Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia
Emperor Xixia Chongzong of Western Xia (西夏崇宗) (1084–1139), or Li Qianshun (李乾順)1, was a Tangut emperor of Western Xia (one of the four kingdoms that made up China, along with Song dynasty, Liao dynasty and Jin dynasty) from 1086 until 11392. Where Chongzong is his temple name and Li Qianshun his living name, Shèngwéndì (聖文帝) is his posthumous name. His reign began at the age of three, when his father died. He remained under the regency of the Empress Madame Liang3 until she was poisoned in 1099 by a Liao envoy.
Li's reign included further sinification and removed the power of some significant Tangut clans, which had remained a powerful political force—appointing tribal leaders as kings, forcing them under his power and influence. His reign saw incursions by the surrounding Liao- and Song-ruled nations, and a series of military defeats from 1114. He established Confucianist-led administration for several political quarters including civil and military, centralising his power. Buddhism was prevalent during his reign, and the scriptures were translated to the Tangut language.
His era names were:
- Tiānyízhìpíng (天儀治平) 1086–1089
- Tiānyòumín'ān (天祐民安) 1090–1097
- Yǒng'ān (永安) 1098–1100
- Zhēnguān (貞觀) 1101–1113
- Yōngníng (雍寧) 1114–1118
- Yuándé (元德) 1119–1127
- Zhèngdé (正德) 1127–1134
- Dàdé (大德) 1135–1139
|Emperor of the Western Xia Dynasty
- ^ Note 1: Names in Chinese characters are from chinaknowledge.de
- ^ Note 2: Reign dates are from uglychinese.org
- ^ Note 3: There were two dowagers of Tangut emperors named Empress Liang, the other was over Emperor Huizong of Western Xia, see Ksenia Kepping, The famous Liangzhou bilingual stele.
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