, 2008 
  26. ^ Fredriksen, John C (2001). America's military adversaries: from colonial times to the present. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-603-3. 
  28. ^ Diosdado Macapagal, Proclamation No. 28 Declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day, Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, retrieved November 11, 2009 
  29. ^ Diosdado Macapagal (2002), "Chapter 4. June 12 as Independence Day", KALAYAAN (PDF), Philippine Information Agency, pp. 12–15, archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2006 
  30. ^ DELMENDO, Sharon (2004). The star-entangled banner: one hundred years of America in the Philippines. University of the Philippines Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-971-542-484-4. 
  32. ^ Virata, Cesar E.A. (June 12, 1998). "Emilio Aguinaldo". Asiaweek. Retrieved October 31, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Aguinaldo, Emilio (1964), Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan 
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984), Philippine History and Government, National Bookstore Printing Press [broken citation]

External links[edit]

Offices and distinctions
Political offices
New title
President of the Philippines
January 23, 1899 – April 1, 1901
Office nullified by the United States by Spain
Title next held by
Manuel L. Quezon