Emmanuel Mignot

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Emmanuel Mignot
Born1959
Paris, France
EducationUniversité Pierre and Marie Curie
Necker-Enfants Malades, Université René Descartes
École Normale Supérieure
Known forWork on narcolepsy
Medical career
ProfessionMedical doctor
InstitutionsStanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine
Sub-specialtiesPsychiatry
ResearchSleep disorders

Emmanuel Mignot (born 1959 in Paris) is a sleep researcher and director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, at Stanford University. Dr. Mignot is an authority on sleep research and medicine, and is mostly known for his work on narcolepsy. He is the Craig Reynolds Professor of Sleep Medicine at Stanford Medical School, Stanford University.[1]

Career[edit]

Dr. Emmanuel Mignot completed his Science Doctorate in Molecular Pharmacology at the Université Pierre and Marie Curie and went to medical school at Necker-Enfants Malades, Université René Descartes, with subspecialisation in Psychiatry. Dr. Mignot is a former student of École Normale Supérieure (Ulm).

Following a postdoctoral fellowship at the Stanford Sleep Center, Mignot believed that understanding narcolepsy could lead to breakthrough in new understanding of sleep. He was appointed Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University in 1993, Professor in 2001 and Director of the Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine in 2011, succeeding William C. Dement. Trained as a pharmacologist, he first deciphered the mode of action of modafinil, amphetamines, and antidepressants on narcolepsy symptoms,[2] work that was done in close collaboration with Dr. Seiji Nishino.

Starting in 1990, he isolated the gene causing canine narcolepsy in doberman and Labrador dogs. Ten years later, this led to the discovery that mutations in the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 cause canine narcolepsy,[3] and that human narcolepsy was caused an immune mediated destruction of the hypocretin (orexin) producing cells in the brain [4] Parallel work performed by Mashashi Yanagisawa, Christopher Stinton and colleagues subsequently showed that hypocretin (orexin) deficient mice also have narcolepsy.[5]

The autoimmune destruction of hypocretin (orexin) neurons in the hypothalamus was later shown by Han and Mignot to be at least partially precipitated by influenza A infections, notably the H1N1 2009 pandemic strain,[6] complementing findings made in Northern Europe following the H1N1 Pandemrix vaccination campaign.[7]

Dr. Mignot identified genetic factors predisposing to human narcolepsy, such as human leukocyte antigen HLA DQB1*06:02 and other genes[8] and isolated the gene causing the methylopathy Autosomal Dominant Cerebelar Ataxia, Deafness and Narcolepsy (ADCA-DN), DNMT1.[9]

Awards[edit]

Dr. Mignot has received numerous research grants and honors, including National Sleep Foundation and National Institute of Health Research Awards, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and McKnight Neuroscience awards, the Narcolepsy Network professional service award, the Drs. C. and F. Demuth 11th Award for Young Investigators in the Neurosciences, the WC Dement Academic Achievement Award in sleep disorders medicine, the CINP and ACNP awards in neuropharmacology and the Jacobaeus prize. He is an elected member of the Association of American Physicians and of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He is the co-author of more than 200 original scientific publications, and he serves on the editorial board of scientific journals in the field of sleep and biology research. Dr. Mignot is an active member of several professional and governmental organizations. He has been past president of the Sleep Research society, chair the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Advisory board of the National institutes of Health and chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Mental Health.

Bibliography[edit]

Dr. Mignot has written many published works in the field of sleep medicine.[10][11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mignot, Em. "Prof". Stanford. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  2. ^ Nishino S, Mignot E. Pharmacological aspects of human and canine narcolepsy. Prog. Neurobiol, 52: 27-78, 1997.
  3. ^ Lin L, Faraco J, Li R, Kadotani H, Rogers W, Lin X, Qui X, de Jong P, Nishino S, Mignot E. The sleep disorder canine narcolepsy is caused by a mutation in the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene. Cell 98(3):365-76, 1999.
  4. ^ Nishino S, Ripley B, Overeem S, Lammers GJ, Mignot E. Hypocretin (orexin) transmission is defective in human narcolepsy. Lancet, 355:39-40, 2000.
  5. ^ Chemelli RM, Willie JT, Sinton CM, Elmquist JK, Scammell T, Lee C, Richardson JA, Williams SC, Xiong Y, Kisanuki Y, Fitch TE, Nakazato M, Hammer RE, Saper CB, Yanagisawa M. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell, 98: 437-451, 1999.
  6. ^ Han F, Lin L, Warby SC, Faraco J, Li J, Dong SX, An P, Zhao L, Wang LH, Li QY, Yan H, Gao ZC, Yuan Y, Strohl KP, Mignot E (2011). Narcolepsy onset is seasonal and increased following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China. Ann Neurol. ;70(3):410-7.
  7. ^ Partinen M, Saarenpää-Heikkilä O, Ilveskoski I, Hublin C, Linna M, Olsén P, Nokelainen P, Alén R, Wallden T, Espo M, Rusanen H, Olme J, Sätilä H, Arikka H, Kaipainen P, Julkunen I, Kirjavainen T. Increased incidence and clinical picture of childhood narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination campaign in Finland. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33723.
  8. ^ Sehgal A, Mignot E. Genetics of sleep and sleep disorders. Cell. 2011 Jul 22;146(2):194-207.
  9. ^ Winkelmann J, Lin L, Schormair B, Kornum BR, Faraco J, Plazzi G, Melberg A, Cornelio F, Urban AE, Pizza F, Poli F, Grubert F, Wieland T, Graf E, Hallmayer J, Strom TM, Mignot E. Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 May 15;21(10):2205-10.
  10. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120111145438/http://med.stanford.edu/school/Psychiatry/narcolepsy/publications.html. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ pubmeddev. "Home - PubMed - NCBI". Retrieved March 30, 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bassetti, Claudio; Billiard, Michel; Mignot, Emmanuel, eds. (December 21, 2006). Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia (1st ed.). Informa Healthcare. ISBN 978-0849337154.

External links[edit]