Emmons County, North Dakota

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Emmons County
Emmons County Courthouse in Linton
Emmons County Courthouse in Linton
Map of North Dakota highlighting Emmons County
Location within the U.S. state of North Dakota
Map of the United States highlighting North Dakota
North Dakota's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 46°17′N 100°14′W / 46.28°N 100.24°W / 46.28; -100.24
Country United States
State North Dakota
FoundedFebruary 10, 1879 (created)
November 9, 1883 (organized)
SeatLinton
Largest cityLinton
Area
 • Total1,555 sq mi (4,030 km2)
 • Land1,510 sq mi (3,900 km2)
 • Water45 sq mi (120 km2)  2.9%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total3,550
 • Estimate 
(2018)
3,295
 • Density2.3/sq mi (0.88/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districtAt-large

Emmons County is a county in the U.S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 3,550.[1] Its county seat has been Linton since 1899.[2]

History[edit]

The county was created by the Dakota Territory legislature on February 10, 1879, with territories partitioned from Burleigh and Campbell counties. It was not organized at the time, but it was not attached to another county for administrative and judicial purposes. This continued until November 9, 1883, when the governing structure was organized. The county was named for James A. Emmons (1845–1919), a steamboat operator and early Bismarck merchant and entrepreneur.[3][4][5]

The first non-Native settlers of Emmons County came from Europe and the eastern United States. The earliest were mostly soldiers discharged from Fort Yates, but civilians began arriving in the 1880s. Two large ethnic groups soon developed: Germans from both Russia and Germany (the latter called Reich Germans) and Hollanders who had come from the eastern United States. The Hollanders lived only in the southwestern part of the county while the Germans settled throughout the area.

The settlers faced hardships in Emmons County, particularly the adverse climate with its extreme seasonal variations in temperature, wind, rain, and snow. Winter blizzards, summer thunderstorms, and tornadoes were a constant threat. Early settlers built crude dwellings using available materials. The first building in Emmons county was a log cabin built near present-day Winona (1852). Other dwellings used tar paper or local rocks. Rocks were a common sight on the prairie, but stone houses were a rarity because they took great care to build. The most common type of dwelling was the sod house, which later became synonymous with pioneering life on the prairie. Sod is prairie grass and dirt cut into blocks and stacked to form walls. Sod was an effective solution to the problem of limited lumber availability. These crude dwellings were eventually abandoned in favor of more modern homes as soon as the necessary building materials became available.

Another hardship was transportation. There were no roads and the nearest railroad station was in Eureka, South Dakota (40 miles (64 km) away). A horse and wagon were typically used for transportation. Piles of buffalo bones were used as landmarks to aid navigating the vast prairie. Since no bridges existed, creeks and streams presented a major difficulty. Settlers usually traveled in pairs and used both of their teams of horses to pull each wagon across a creek or stream. The first bridge in Emmons County was built in 1889.

The Missouri River forms the county's western boundary. Some settlers earned a living by providing cordwood to the river's steamboats in the summer (river ice halted the boats in wintertime). Ferries moved people and goods across the river, and barges were used to move goods along the river.

The county's first town that still exists was Braddock, established in 1898. A railroad line was laid to Braddock in 1898. Linton was platted in 1899 near the county center, to create a county seat. Linton had 118 residents by 1901, and 245 by 1903. Tirsbol was established in 1902 ten miles (16 km) south of Linton. It became the center of the German immigrant community and was renamed Strasburg. Also in 1902, the town of Hague was established southeast of Strasburg, and Hazelton was platted near Williamsport.

Winona was the first settlement to be created in the county, in 1874, and named 'Devils Colony'. It served soldiers from Fort Yates and the few area settlers. During the 1880s it was the largest town between Bismarck, North Dakota and Pierre, South Dakota. The county's first school was built there in 1884 and the county's first newspaper was published there in 1885. By 1894, the population of the town peaked at over 200. However, the creation of Linton drained the lifeblood from Winona, and it was gone by the early 1900s. The town of Williamsport was established in 1883 by a group of people from Ashland, Ohio and was the first county seat of government. The creation of Linton and Hazelton drained the population from Williamsport and it was abandoned in 1903.

Other towns no longer in existence include Emmonsburg which was located west of Linton, in Beaver Bay, on the Missouri River. It was established in 1888 and abandoned in 1912. Glencoe was also established in 1883 in the northwest corner of the county, but it was abandoned in 1930. Winchester was established in 1884 along Beaver Creek (west of Linton), but was completely abandoned by 1909. Westfield was established in 1888 in the center of the Dutch colony. It was named for Westfield, Iowa but was never incorporated. Godkin was established in 1902, six miles (10 km) north of Linton. Its name was later changed to Temvik, combining the last names of early settlers - the Tempel brothers and Ed Larvik. By 1925 its population peaked to over 200, but the effects of the 1930s Great Depression and being bypassed by the construction of U.S. Highway 83 led to its downfall. Its post office was abandoned in 1968. The final town of note is Kintyre. Settled by Swedes and Norwegians in the 1880s; it was established in 1908 and subsequently abandoned.

Geography[edit]

Emmons County lies on the south line of North Dakota. Its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of South Dakota. The Missouri River flows south-southeasterly along the county's western boundary. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, mostly devoted to agriculture.[6] Its terrain slopes to the south and east, although its western area slopes westward to the river valley.[7] The county has a total area of 1,555 square miles (4,030 km2), of which 1,510 square miles (3,900 km2) is land and 45 square miles (120 km2) (2.9%) is water.[8]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Protected areas[6][edit]

Lakes[6][edit]

  • Appert Lake
  • Braddock Dam
  • Goose Lake
  • Lake Oahe (part)
  • Neuwama Lake
  • Rice Lake
  • Stink Lake
  • Sunburst Lake
  • Schwahn Lake

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
188038
18901,9715,086.8%
19004,349120.6%
19109,796125.2%
192011,28815.2%
193012,46710.4%
194011,699−6.2%
19509,715−17.0%
19608,462−12.9%
19707,200−14.9%
19805,877−18.4%
19904,830−17.8%
20004,331−10.3%
20103,550−18.0%
Est. 20183,295[9]−7.2%
US Decennial Census[10]
1790-1960[11] 1900-1990[12]
1990-2000[13] 2010-2018[1]

2000 census[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,331 people, 1,786 households, and 1,241 families in the county. The population density was 3 people per square mile (1/km²). There were 2,168 housing units at an average density of 1.44 per square mile (0.55/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 99.05% White, 0.05% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 0.12% from two or more races. 1.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 69.2% were of German, 7.5% Dutch, 6.9% American and 5.1% Norwegian ancestry.

There were 1,786 households out of which 27.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.00% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.50% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92.

The county population contained 24.80% under the age of 18, 3.70% from 18 to 24, 22.30% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, and 25.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 101.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $26,119, and the median income for a family was $31,857. Males had a median income of $23,235 versus $15,590 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,604. About 14.70% of families and 20.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.40% of those under age 18 and 24.60% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,550 people, 1,594 households, and 1,003 families in the county.[14] The population density was 2.4 inhabitants per square mile (0.93/km2). There were 2,085 housing units at an average density of 1.4 per square mile (0.54/km2).[15] The racial makeup of the county was 98.5% white, 0.4% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, and 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population.[14] In terms of ancestry, 69.1% were German, 16.8% were Russian, 12.3% were Norwegian, 9.6% were Dutch, 5.9% were English, and 1.4% were American.[16]

Of the 1,594 households, 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families, and 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 50.5 years.[14]

The median income for a household in the county was $35,615 and the median income for a family was $45,464. Males had a median income of $31,468 versus $26,700 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,358. About 12.4% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 20.4% of those age 65 or over.[17]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Unincorporated communities[6][edit]

  • Emmonsburg
  • Glencoe
  • Kintyre
  • Livona
  • Temvik
  • Williamsport
  • Winchester
  • Winona

Township[edit]

Defunct townships[edit]

Politics[edit]

Emmons County voters have been reliably Republican for decades. In only one national election since 1960 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate (as of 2016).

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results[20]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 84.7% 1,677 10.9% 215 4.5% 89
2012 76.2% 1,435 20.3% 383 3.5% 66
2008 67.0% 1,230 29.7% 546 3.3% 61
2004 68.6% 1,449 28.9% 611 2.5% 53
2000 71.8% 1,430 20.3% 405 7.9% 157
1996 53.5% 1,148 25.4% 544 21.1% 452
1992 43.1% 1,047 24.5% 595 32.4% 788
1988 62.9% 1,634 35.6% 925 1.4% 37
1984 73.5% 1,885 24.2% 620 2.4% 61
1980 77.6% 2,369 16.4% 502 6.0% 183
1976 45.9% 1,370 48.9% 1,459 5.2% 155
1972 64.5% 2,194 32.8% 1,115 2.7% 91
1968 65.0% 1,991 24.7% 756 10.3% 314
1964 53.1% 1,759 46.9% 1,556
1960 46.4% 1,785 53.5% 2,058 0.1% 2
1956 77.1% 2,789 22.8% 825 0.1% 3
1952 86.2% 3,369 13.4% 522 0.5% 19
1948 63.5% 2,223 33.9% 1,187 2.7% 93
1944 77.0% 2,255 22.4% 656 0.6% 18
1940 77.3% 3,515 22.1% 1,004 0.6% 29
1936 26.7% 1,117 58.0% 2,424 15.4% 642
1932 22.6% 916 76.3% 3,089 1.1% 44
1928 46.3% 1,792 53.3% 2,066 0.4% 17
1924 39.7% 1,198 4.1% 123 56.3% 1,700
1920 91.8% 2,900 7.5% 238 0.7% 22
1916 63.2% 1,090 35.3% 609 1.6% 27
1912 30.4% 410 38.9% 524 30.7% 413
1908 59.7% 951 38.8% 618 1.5% 24
1904 68.7% 653 29.6% 281 1.8% 17
1900 58.0% 433 41.6% 311 0.4% 3

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 119.
  4. ^ "County History". Official Portal for North Dakota State Government. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  5. ^ "Dakota Territory, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Individual County Chronologies". Dakota Territory Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d Emmons County ND Google Maps (accessed 17 February 2019)
  7. ^ "Find an Altitude/Emmons County ND" Google Maps (accessed 17 February 2019)
  8. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  9. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  10. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  11. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  12. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  13. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  14. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  15. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  16. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the US – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  17. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d "Geographic Change Notes for ND". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  19. ^ "1990s boundary changes, Geographic Change Notes for ND". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2009.
  20. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 12, 2018.

Coordinates: 46°17′N 100°14′W / 46.28°N 100.24°W / 46.28; -100.24