Emmanouil Tsouderos

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Emmanouil Tsouderos

Emmanouil Tsouderos (Greek: Εμμανουήλ Τσουδερός, also transliterated as Emmanuel Tsuderos; 19 July 1882 – 10 February 1956) was a political and financial figure of Greece. During World War II he served as Prime Minister of Greece from 1941 to 1944, for all but one week of that tenure as head of the Greek government in exile.

Early life and studies[edit]

Emmanuel Tsouderos was born in 1882 in Rethymno, Crete (then part of the Ottoman Empire). He studied law at Athens University, and economics in Paris and London.[1]

Career in politics[edit]

He returned to Crete aged 24, and was elected Member of Parliament of the Cretan Legislature (1906–1912), when Crete had autonomous status under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire and was under the protection of Russia, Britain, France and Italy.

After the union of Crete with Greece in December 1913, he was elected to the Hellenic Parliament, and served as Minister of Transportation under Eleftherios Venizelos, and Minister of Finances under Themistoklis Sophoulis.

In 1928, when the Central Bank of Greece was established, Tsouderos was appointed its first vice-Governor, and in 1931 its Governor.[2]

See Marguarita Dritsas, Hellenic Open University, for her definitive biography of Tsourderos, based on his personal papers in the Bank of Greece Archives. [Dritsas, Margarita. (2012). Emmanuel Tsouderos, 1882-1956, Central Banker and Politician. Bank of Greece Publications.][1]

Prime minister[edit]

In 1941 during World War II the Greek Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis committed suicide as the Nazi army advanced towards Athens, and Tsouderos succeeded him as Prime Minister of Greece (21–29 April 1941). After assuming power, Tsouderos fled with King George II to Crete, where he organised Greek forces to face the coming German invasion.

Tsouderos fled again during the Battle of Crete. He went to the Middle East and later Egypt. Tsouderos headed the Greek government in exile from 29 April 1941 until 13 April 1944. Although he was the internationally recognised Prime Minister of Greece (in opposition to the numerous prime ministers who were the figureheads of the collaborationist Hellenic State), in practice he had little influence inside Greece's borders. This government was initially located in London, but subsequently moved to Cairo. He served in the subsequent government in exile under Sofoklis Venizelos.

After the end of World War II Tsouderos served in different capacities, until his death at the age of 73 in Nervi, Genoa, Italy on February 10, 1956.[1]


  1. ^ a b "M.Tsouderos War-Time Premier Of Greece Obituary". The Times. London. February 11, 1956. pp. 9, Issue 53452, col C. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  2. ^ Bank of Greece Archived October 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Political offices
Preceded by
Alexandros Koryzis
Prime Minister of Greece
21–29 April 1941
Succeeded by
Georgios Tsolakoglou (occupation government)
Preceded by
himself as head of Athens government
Prime Minister of Greece (government-in-exile)
29 April 1941 – 13 April 1944
Succeeded by
Sofoklis Venizelos