Emley Moor transmitting station
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|Tower height||330.4 m (1,084 ft)|
|Built||1969 - 1971|
|BBC region||BBC Yorkshire|
|ITV region||ITV Yorkshire|
|Local TV service||Made in Leeds|
Emley Moor transmitting station is a telecommunications and broadcasting facility on Emley Moor, 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the village centre of Emley,[n 1] in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England, made up of a 1,084-foot-tall (330.4 m) concrete tower and apparatus which began transmitting in 1971. It is protected under UK law as a Grade II listed building. It is the tallest freestanding structure in the United Kingdom, seventh-tallest freestanding structure and fourth-tallest tower in Europe outside Russia, and 24th-tallest tower in the world.
The tower's current official name, Arqiva Tower, is shown on a sign beside the offices at the base of the tower, but it is commonly known as 'Emley Moor mast'.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Ownership
- 4 Broadcast details
- 5 Repairs and alterations
- 6 Channels listed by frequency
- 7 Relays
- 8 Other structures of comparable height
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The present concrete tower is the third antenna support structure to have occupied the site. The original 135-metre (443 ft) lattice tower was erected in 1956; to provide Independent Television broadcasts to the Yorkshire area. It entered service on 3 November 1956, transmitting Granada TV programmes on weekdays, and ABC TV programmes at weekends. In 1964, it was replaced by a taller 385.5 metres (1,265 ft) guyed mast, identical to the structure at Belmont transmitting station in Lincolnshire, at (see map on http://tx.mb21.co.uk/gallery/gallerypage.php?txid=336&pageid=69 ). The dismantled lattice tower was rebuilt at Craigkelly transmitting station. Yorkshire Television commenced broadcasting from the Emley Moor transmitter following the reorganization of the ITV franchises on 29 July 1968 from YTV's new studios at Kirkstall Road in Leeds.
Collapse of second mast
Emley Moor has been a transmission site since the earliest days of television. The first permanent transmitter built there was for ITV, covering much of the north of England. It had a 135 metres (443 ft) lattice tower, which provided limited coverage. Its performance was improved in anticipation of colour PAL transmissions in 1966, when a 385 metres (1,263 ft) guy-supported tubular mast was erected. It was constructed from curved steel segments to form a 2.75 metres (9 ft) diameter tube, 275 metres (902 ft) long, and was surmounted by a lattice section 107 metres (351 ft) tall, and a capping cylinder, bringing the total height to 386 metres (1,266 ft). At the time of its construction, it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. It was designed by British Insulated Callender's Cables (BICC), and manufactured by EMI, and built by J. L. Eve Construction.
The cylindrical steel mast was regularly coated in ice during the winter months, and large icicles formed on the guy wires, placing them under great strain. During winter, ice falling from the guy-wires was common. For this reason, red warning lights on the tower operated when ice was a hazard, and notices were posted on the fence adjacent to Jagger Lane, below the guy wire crossings.
On 19 March 1969, a combination of strong winds and the weight of ice that had formed around the top of the mast and on the guy wires caused the structure to collapse. The duty engineer wrote in the station's log book, demonstrating that failure of the structure was completely unexpected:
- Day [shift]: Lee, Caffell, Vander Byl [surnames]
- Ice hazard - Packed ice beginning to fall from mast & stays. Roads close to station temporarily closed by Councils. Please notify councils when roads are safe (!)
- Pye monitor - no frame lock - V10 replaced (low ins). Monitor overheating due to fan choked up with dust- cleaned out, motor lubricated and fan blades reset.
- Evening [shift]: Glendenning, Bottom, Redgrove [surnames]
- 1,265 ft (386 m) Mast :- Fell down across Jagger Lane (corner of Common Lane) at 17:01:45. Police, I.T.A. HQ, R.O., etc., all notified.
- Mast Power Isolator :- Fuses removed & isolator locked in the "OFF" position. All isolators in basement feeding mast stump also switched off. Dehydrators & TXs switched off.
The collapse left sections of twisted mast strewn over the transmitter site, and across the junction of Common Lane and Jagger Lane, and the surrounding fields. Although a falling stay cable cut through a local church and across the transmitter site buildings, no one was injured. It completely disabled the BBC2 UHF transmitter and the ITV VHF transmitter, leaving several million people without service. BBC1 VHF television transmissions continued from Holme Moss. The Independent Television Authority (ITA) owned a collapsible emergency mast, 61 metres (200 ft) tall, which was moved to Emley from the Lichfield transmitting station so that some service could be restored. ITV signals were restored to 2.5 million viewers within four days. The BBC provided a mobile mast on an outside broadcast van to restore a restricted BBC2 colour service within two days. The ITA bought a larger temporary mast from a Swedish company. A crew of Polish riggers were hired, and a 204 metres (669 ft) mast was erected in under 28 days at a cost of £100,000. This mast could hold only one set of antennae, so many viewers in outlying areas still could not receive colour programmes. The taller mast was brought into service on 16 April. Some weeks later, the BBC erected a 91 metres (299 ft) mast, improving coverage.
The accumulation of ice was believed to have caused the collapse, but a committee of inquiry attributed it to a form of oscillation which occurred at a low but steady wind speed. Modifications, including hanging 150 tons of steel chains within each structure were made to similar masts at Belmont and Winter Hill. None of the modified masts have collapsed.
A section of the collapsed tower was converted for use as a racing control tower at Huddersfield Sailing Club.
After the temporary masts, erection of the current concrete tower began in 1969. It was not built on the site where the mast had stood, but instead a bit southeast at . UHF (625-line colour) transmissions commenced on 21 January 1971, and the older VHF (405-line black & white) system became operational on 21 April 1971. Local residents did not wish to see another mast on Emley Moor, and a departure from usual designs was called for. The new structure consists of a tapered cylindrical pillar, 275 metres (902 ft) tall, constructed of reinforced concrete, and is topped by a 55 metres (180 ft) steel lattice mast which carries the antennas.
The structure is a tapered, reinforced concrete tower. It is the tallest freestanding structure in the United Kingdom at a height of 1,084 feet (330 m). Reaching the tower room at the top of the concrete structure at 900 feet (274 m) involves a seven-minute journey by lift. The antenna structure above it is a further 184 feet (56 m) tall. The mast's foundations penetrate 20 feet (6 m) into the ground, and the whole structure, including foundations, weighs 11,200 tonnes. The tower was designed by Arup. When built, it was the third-tallest freestanding structure in Europe, after the Ostankino Tower at 1,772 feet (540 m), and the Fernsehturm Berlin (current height 1,207 feet (368 m)). The top of the tower is 1,949 feet (594 m) above sea level, due to the site's elevated position on the eastern edge of the Pennines. The tower is not open to the public. There is an observation area off the main road that runs past it. The tower has a top-floor interior equipment area at a height of 330 metres (1,083 ft), which is accessible to people.
In 2002, English Heritage granted the tower Grade II listed building protection under UK law, being the lowest and overwhelmingly most common of three categories, for meeting its generic criteria of significant architectural or historic interest.
Emley Moor tower broadcasts six digital television multiplexes, three digital radio ensembles, and two independent local radio stations (Capital Yorkshire and Heart Yorkshire), over an area of approximately 10,000 km². It is the main station for 57 relays and repeaters throughout Yorkshire and the surrounding counties. In July 2007, it was confirmed by Ofcom that Emley Moor would remain a B group transmitter after digital switchover (DSO).
The area is important for RF, radio frequency transmission, and from the foot of the structure, both Holme Moss and the Moorside Edge transmitter are visible. They are within a ten-mile (16 km) radius, and are SW and WNW respectively.
Its television coverage area is one of the largest in the UK; covering most of Yorkshire including Hull, Leeds, Sheffield and York. Some transmissions can be received in Greater Manchester across the Pennines due to the height of the antenna on the tower and the strong signal.
Repairs and alterations
Over the years, the concrete structure has been updated to reflect the changing nature of communications and technology. At the top and bottom of the tower, supporting structures have been attached to accommodate dishes and aerials.
The BBC reported in July 2006 that for up to two weeks, it would broadcast analogue and digital signals at a lower power than usual, or shut down between 0900 and 1500 BST on weekdays from late July until 4 August, to allow aircraft warning lights to be fitted and repairs carried out. Repairs were estimated to affect around five million homes; however, a spokesperson for National Grid Wireless announced that the work had been scheduled around major events.
Digital UK reported in April 2010 that the transmitter would undergo work in preparation for the digital switchover (DSO) in 2011. Disruption to some or all Freeview services was expected to last for around two months, during which time a reserve transmitter would continue to broadcast the five main analogue channels. The work was then reported to be continuing into September due to "poor weather conditions and complex engineering issues".
Channels listed by frequency
Analogue radio (FM)
|105.1 MHz||2.55||Capital Yorkshire|
|106.2 MHz||2.35||Heart Yorkshire|
Digital radio (DAB)
|216.928 MHz||11A||10||Sound Digital|
|222.064 MHz||11D||8.5||Digital One|
|225.648 MHz||12B||10||BBC National DAB|
Digital television (DVB-T/DVB-T2)
Analogue television transmissions from Emley Moor have now ceased permanently. BBC Two analogue closed on 7 September 2011, and ITV1 temporarily moved onto its frequency at the time to allow BBC A mux to launch in its place. The remaining four analogue services closed on 21 September 2011, with the remaining digital multiplexes given a power increase.
|599.25 MHz||37||870||Channel 5|
|631.25 MHz||41||870||Channel 4|
|655.25 MHz||44||870||BBC One|
|711.25 MHz||51||870||BBC Two|
Below is a list of transmitters that relay Emley Moor.
|Addingham||0.005||43||46||40||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B E K|
|Armitage Bridge||0.002||49||54||58||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Beecroft Hill||0.2||59||50-||55||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Blackburn in Rotherham||0.002||60||53||57||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Bradford West||0.003||55||50-||59||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Brockwell||0.002||45||39||42||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B E K|
|Calver Peak||0.05||45||39||42||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B E K|
|Chesterfield||0.4 [r 1]||26||29||23||43||46||40||V||K|
|Cop Hill||0.2||25||28||22||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||A K|
|Cragg Vale||0.005||49||54||58||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Hagg Wood||0.007||59||50||55||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Hebden Bridge||0.05||25||28||22||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||A K|
|Keighley Town||0.002||23||29||26||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||A K|
|Kettlewell||0.026||42||39||45||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B E K|
|Longwood Edge||0.008||59||50-||55||N/A||N/A||N/A||H||C/D E|
|Millhouse Green||0.002||49||54||58||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Primrose Hill||0.006||60||53||57||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Shatton Edge||0.2||58||49||54||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Skipton Town||0.003||24||21+||27||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||A K|
|Tideswell Moor||0.05||60||53||57||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||C/D E|
|Todmorden||0.1||39||42||45||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B E K|
|Totley Rise||0.016||51||48||52||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B C/D E|
|Walsden South||0.002||43||50||46||N/A||N/A||N/A||V||B E|
- Apart from BBC B which transmits at 800 W.
Other structures of comparable height
- Taller structures
- It is shorter than Skelton transmitting station in Cumbria, a guyed mast, is 365 metres (1,198 ft), the highest structure (of any kind) in the UK
- The Ostankino Tower, in Moscow, is the tallest freestanding structure in Europe, at 540 metres (1,772 ft).
- The Kiev TV Tower is the next-tallest freestanding structure in Europe at 385 metres (1,263 ft))
- The Riga radio and TV tower follows at 368.5 metres (1,209 ft);
- Smaller structures
- It is 20 metres (66 ft) taller than The Shard in London, which is the next-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom;
- It is 95 metres (312 ft) taller than One Canada Square by Canary Wharf, London, Britain's second tallest building;
- Sint-Pieters-Leeuw Tower in Belgium is 302 metres (991 ft);
- The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France is 300 metres (984 ft), plus a 24-metre (79 ft) antenna;
- Telecommunications in the United Kingdom
- List of radio stations in the United Kingdom
- List of tallest buildings and structures in Great Britain
- Radio masts and towers
- List of catastrophic collapses of radio masts and towers
- List of towers
- List of masts
- List of tallest freestanding structures in the world
- "Emley Moor Mast". The Huddersfield Daily Examiner. Huddersfield: Trinity Mirror North West. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "How TV transmitters transformed and towered over the UK". Ofcom.org.uk. Ofcom. Archived from the original on 1 August 2011.
- Senior, Steve. "The fall and rise of Emley Moor - Emley Moor Mk2 lives!". mb21.co.uk. mb21 - UK Broadcast Transmission. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "Dewsbury mum-of-two wins trip up Emley Moor mast after being named unsung hero". The Huddersfield Daily Examiner. Huddersfield: Trinity Mirror North West. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "Transmitter work affects millions". BBC News. 25 July 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "I receive my TV signal from the Emley Moor transmitter - why are my TV services experiencing interruptions?". help.DigitalUK.co.uk. Digital UK. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010.[dead link]
- Radio Listeners Guide 2010
- Bartak, A.J.J. (February 1972). "The new tower for the Independent Television Authority at Emley Moor, Yorkshire". The Structural Engineer. Institution of Structural Engineers. 50 (2): 67–80.
- It lies in OS grid square SE221899
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emley Moor Tower.|
- The Transmission Gallery: photographs, coverage maps and information
- Emley Moor TV transmitter, including co-receivable transmitters
- Emley Moor Tower (1970) at Structurae.
- Diagrams - SkyscraperPage.com
- BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire - Emley Moor: Inside and Out!
- Emley Moor transmitter at TheBigTower.com
- Gallery of Emley Moor Mast: Views of an iconic Huddersfield landmark
- A Flickr page of pictures from the inside of the tower