|Emperor of Japan|
|Died||200 (aged 51)|
|Burial||Ega no Naganu no nishi no misasagi (Nara)|
Emperor Chūai (仲哀天皇 Chūai-tennō); also known as Tarashinakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto; was the 14th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. The dates of his reign are conventionally given as 192 to 200. He was the first emperor who was not the child of the previous emperor, being instead the nephew of his predecessor Emperor Seimu.
Chūai is regarded by historians as a "legendary emperor" who might have been real; and there is a paucity of information about him. There is insufficient material available for further verification and study. The reign of Emperor Kinmei (c. 509 – 571 AD), the 29th emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates; however, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early emperors were not to be confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of Emperor Kanmu (737–806), the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty.
There is no evidence to suggest that the title tennō was used during the time to which Chūai's reign has been assigned. It is certainly possible that he was a chieftain or local clan leader, and that the polity he ruled would have only encompassed a small portion of modern-day Japan. The name Chūai Tennō was assigned to him posthumously.
According to the Kojiki and Nihonshoki, he was the father of Emperor Ōjin. Ōjin is generally believed to have existed, based on archaeological evidence; but details of his life are scant. However, he was claimed to have two capitals, one in modern-day Shimonoseki and the other in Fukuoka city, both very close to the Tsukushi region. Interestingly, this emperor is the only one with imperial capitals/palaces in this region except for one brief period several hundred years later, then never again. Chūai's mother was Futaji no Iri Hime no Mikoto, a daughter of Emperor Kaika and an aunt of Chūai's father. Chūai's wife was Jingū.
According to these same legends, his wife was suddenly possessed by some unknown gods. The gods promised Emperor Chūai rich lands overseas. Chūai then looked to the sea, but he could see nothing and denounced his belief in the promises of the gods. The gods were enraged by this and declared that he would die and never receive the promised land. Instead they would go to his conceived, unborn son. The legend then states that Chūai died soon after and his widow, Jingū, conquered the promised land, which is conjectured to be part of modern-day Korea. During this time the closest part of Korea to Tsukishi was Byeonhan confederacy and Gaya confederacy or possibly even Tsushima.
According to one version[which?], Chūai's son was born three years after the death of Chūai, which leads support to the Western analysts that the stories surrounding him are based on myth rather than actual events. This legend also has many other flaws (it claims that Jingū was flown into the middle of the promised land[clarification needed] and then conquered into Japan) which have largely discredited the story among Western historians. Nevertheless, analyst views that the stories were completely invented may not be accurate—although dates are known to be wrong, there is nothing concrete to suggest that there is no factual information in the narrative, especially since someone else could have fathered his son, and an upstart Japan based on Tsukushi most certainly could have initiated pirate raids to acquire bronze, and/or could have acquired Tsushima for a brief 3-year period from statelets of the Byeonhan confederacy or the Gaya confederacy.
The site of Chūai's grave is not known. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi) at Nara. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Chūai's mausoleum. It is formally named Ega no Naganu no nishi no misasagi.
Consorts and Children
Empress Okinagatarashihime (気長足姫) Empress Jingū, daughter of Okinaga no sukune no Miko (息長宿禰王)
- Prince Homutawake (誉田別命) Emperor Ōjin
Ōnakatsuhime (大中姫命), daughter of Hikohitoōe no Mikoto (彦人大兄)
- Prince Kagosaka (麛坂皇子)
- Prince Oshikuma (忍熊皇子)
Otohime (弟媛), daughter of Ōsakanushi(大酒主)
- Prince Homuyawake (誉屋別皇子)
- "Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan" at Kunaicho.go.jp; retrieved 2013-8-28.
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 仲哀天皇 (14); retrieved 2013-8-25.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 15., p. 15, at Google Books; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 254–255; Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 100–101;
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 34.
- Packard, Jerrold M., Sons of Heaven: A Portrait of the Japanese Monarchy, p. 45.
- Kelly, Charles F. "Kofun Culture", Japanese Archaeology. 27 April 2009.
- Titsingh, pp. 34–36; Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124.
- Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei.
- Aston, William. (1896). Nihongi, pp. 109.
- Brinkley, Frank. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the end of the Meiji Era, p. 21, p. 21, at Google Books; excerpt, "Posthumous names for the earthly Mikados were invented in the reign of Emperor Kanmu (782–805), i.e., after the date of the compilation of the Records and the Chronicles.
- Aston, William George. (1998). Nihongi, Vol. 1, pp. 217–223.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 419.
- Aston, William George. (1896). Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. OCLC 448337491
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Chamberlain, Basil Hall. (1920). The Kojiki. Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan on April 12, May 10, and June 21, 1882; reprinted, May, 1919. OCLC 1882339
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
|Legendary Emperor of Japan