Emilio Carranza

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Emilio Carranza (1927)

Captain Emilio Carranza Rodríguez (December 9, 1905 – July 12, 1928) was a noted Mexican aviator and national hero, nicknamed the "Lindbergh of Mexico". He was killed on the return part of a historic goodwill flight from Mexico City to the United States. He crashed in New Jersey shortly after take-off from New York.

Biography[edit]

Personal Details[edit]

Rodriguez was born in Villa Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, Mexico, on December 9, 1905.[1] His father was Sebastian Carranza who worked at the Mexican consulate in New York. His mother was Maria Dolores Rodriguez Gomez. As a child he lived for some time in San Antonio, El Paso, and Mexico City. He was fluent in English. He attended the Military Academy at Mexico City and graduated in 1924 with honors.[2] He married Maria Luisa Corbala in 1928 four months before taking the flight to the USA.[3] Following his death, He left a wife and unborn child. The child, Emilio Carranza, Jr. was born after his crash. The child died at age 6 of an appendicitis.[4] He was the great-nephew of President Venustiano Carranza of Mexico and his elder second cousin was Mexican aviator Alberto Salinas Carranza, whom he called "uncle."[5] At age 18, he took part against the Yaqui rebellion in Sonora and helped to put down the de la Huerta rebellion.

Aviation Details[edit]

Aviation Records[edit]

He was known to set a number of aviation records. In 1927 he made the first non-stop flight from Mexico City to Juarez (1200 miles).[6] While in Sonora, he crashed and his face had to be reassembled with platinum screws. At age 22, on May 24–25, 1928, he set the record for the third longest non-stop solo flight by flying 1,575 miles (3000 km) from San Diego, California to Mexico City in 18.5 h. His safe arrival completed the longest non-stop flight by a Mexican.[7] He was greeted by Plutarco Calles, then President of Mexico.[8]

US Goodwill Flight[edit]

Washington DC[edit]

In 1928, he became a national hero when he was selected to undertake a goodwill flight from Valbuena Airfield in Mexico City to Washington, D.C. in response to the previous year's flight between the two capitals by Charles Lindbergh. Flying his plane The Mexico Excelsior, a Ryan Brougham similar to the Spirit of St. Louis, Carranza reached Washington, D.C on June 12, 1928, after a forced landing in Mooresville, North Carolina.[1] The reason for the forced landing was fog.[9] The goodwill flight was partially financed by Charles Lindbergh who contributed $1200 to help finance the flight.[10] The American Syrian Federation also contributed financial assistance to pay for the flight.[11] However, the bulk of the money for the good-will flight came from a public collection in Mexico. $25,000 was raised for his trip.[12]

At Bolling Field, he was greeted by Acting Secretary of State Robert Olds, Mexican Ambassador Miguel Tellez, other dignitaries and spectators. The next day, he had lunch with U.S. President Calvin Coolidge whom hosted the aviator at the Pan American Union. According to the New York Times, the two had to have lunch there because The White House larder was empty due to the first family's impending departure for a vacation.[13] While in Washington, he placed a wreath on the tomb of the unknown soldier.[14]

New York[edit]

Flying on to New York, he was escorted by an air squadron from Bolling Field.[15] Carranza landed at Roosevelt Field on Long Island. A crowd of people, 200 soldiers and 12 motorcycle policemen were on hand to greet him; as well as a military band.[16] He was honored in New York City by Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover and New York City mayor Jimmy Walker. Mayor Jimmy Walker gave him the key to the city. Mayor Walker also later invited Carranza to a firemen's ceremony where he requested Carranza do the honor to present medals to the firemen for heroic work.[17] He was honored at a lunch at the Garden City Hotel given byt the Nassau County official Reception Committee.[18] A luncheon was also held at the Bankers Club for Carranza and 200 guests given by the Mexican Chamber of Commerce.[19]

He then flew to West Point where he also reviewed the troops, an honor infrequently given to a visiting official with the rank of just Captain. When at West Point, he presented a picture of the Mexican Military Academy at Chapultepec.[20] Following West Point, he flew to Lowell Massachusetts to dedicate a new field there. He went at the request of Edith Nourse Rogers who was responsible for the lifting of an embargo of aviation products to Mexico. He then returned to New York City.[21]

He was also honored at a reception given by the American Syrian Federation in Brooklyn. At the reception, he was given a wrist watch and a scroll offering good wishes.[22] He was also honored with a luncheon on Governors Island and then that evening was honored at a dance at Hotel McAlpin. Those in attendance at the Luncheon were his father Sebastian Carranza, General Pedro Caloca, Robert Lee Bullard, and Hugh A. Drum among others.[23] Owing to violent weather, he was urged to remain in New York by Charles Lindbergh and others.

Return Flight & Crash[edit]

There is a story that on July 12 Carranza received a telegram from Mexican War Minister Joaquín Amaro ordering his immediate return to Mexico City "or the quality of your manhood will be in doubt." According to the legend, the telegram was found at the crash site in the pocket of the aviator's flight jacket, but the telegram no longer exists. The story's proponents do not cite any primary source that confirms the telegram's existence.[24][25]

Contemporaneous news reports contradict the story. According to the July 13, 1928 New York Times, Carranza departed after receiving a report via telegram from the US Weather Bureau, but it is unclear whether the weather report prompted his departure. Airport officials said he announced a delay so that spectators would leave the field.[26][27][28] There was also an unsubstantiated statement from Senator Thomas Heflin that there was a report of a plot to kill Carranza.[29]

Carranza took off after dark during a break in thunderstorms in the New York region. He reported before taking off that he would fly towards Washington and then steer a compass course from there.[30] While flying over the Pinelands of southern New Jersey amidst thunderstorms, he crashed into the woods. Investigators from Fort Monmouth conducted the accident probe to determine what happened. They were able to determine the engine throttle was closed and the spark lever was in the advanced position. This showed he was attempting to land.[31]

John H. Carr,[32] and his family were out picking huckleberries when they discovered his body and the wreckage the next day. His corpse was wrapped in canvas from the plane's fuselage and taken to a garage behind Willis Jefferson Buzby's General Store in Chatsworth where it was placed in a makeshift coffin.[33][34] His casket, accompanied by United States Army officers, was draped with an American flag from Mount Holly Post 11 and taken to New York City. The flag hangs today in Mexico's School of Aviation.[32] Many personal effects, were looted from the crash site during the investigation. Three days later some metals, rings and clothing were turned into the local police. These items were eventually turned over to the airman's family.[35] The Mexican government rewarded John Carr with $500 for finding and quickly reporting the location of the plane and body.[36]

Authorities initially identified Carranza's body from the Weather Bureau telegram found in his flight jacket pocket, according to news reports.[37][38] Authorities described to reporters the belongings found on his body, but made no reference to a telegram from Minister Amaro. The news reports are contrary to the Amaro telegram story published on the 50th anniversary of the aviator's death, which states that the Minister's telegram was found in Carranza's jacket pocket.

Body Repatriation & Final Resting Place[edit]

United States President Coolidge offered the Battleship Florida to return the body. President Calles, the President of Mexico, declined the offer and the body was returned to Mexico via train transport amid full military honors. The military guard were dispatched from Governors Island.[39] When transferred to the train at Penn Station, the coffin was led by six black horses in a caisson with 10,000 troops marching to a muffled drum beat down Broadway. It was estimated that 200,000 people lined the route to see the coffin draped procession.[40] Every Mexican military offices was ordered to wear crape upon his sword hilt and a black brassard on his arm in honor of Carranza. National flags were flown at half-mast for one week.[41]

He was buried in Dolores Cemetery. 100,000 Mexicans marched in the procession to the cemetery to the Rotunda of Illustrious Persons ("Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres") where he was placed to rest. The rotunda is reserved for national heroes. Military offices linked arms to keep the family viewing space clear. Airplanes flew overhead in honor of his death.[42]

In 1929, Edward T.M. Carr - Superintendent of the Southern Division of the Long Branch Railroad made a good will tour. During the tour, he stopped in Mexico City and delivered a pine tree from the scene of the crash site to Mexico City officials. The tree was planted next to Carranza's grave.[43]

Carranza Memorial[edit]

The Carranza Memorial in Tabernacle, New Jersey

In 1931, a 12 ft (3.6 m) monument in the Wharton State Forest in Tabernacle Township, New Jersey marks the site of his crash 39°46′38.6″N 74°37′56.6″W / 39.777389°N 74.632389°W / 39.777389; -74.632389. The monument, installed with funds donated by Mexican schoolchildren, depicts a falling eagle of Aztec design. Each year in July, on the Saturday nearest the anniversary of his crash (second Saturday in July) at 1:00 p.m. he is honored at the monument site by members of the American Legion Medford post 526 accompanied by an entourage from the Mexican consulates in New York City and Philadelphia.[44]

The donated monolith was created with each side representing a symbol of Carranza and his love of aviation. The monument was funded by the children of Mexico who saved their coins to create this obelisk-looking statue.[4] The stones for the monument were quarried from granite mined near his home[45] and each block represented a different Mexican State.[46]

Constructed in the form of a giant pylon, with squared tapered sided, the image of an Aztec eagle is carved on one side.[32] On the other side, there is an arrow, pointing skyward. Another side has an inscription. It shows some deterioration and some letters in the message are missing. The message states "Messenger of Peace... The (p)eople of Mexico Hope that your high ideal(s) will be rea(l)ized... Homage of the children of Mexico to the aviator captain Emilio Carranza who died tragically on July 13, 1928 in his good will flight".[47] In the final side, there are embedded footprints which represent the famed aviator's final walk on the planet.[46] The Monument was crafted and shipped from Mexico.[48]

Additional Memorials[edit]

A memorial was placed near the spot where Carranza landed in Mooresville, N.C. during his flight to Washington DC. A committee was established to design the memorial.[49]

Carranza Memorial Park[edit]

Following the crash in 1928, a small marker was placed where the aviator's body was found.[50] Following the monument placement in 1931, a park was created to memorialize the aviator in 1933.[51] The park originally comprised 10 acres.[52] However, it was absorbed into Wharton State Forrest. There is a monument sign close to the monument which states "Monument - Captian Emilio Carranza fell to his death while returning to Mexico on a good will flight in 1928. Pennies of Mexican Children"

Introduced June 24, 1999 by Senator Leonard T. Connors, Jr and Diane Allen Senate bill No. 2025 establishes the "Emilio Carranza Memorial Commission"; it additionally appropriates $95,000. The focus of the bill was to primarily provide for the restoration and maintenance of the Emilio Carranza memorial monument.[53]

July 8, 2005, the memorial which was vandalized was restored. Two men were charged in connection to the monument vandalization which was spray-painted in May 2005 with "white power" and "Die all Wetbacks". There was also a swastika. The work was performed by T. Scott Kreilick, whose Pennsylvania-based conservation company have also restored headstones at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and New York City's botanical garden.[54]

In 2007, documentary filmmaker Robert A. Emmons Jr. completed and premiered a feature-length documentary detailing the life of Emilio Carranza and the role of the American Legion Post 11 and the town of Chatsworth, NJ's involvement in his recovery and memorial.

In April 2009, J&J Video Producers of Chicago premiered their documentary film titled "FLYING WITH EMILIO". The documentary details the life of Emilio Carranza and the continued role of the American Legion Post 11 of Mount Holly, NJ's involvement in his recovery and their annual Memorial Service.[55]

On July 11, 2015, the 87th annual Tribute was attended by Commander of the Mexican Air Force, Lt. Gen. Carlos Antonio Rodriguez-Munguia and Maj. Gen. Victor Aguirre-Serna who presented a wreath. A portrait and model of his airplane were on display during the ceremony.[56]

Stamps Issued[edit]

In July 1929, Mexico issued stamps to commemorate Emilio Carranza's Good Will Flight on the first anniversary of his death. A 20c brown and blue black 50c brown red & blue black, a 1p blue black & brown, a 5c olive green & black, a 10c black & brown red, a 15c violet & dark green.[57]

In July 1947, to mark the twentieth anniversary, Mexico issued a 10 pesos stamp honoring Emilio Carranza's Good Will Flight.

In August 1978, Mexico marked the 50th anniversary of Elilio Carranza death with the release of an Air Mail stamp.[58]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bob Barney. "The Story of Captain Emilio Carranza Rodriguez - The Martyr Aviator of Mexico (English) American Legion Post 11 Honors Emilio Carranza Mexican Aviator Crash Site Monument Tabernacle New Jersey". Post11.org. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  2. ^ Rosa Mercedes Pujols and Leticia Roa Nixon, The Mexican Lindbergh: Captain Emilio Carranza Rodríguez, Page 3, 2011
  3. ^ "Veteran of Four Wars", Asbury Park Press, July 14 1928, Page 2
  4. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-13. Retrieved 2015-07-13. 
  5. ^ es:Jesús Carranza Neira
  6. ^ "Cloud extinguishes Flaming Wing of Airplane", Asbury Park Press, September 3 1927, Page 2
  7. ^ "The Emilio Carranza Memorial | The Lostinjersey Blog". Lostinjersey.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  8. ^ "Carranza Reaches Mexico City Safely", New York Times, May 26 1928, Page 3
  9. ^ "Mexico's Lindy Arrives at Washington", Asbury Park Press, June 14 1928, Page 16
  10. ^ "Carranza Begins Good will Flight", Asbury Park Press, June 11 1928, Page 14
  11. ^ "Mexican Flier is Guest of Federation at Brooklyn Reception", New York Times, June 29 1928, Page 51
  12. ^ "Mexicans Give $25000 to Aid Carranza Hop to Washington", New York Times, April 23 1928, Page 23
  13. ^ "Coolidge Is Host to Mexican Flier," The New York Times (June 14, 1928)
  14. ^ "Mexico's Lindy Pays Tribute to Unknown Soldier" Asbury Park Press, June 15 1928, Page 10
  15. ^ "Collidge is Host to Mexican Flier", New York Times, June 14 1928, Page 19
  16. ^ "Good Will Aviator Reaches New York", Asbury Park Press, June 18 1928, Page 2
  17. ^ "Walker Extols Carranza", New York Times, July 15 1928, Page 14
  18. ^ "Carranza at Garden City", New York Times, June 26 1928, Page 27
  19. ^ "No Oratory for Carranza", New York Times, June 23 1928, Page 3
  20. ^ "Carranza Defers Trip", New York Times, June 21 1928, Page 3
  21. ^ "Carranza Coming Today", New York Times, June 18 1928, Page 19
  22. ^ "Mexican Flier is Guest of Federation at Brooklyn Reception", New York Times, June 29 1928, Page 52
  23. ^ "Carranza is Honored at Governors Island", New York Times, June 24 1928, Page 20
  24. ^ Emilio Carranza a los 50 años de su muerte. Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares. 1978. 
  25. ^ Mercedes Pujols Rosa; Leticia Roa Nixon (2011). The Mexican Lindbergh. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. pp. 29–31. 
  26. ^ "Carranza Hops Off Secretly for Mexico; Flies Between Storms: Due There Tonight". The New York Times. July 13, 1928. 
  27. ^ "Mexican Lindy Killed As Plane Falls in South Jersey Pines During Storm, ” Evening Courier, July 14, 1928 (Camden, NJ)
  28. ^ "Carranza Killed In Crash As He Flies Into Storm In Mexico Hop," The New York Times, July 14, 1928
  29. ^ "Heflin Scents a Plot", New York Times, July 17 1928, Page 23
  30. ^ "Corranza Off on Non-Stop Flight", Asbury Park Press, July 13 1928, Page 2
  31. ^ "'Mexican Lindbergh' crashed in the Pine Barrens". App.com. 2014-07-11. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  32. ^ a b c Barra, Allen (2002-07-14). "JERSEYANA - The Mexican Lindbergh". NYTimes.com. Pine Barrens (Nj); Mexico. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  33. ^ Birdsall, Bob, People of the Pines (2007), Plexus Publishing, Inc., Medford, NJ.
  34. ^ Evening Courier, July 14, 1928 (Camden, NJ)
  35. ^ "Mexico Sorows at Carranza's Bier", New York Times, July 24 1928, Page 7
  36. ^ "Mexico Gives $500 to the Man Who Found Carranza", New York Times, July 18 1928, Page 21
  37. ^ Evening Courier, July 14, 1928
  38. ^ The New York Times, July 14, 1928
  39. ^ "Body of Carranza Lies in State Here; Warship is Declined", New York Times, July 15 1928, Page 1
  40. ^ "City Crowds Hushed as Carranza's body Starts for Mexico, New York Times, July 19 1928, Page 1
  41. ^ "Carranza to be Buried in State as a General", New York Times, July 15 1928, Page 14
  42. ^ "Carranza is Buried as Hero of Mexico", New York Times, July 25 1928, Page 10
  43. ^ "Carr who Served Railroads for 65 years", Asbury Park Press, Feb 19 1950, Page 3
  44. ^ Emilio Carranza Crash Monument, RoadsideAmerica.com, undated. Accessed July 24, 2008.
  45. ^ "Welcome to Tabernacle, New Jersey". Townshipoftabernacle-nj.gov. 1929-07-12. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  46. ^ a b Dave Hart; John Calu. "The Lost Mission of Captain Carranza: A Novel". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  47. ^ "85th annual Emilio Carranza Memorial service in Tabernacle - Life". South Jersey Local News. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  48. ^ "Unveil Shaft today to Capt. Carranza", New York Times, July 12 1931, Page 8
  49. ^ "Mooresville to Honor Carranza", New York Times, July 28 1928, Page 6
  50. ^ "Mexican Officials at Spot where Good-Will Flier Died in 1928", New York Times, July 13 1930, Page 28
  51. ^ Allen Barra, "The Mexican Lindbergh", Jersyana section, New York Times, July 14 2002, Page 1
  52. ^ Corranza Memorial Park, Asbury Park Press, April 3 1949, Page 9
  53. ^ "An Act establishing the Emilio Carranza Memorial Commission, supplementing Title 13 of the Revised Statutes, and making an appropriation.". Njleg.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  54. ^ Ralph S. Cooper, D.V.M. "Emilio Carranza". Earlyaviators.com. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  55. ^ Preview of Flying With Emilio by J&J Video Productions, flyingwithemilio.com.
  56. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-13. Retrieved 2015-07-13. 
  57. ^ The Commemorative Stamps of the World, Prescott Holden Thorp, Page 292, 1934
  58. ^ "Airmail Stamps Aren't Dead Yet", Asbury Park Press, August 20 1978, Page 162

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