The emissary veins connect the extracranial venous system with the intracranial venous sinuses. They connect the veins outside the cranium to the venous sinuses inside the cranium. They drain from the scalp, through the skull, into the larger meningeal veins and dural venous sinuses. They are common in children.
Emissary veins have an important role in selective cooling of the head. They also serve as routes where infections are carried into the cranial cavity from the extracranial veins to the intracranial veins.
There are several types of emissary veins including posterior condyloid, mastoid, occipital and parietal emissary vein.
Because the emissary veins are valveless, they are an important part in selective brain cooling through bidirectional flow of cooler blood from the evaporating surface of the head. In general, blood flow is from external to internal but the flow can be altered by increased intracranial pressure.
This is an important route for spread of infection because cranial nerve VI and the internal carotid pass through the cavernous sinus, with cranial nerves III, IV, V1, and V2 passing alongside the lateral wall of the sinus. Subsequent infection or inflammation in the cavernous sinus can result in damage to any of the cranial nerves that pass through it or meningitis. Also, rupturing the emissary veins will result in a subdural hematoma which will compress the brain.